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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-04-24
    Description: Mnemiopsis leidyi which was accidentally introduced into the Caspian Sea in 1999 and since then has colonized extensively. The horizontal distribution of M. leidyi and dominant mesozooplankton species was investigated in the south western Caspian Sea during February, May, July and November 2008. The average number and biomass of M. leidyi were in the same range (ca 200 individuals m^-3 (2000 ind m^-2)) and 16 g wet weight m^-3 (180 g m^-2) in comparison with previous surveys. As in previous years the population consisted mainly of individuals 〈1 cm. The decline in mesozooplankton species observed since 1996 continued in 2008. Only two species of the previously recorded 24 Cladocera species were found in 2008. Of five Copepoda species recorded in 1996, only one, Acartia tonsa, was found in 2008 and even here adult individuals have reduced 3-fold since 1996. Bivalve larvae have declined by one order of magnitude since 1996. Among the dominant species, only the numbers of Cirripedia larvae and in part the numbers of Pleopis polyphemoides (Cladocera) were in the same range as in 1996.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-08-04
    Description: We determined concentration of surfactants as mg/I of LAS using Sublation-Methylen Blue method in the south Caspian Sea coastal areas extending from Astara to Bandar-e-Tourkaman. The method was based on the American Standard Method for Examination of Water and Wastewater. We analyzed 53 water samples and found an average surfactant concentration of 0.019mgi1 with the minimum and maximum being 0.008mg/I and 0.038mgi1 respectively. We conclude that presently, surfactant concentration is not critical in the coastal areas. However, care must be exercised interpreting these results considering the synergistic effects between the surfactants and heavy metals and oil hydrocarbons.
    Keywords: Pollution
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-09-06
    Description: The Caspian goby, Neogobius caspius, is an endemic species of Gobiidae family in the Caspian Sea and it has ecological importance (as food for Caspian commercial fish such as sturgeons). The main aims of this study are, studying distribution, length, weight and age structure, sex ratio, diet, reproduction biology and morphological characters of this species in Guilan coast at waters of the Caspian sea and the sampling has been done monthly from Oct. 2005 to Sep. 2006 in 4 station from Astara to Chaboksar, with bottom trawl which had 12.5 meter length, 4.7 meter gape width and 2 mm mesh size in code end. The results showed N. caspius abundance is 9.82±11.93% of Gobiids and 7.92±10.10% of total fish numbers sampled in the study area (13824 specimens belong to 16 fish species) and there were significant differences among stations and seasons. CPUA of N.Caspius was estimated 52.5±105.9 ind/hec and 412.7±770.7 g/hec and there were significant differences among stations and seasons. Maximum body weight, total length and age were measured 65.10 g, 176 mm and 6 years old with an average 8.74±9.9 g, 84.83±28.4 mm and 1.83 years old, respectively and maximum age of males and females was 6 and 5 years old respectively and there were significant differences among stations and seasons and between sexes. It was estimated algometric growth model from length-weight regression, coefficient of K Von Bertalanffy growth model was estimated 0.42 and 0.68 in male and female, respectively. Sex ratio was 1.27 female to 1 male. Coefficient vacuity, relative gut length and intensity of 169 fullness were 8.72%, 0.76±0.17 and 267.7±263.3 for, respectively and Caspian goby fed on 30 different prey consist Zooplanktons (8 types), Benthic animals (15 types) and fishes (7 types) and young and yearlings have fed mainly mixed food (zooplankton and benthic animals) and adults on zoobenthose. Gammarids, Bivalvia, Cumaceae and Vormes constituted 44.7, 38.9, 24.8 and 19.7 % of prescence in full-gutted samples respectively, they were mainly preys (number and weight), hence this species is considered as euryphagus, carnivorous, benthphagus species. It was determined, Caspian goby spawns from March until last June, males and females take part in spawning in 2.8g and 65 mm and 1.3 g and 52 mm, respectively. Length at 50% maturity (LM50) was 80.2 and 77.5 mm in males and females, respectively. Maturity took place at 2 years old for both sexes, too. The absolute fecundity was estimated 109-1350 (451.6±216.3) eggs and relative fecundity 18-80 (36.8±9.2) eggs per one grams of body weight and diameter of ripe eggs was measured 1.31-2.60 (2.18±0.19) mm. Morphologically, there were 15 morphologically significant statistical differences between males and females and 15 differences among stations, sexual dimorphism was observed, too.
    Keywords: Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-09-07
    Description: Sabzkooh in Ardal and Gandoman region in Charmahal province with annual production of 1300 metric tons of rainbow trout, is one of the most important rivers in the province. The effects of fish farms effluent on the river water quality and the possibilities to develop or limit the existing ones were studied. Flora and fauna of the river including Phyto and zooplankton, macroinvertebrates and fishes were sampled and studied. Moreover some key physico-chemical water quality parameters, concentrations of stable pollutants (heavy metals: Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb, Cd and agricultural poisons (herbicides or pesticides: DDT, Lindane, Alderine and indosulfate) and Coliform contamination were also measured. All phytoplankton genus were of tow taxa, Cianophyta and Chrysophyta and zooplankton fauna belonged to Rotatoria, Protozoa and meroplanktonic chirinomids and nematodes. Four fish species from 3 families were identified of which rainbow trout had the highest relative frequency (94.6%).All the measured heavy metals including Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb, Cd and the agricultural poisons concentrations such as DDT, Lindane, Alderine and indosulfate were lower than the hazardous level suggested for the surface waters. According to the benthic macroinvertebrates populations study, stations at downstream (no. 6 and 7) which received the Chartakhteh and Rudarud farms effluent had least EPT richness and the hilsenhof family level biotic index at this locations was greater than 5.25, classifying them as having organic pollution. Even though measured key physico-chemical parameters such as nutrients (N and P compounds and BOD5) in the receiving stations and effluent water never exceed the maximum permitted range but in downstream stations these factors were very close to the range. One way analyze of variance (P 95%) for TN, TP, No_2, NH_4, BOD_5, pH, PO_4 and Ec revealed no significant differences between stations before and just after receiving the effluents, however these parameters in the effluents themselves significantly differ from upstream stations 1,2 and 3 proving relatively lower organic pollution and the potential for constructing new farms or expanding the existed ones in upstream region from Chartagh to Dehnoo. At downstream from Dehnoo to Rudarud and lower parts, dense trout farm effluents in addition with point and non point pollution (municipal, agricultural and other coming run off from the catchments area) had remarkable effects on the river water quality and as a result no farm construction or expansion is recommended. To avoid or reduce the existing farms effects on the river system there should be certainly some remediation actions carried out. Constructing sedimentation ponds before releasing the effluents, obeying the rule of water extracting, preventing fish escape, increasing feeding efficiency and controlling the lateral inlets from catchments area which are potentially pollutant, should be considered to improve the situation and prevent further environmental problems caused by fish farms effluent in these area.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-10-07
    Description: This research project was conducted during 2007-2008 in Anzali wetland, aiming feasibility study on aquatic plants different species (emerged, sub emerged and floating leaved plants) as essential and non essential elements concentration Biological indicators utilization including Ni, B, Cd, Pb, Cu, Mo, Se, Si, Cl, Zn, Mn, Fe, Na, Mg and Ca. and their tolerance and capabilities assessment toward exposing different elements and study on water and sediments rational role in elements absorption and important environmental factors (DO, pH, etc…) effects on absorbed quantities. Azolla filiculoides, Hydrocotyle vulgaris, Ceratophyllum demersum,Trapa natans were the gathered aquatic plants field samples. Water and sediment samples were also collected from Shijan, Abkenar and Siahkeshim sampling sites respecting 1, 2 and 3 and were digested according to the standard methods. Element concentrations were determined using ICP-AES and AAS. Lab samples were Hydrocotyle , Lemna , Ceratophyllum and exposed to Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu and Ca in Swedish standard, (SIS), Lemna growth Medium 648, Hogland's E+Medium (22,23) implementation. The results shows a significant variation (p≤ 0/0001) among the plants, sampling sites and the elements which is compatible with previous similar projects results at national and international scales, rationally. Totally pattern of the elements occurrence in the plants would be: Cd 〈 Mo, Pb 〈Co 〈 Si, Ni 〈 Cu 〈 Cl 〈 B 〈 Zn 〈 Fe 〈 Mn, Ca 〈 Na. On concentrated metals in the plant tissues and their amounts in the waters There is no any clear proportion for Azolla and Ceratophyllum however there is for concentrated Ni, Cl and Zn in Hydrocotyle and the water samples and also Co, Cl, Cu, Mn for Trapa and the sampling site 3. There is positive harmony between existed elements in Hydrocotyle and 3 stations sediments and this is obvious for Fe, Na, Mg, Ca in Trapa and stations 1 and 3 stations. This trend in Azolla and the sediments is current for Ni, Mg and just Co in Ceratophyllum. Water temperature, Do and pH variation trends are the same and could be arrange in stations as 2〉1〉3 and this is 1〉2〉3 for hazy and no trend for TOM variations. The lab samples test results on metal concentration illustrates Hydrocotyle and Ceratophyllum similar trends for maximum Zn and minimum Pb absorbing. However, for Lemna the highest and least absorption rates belong to Ni and Cd. Density factor sequence in heavy metals exposed lab samples would be: Lemna 〉 Hydrocotyle 〉 Ceratophyllum.
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-10-05
    Description: Reservoirs are one of the most constructions for control and water supply for different usage that could have various social an economical effects. The Khandaghloo dam reservoir with area of 100 ha located in Mahneshan city of Zanjan province and related to Parichay river watershed. Khandaghloo reservoir is valuable water body that the aim of its establishment was supply of water for agriculture farms. The reservoir has been studied for responsible and sustainable fisheries exploitation proposes. Results showed that the reservoir categorizes as eutroph to super eutroph based on different indices.Also phosphorous is limiting factor of the water body.Totally 42 genera from 6 phyla including green-blue algae cyanophyta, diatoms (Bacillariophyta), green algae, chlorophyta, euglenophyta, pyrrophyta and xanthophyta has been identified and cyanophyta was the dominant group that comprise 74.3 % of phytoplankton population. The zooplankton of the reservoir comprised 4 phyla and 20 genera. 1 genera of the protozoa and rhizopoda, 1 genra of the ciliophora ,15 genera of rotatoria, 2 genera of cladocera has been identified in zooplankton communities. Tubificidae and chironomidae has been identified in all months of the survey. The mean total length of crayfish was 130.5±20.5 mm ( 636) and mean weight was measured as 69.4±34.1 g with maximum and minimum weight of 1.9 and 207.2 g respectively .Total biomass of crayfish in Khandaghloo reservoir estimated as 3.4 tones with a range of 1.1–5.7 tones. But it is recommended not to harvest for at least two year due to high mortality of the populations.The fishes of the reservoir comprised common carp Chinese carp (silver carp, big head and grass carp) (released), Caspian kutum (accidentally released by fishery sector) and some endemic species as Siamahii. The catch of the reservoir fluctuated between 8 to 26 tones during 2000-2010.The fish production of Khandaghloo reservoir ranged from 167 to 324 kg/ha based on different methods that by consideration of 100 ha area of the reservoir, the total production of fish fluctuated between 16.7 to 32.4 tones. The fingerling restocking of Chinese carp in Khandaghloo reservoir with density of 1500 fingerling/ha recommended as 68% of phytoplanktonivorous fish (silver carp) ,12% zooplanktonivorous fish (big head), 6.6% of Crass carp and 10% of benthophagous fish (common carp).
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-07-12
    Description: The surface layer of sediments in the east of the Anzali Lagoon was surveyed for heavy metal contamination during the year 2004 at the National Inland Water Aquaculture Institute. Samples were obtained by sediment sampler (Eckman Grab) from Pirbazar River, Pasikhan and Selkeh. The samples were dried and treated by wet digestion (HN0_3, H_2SO_4, HClO_4) under open reflux condition. Concentration of Pb, Fe, Cu and Cd were 7.92, 0.2775%, 25.8 and 1.645 kg/g dry weight respectively. The Fe and Cu have the highest concentration. We found that in the study area, Pirbazar was the most contaminated with the selected heavy metals.
    Keywords: Environment ; Pollution
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Description: Use and enrichment of live food resource in fish farms have been interested and highly demanded. Crustacean are one of the important groups. The Pontogammarus maeoticus dominated in southern Caspian Sea shore with a high abundance. This study was designed in order to adaptation and usage of amphipoda in fish culture ponds. The first part have been surveyed the laboratory experiments including of; to increasing and developing of P.maeoticus in 200 litter container, the effects of salinity on growth and survival of amphipods in many aquariums, the culture of common carp with amphipods and growth determination of them. Chemical composition analysis of P.maeoticus and carps fed by amphipods in compare to cultured carps from ordinary ponds. Due to concern about common healthy the heavy metal concentration has been measured in P. maeoticus, carp which were fed by amphipods and the cultured carps in earth ponds. In second phase; the adaptation of two amphipods species, P. maeoticus and Obesogammarus acuminatus was studied in fish ponds where some cages with sandy soft substrate had been provided for amphipoda replacement. Also a small surface of ponds surrounded by net and covered by Azola plant, a habitat suitable for to putting of O. acuminatus. Production of amphipoda had not the successfully results in large tanks. Aquariums with Caspian Sea water had the prosper results where the specimens were breeding and developing properly, even though in some aquarium with freshwater increased the amphipods number. The chemical composition had not significant difference between two kind of cultured carps while the organic component in amphipoda had a high quality. The better quality of cultured carp by amphipod diet have been confirmed by organoleptic test. The results of heavy metal measurement in amphipoda showed a high concentration which some of them were transmitted to cultured carps. Result of amphipoda replacement in cage was not satisfy and the specimens were died after some days. According to hydro-chemical parameters the oxygen poorness and high trophy levels were the affective factor to abolish of specimens in cages. It seems that there are many type of P.maeoticus that can be adapted in different salinities. The molecular differentiation should be investigated to choose the suitable type of this spices for utilization in freshwater fish ponds. In other hand it can be used in fish culture ponds that will be supplied by brackish water.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-09-14
    Description: This project is trying to investigate water contamination after use in ponds. For this aquaculture status, physical and chemical water properties, microbial pollutants and heavy metals levels in the some of trout ponds effluent in East Azerbaijan province were evaluated in 2007 to 2009. The information of groundwater and climate conditions in ten years, Drilling and wells piezometric Information, in local wells are reviewed. According to data obtained from analysis of water samples in the output pools range studied concentrations(term mg/l) some parameters are as follows:(BOD: 1.9-3.2), (COD: 3.4-34.1), (TSS: 26.6-42.7), (N-NO_2:0.003-.136),(P-Po4:0.0170.067), (pH:7.75-8.28). Electrical conductivity (500 ±2 to 1129±144 term µm/cm) in the effluent ponds. Based on the results of we can say that between input and effluent ponds in the review of all factors as chlorine, sulfate, sodium, potassium, total nitrogen, soluble phosphorus, total phosphorus, calcium, total hardness, magnesium, alkalinity and silica significant changes not be observed. Review of water analysis data to some factors (such as: water temperature, EC, pH, NO_2, CO_2, HCO_3, CO_3, DO, COD, BOD) and compare this data with the authorities standard confirmed that the All factors mentioned in effluent is allowed now. In terms of microbial contamination and heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Ca, Pb, Fe, Cr) is no pollution. Appropriate strategies for removing suspended materials must to use. We can use Watershed Management solutions to inject output water to the underground table. Should be noted status change (eg change in flow rate, an unusual increase in temperature, fish density increasing, reducing food quality, lack of appropriate management actions and ...) may reduce the effluent quality and the ability of injection water underground to lose. In this case, measures must be for wastewater treatment and improve the quality ponder.
    Keywords: Ecology ; Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-09-14
    Description: The project was carried out between June of 2011 and November of 2012,8 laboratories of research center in Anzali (Plankton, Algae, Hydrochemistry, Physiology, Ichthyology, Bentose, Parazitology, Virology) and 7 laboratories of research center in Ahvaz (Clinical pathology, Plankton, Hydrochemistry, Physiology, Ichthyology, Bentose, Parazitology, Virology) were selected for accreditation. The main stages for establishment of the system consisted of: 1-Conducting a gap analysis to compare the present state of the laboratories with ISO/IEC 17025 2-Training General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories Validation of methods Estimation of uncertainty Internal audits 3- Performing of technical and management requirements 4-Submit of quality manual to ASCB center in England in order to accredit In August of 2012 The main results were including: 1-Increase the accuracy of measurement in laboratories 2-Improvement of the Repeatability and Reproducibility of the test methods 3-Traceability and standardization of test methods 4- Calibration of measurement instruments 6- Updating of test methods 7-Standardization of physical condition of the laboratories 8- Getting the certification from ASCB center in
    Keywords: Information Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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