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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-11-04
    Description: Despite decades of research, the roles of climate and humans in driving the dramatic extinctions of large-bodied mammals during the Late Quaternary period remain contentious. Here we use ancient DNA, species distribution models and the human fossil record to elucidate how climate and humans shaped the demographic history of woolly rhinoceros, woolly mammoth, wild horse, reindeer, bison and musk ox. We show that climate has been a major driver of population change over the past 50,000 years. However, each species responds differently to the effects of climatic shifts, habitat redistribution and human encroachment. Although climate change alone can explain the extinction of some species, such as Eurasian musk ox and woolly rhinoceros, a combination of climatic and anthropogenic effects appears to be responsible for the extinction of others, including Eurasian steppe bison and wild horse. We find no genetic signature or any distinctive range dynamics distinguishing extinct from surviving species, emphasizing the challenges associated with predicting future responses of extant mammals to climate and human-mediated habitat change.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4070744/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4070744/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lorenzen, Eline D -- Nogues-Bravo, David -- Orlando, Ludovic -- Weinstock, Jaco -- Binladen, Jonas -- Marske, Katharine A -- Ugan, Andrew -- Borregaard, Michael K -- Gilbert, M Thomas P -- Nielsen, Rasmus -- Ho, Simon Y W -- Goebel, Ted -- Graf, Kelly E -- Byers, David -- Stenderup, Jesper T -- Rasmussen, Morten -- Campos, Paula F -- Leonard, Jennifer A -- Koepfli, Klaus-Peter -- Froese, Duane -- Zazula, Grant -- Stafford, Thomas W Jr -- Aaris-Sorensen, Kim -- Batra, Persaram -- Haywood, Alan M -- Singarayer, Joy S -- Valdes, Paul J -- Boeskorov, Gennady -- Burns, James A -- Davydov, Sergey P -- Haile, James -- Jenkins, Dennis L -- Kosintsev, Pavel -- Kuznetsova, Tatyana -- Lai, Xulong -- Martin, Larry D -- McDonald, H Gregory -- Mol, Dick -- Meldgaard, Morten -- Munch, Kasper -- Stephan, Elisabeth -- Sablin, Mikhail -- Sommer, Robert S -- Sipko, Taras -- Scott, Eric -- Suchard, Marc A -- Tikhonov, Alexei -- Willerslev, Rane -- Wayne, Robert K -- Cooper, Alan -- Hofreiter, Michael -- Sher, Andrei -- Shapiro, Beth -- Rahbek, Carsten -- Willerslev, Eske -- R01 HG003229/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Nov 2;479(7373):359-64. doi: 10.1038/nature10574.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre for GeoGenetics, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22048313" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bayes Theorem ; *Biota ; Bison ; Climate Change/*history ; DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis/genetics ; Europe ; *Extinction, Biological ; Fossils ; Genetic Variation ; Geography ; History, Ancient ; Horses ; Human Activities/*history ; Humans ; Mammals/genetics/*physiology ; Mammoths ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Population Dynamics ; Reindeer ; Siberia ; Species Specificity ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2002-03-02
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shapiro, Beth -- Sibthorpe, Dean -- Rambaut, Andrew -- Austin, Jeremy -- Wragg, Graham M -- Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P -- Lee, Patricia L M -- Cooper, Alan -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2002 Mar 1;295(5560):1683.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3PS, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11872833" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Birds/*classification/*genetics ; Columbidae/classification/genetics ; DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis/genetics ; Flight, Animal ; Likelihood Functions ; *Phylogeny
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2002-03-23
    Description: The climatic and environmental changes associated with the last glaciation (90,000 to 10,000 years before the present; 90 to 10 ka B.P.) are an important example of the effects of global climate change on biological diversity. These effects were particularly marked in Beringia (northeastern Siberia, northwestern North America, and the exposed Bering Strait) during the late Pleistocene. To investigate the evolutionary impact of these events, we studied genetic change in the brown bear, Ursus arctos, in eastern Beringia over the past 60,000 years using DNA preserved in permafrost remains. A marked degree of genetic structure is observed in populations throughout this period despite local extinctions, reinvasions, and potential interspecies competition with the short-faced bear, Arctodus simus. The major phylogeographic changes occurred 35 to 21 ka B.P., before the glacial maximum, and little change is observed after this time. Late Pleistocene histories of mammalian taxa may be more complex than those that might be inferred from the fossil record or contemporary DNA sequences alone.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Barnes, I -- Matheus, P -- Shapiro, B -- Jensen, D -- Cooper, A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2002 Mar 22;295(5563):2267-70.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Biological Anthropology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6QS, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11910112" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; Climate ; DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics/isolation & purification ; Diet ; *Ecosystem ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Fossils ; Founder Effect ; Haplotypes/genetics ; Ice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phylogeny ; Siberia ; Species Specificity ; Time Factors ; Ursidae/*genetics/physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2003-04-19
    Description: Genetic analyses of permafrost and temperate sediments reveal that plant and animal DNA may be preserved for long periods, even in the absence of obvious macrofossils. In Siberia, five permafrost cores ranging from 400,000 to 10,000 years old contained at least 19 different plant taxa, including the oldest authenticated ancient DNA sequences known, and megafaunal sequences including mammoth, bison, and horse. The genetic data record a number of dramatic changes in the taxonomic diversity and composition of Beringian vegetation and fauna. Temperate cave sediments in New Zealand also yielded DNA sequences of extinct biota, including two species of ratite moa, and 29 plant taxa characteristic of the prehuman environment. Therefore, many sedimentary deposits may contain unique, and widespread, genetic records of paleoenvironments.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Willerslev, Eske -- Hansen, Anders J -- Binladen, Jonas -- Brand, Tina B -- Gilbert, M Thomas P -- Shapiro, Beth -- Bunce, Michael -- Wiuf, Carsten -- Gilichinsky, David A -- Cooper, Alan -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2003 May 2;300(5620):791-5. Epub 2003 Apr 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Evolutionary Biology, Zoological Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, Denmark DK-2100 O.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12702808" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Angiosperms/classification/genetics ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; Bryopsida/classification/genetics ; Cloning, Molecular ; DNA/*analysis/genetics ; DNA, Chloroplast/analysis ; DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis/genetics ; DNA, Plant/*analysis/genetics ; Ecosystem ; Fossils ; *Geologic Sediments ; Gymnosperms/classification/genetics ; History, Ancient ; Mammals/classification/genetics ; New Zealand ; Phylogeny ; *Plants/classification ; Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Siberia ; *Soil ; *Vertebrates/classification/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2005-12-22
    Description: We sequenced 28 million base pairs of DNA in a metagenomics approach, using a woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) sample from Siberia. As a result of exceptional sample preservation and the use of a recently developed emulsion polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing technique, 13 million base pairs (45.4%) of the sequencing reads were identified as mammoth DNA. Sequence identity between our data and African elephant (Loxodonta africana) was 98.55%, consistent with a paleontologically based divergence date of 5 to 6 million years. The sample includes a surprisingly small diversity of environmental DNAs. The high percentage of endogenous DNA recoverable from this single mammoth would allow for completion of its genome, unleashing the field of paleogenomics.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Poinar, Hendrik N -- Schwarz, Carsten -- Qi, Ji -- Shapiro, Beth -- Macphee, Ross D E -- Buigues, Bernard -- Tikhonov, Alexei -- Huson, Daniel H -- Tomsho, Lynn P -- Auch, Alexander -- Rampp, Markus -- Miller, Webb -- Schuster, Stephan C -- HG02238/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2006 Jan 20;311(5759):392-4. Epub 2005 Dec 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉McMaster Ancient DNA Center, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton ON, L8S 4L9 Canada. poinarh@mcmaster.ca〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16368896" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Composition ; Computational Biology ; Cytochromes b/genetics ; DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics ; Dogs/genetics ; Elephants/*genetics ; *Fossils ; Gene Library ; Genome ; *Genomics ; Humans ; Mandible/*chemistry ; *Paleontology ; Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Sequence Alignment ; *Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid ; Siberia
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2008-01-05
    Description: We used authentication tests developed for ancient DNA to evaluate claims by Asara et al. (Reports, 13 April 2007, p. 280) of collagen peptide sequences recovered from mastodon and Tyrannosaurus rex fossils. Although the mastodon samples pass these tests, absence of amino acid composition data, lack of evidence for peptide deamidation, and association of alpha1(I) collagen sequences with amphibians rather than birds suggest that T. rex does not.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2694913/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2694913/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Buckley, Mike -- Walker, Angela -- Ho, Simon Y W -- Yang, Yue -- Smith, Colin -- Ashton, Peter -- Oates, Jane Thomas -- Cappellini, Enrico -- Koon, Hannah -- Penkman, Kirsty -- Elsworth, Ben -- Ashford, Dave -- Solazzo, Caroline -- Andrews, Phillip -- Strahler, John -- Shapiro, Beth -- Ostrom, Peggy -- Gandhi, Hasand -- Miller, Webb -- Raney, Brian -- Zylber, Maria Ines -- Gilbert, M Thomas P -- Prigodich, Richard V -- Ryan, Michael -- Rijsdijk, Kenneth F -- Janoo, Anwar -- Collins, Matthew J -- 076905/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2008 Jan 4;319(5859):33; author reply 33. doi: 10.1126/science.1147046.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉BioArch, Departments of Biology, Archaeology, Chemistry and Technology Facility, University of York, Post Office Box 373, York YO10 5YW, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18174420" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Bone and Bones/*chemistry ; Collagen/*chemistry ; *Dinosaurs ; *Elephants ; *Fossils ; Mass Spectrometry ; Phylogeny
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-11-16
    Description: The geographic and temporal origins of the domestic dog remain controversial, as genetic data suggest a domestication process in East Asia beginning 15,000 years ago, whereas the oldest doglike fossils are found in Europe and Siberia and date to 〉30,000 years ago. We analyzed the mitochondrial genomes of 18 prehistoric canids from Eurasia and the New World, along with a comprehensive panel of modern dogs and wolves. The mitochondrial genomes of all modern dogs are phylogenetically most closely related to either ancient or modern canids of Europe. Molecular dating suggests an onset of domestication there 18,800 to 32,100 years ago. These findings imply that domestic dogs are the culmination of a process that initiated with European hunter-gatherers and the canids with whom they interacted.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Thalmann, O -- Shapiro, B -- Cui, P -- Schuenemann, V J -- Sawyer, S K -- Greenfield, D L -- Germonpre, M B -- Sablin, M V -- Lopez-Giraldez, F -- Domingo-Roura, X -- Napierala, H -- Uerpmann, H-P -- Loponte, D M -- Acosta, A A -- Giemsch, L -- Schmitz, R W -- Worthington, B -- Buikstra, J E -- Druzhkova, A -- Graphodatsky, A S -- Ovodov, N D -- Wahlberg, N -- Freedman, A H -- Schweizer, R M -- Koepfli, K-P -- Leonard, J A -- Meyer, M -- Krause, J -- Paabo, S -- Green, R E -- Wayne, R K -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Nov 15;342(6160):871-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1243650.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, Section of Genetics and Physiology, University of Turku, Itainen Pitkakatu 4, 20014 Turku, Finland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24233726" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Animals, Domestic/*genetics ; Base Sequence ; Breeding ; Dogs/*genetics ; Europe ; Genome, Mitochondrial/*genetics ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phylogeny ; Wolves/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2004-11-30
    Description: The widespread extinctions of large mammals at the end of the Pleistocene epoch have often been attributed to the depredations of humans; here we present genetic evidence that questions this assumption. We used ancient DNA and Bayesian techniques to reconstruct a detailed genetic history of bison throughout the late Pleistocene and Holocene epochs. Our analyses depict a large diverse population living throughout Beringia until around 37,000 years before the present, when the population's genetic diversity began to decline dramatically. The timing of this decline correlates with environmental changes associated with the onset of the last glacial cycle, whereas archaeological evidence does not support the presence of large populations of humans in Eastern Beringia until more than 15,000 years later.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shapiro, Beth -- Drummond, Alexei J -- Rambaut, Andrew -- Wilson, Michael C -- Matheus, Paul E -- Sher, Andrei V -- Pybus, Oliver G -- Gilbert, M Thomas P -- Barnes, Ian -- Binladen, Jonas -- Willerslev, Eske -- Hansen, Anders J -- Baryshnikov, Gennady F -- Burns, James A -- Davydov, Sergei -- Driver, Jonathan C -- Froese, Duane G -- Harington, C Richard -- Keddie, Grant -- Kosintsev, Pavel -- Kunz, Michael L -- Martin, Larry D -- Stephenson, Robert O -- Storer, John -- Tedford, Richard -- Zimov, Sergei -- Cooper, Alan -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2004 Nov 26;306(5701):1561-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Henry Wellcome Ancient Biomolecules Centre, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX13PS, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15567864" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alaska ; Animals ; Bayes Theorem ; *Bison/classification/genetics ; Canada ; China ; *Climate ; DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics ; Environment ; *Fossils ; Genetic Variation ; Genetics, Population ; Human Activities ; Humans ; North America ; Phylogeny ; Population Dynamics ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Time
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-11-04
    Description: The earliest anatomically modern humans in Europe are thought to have appeared around 43,000-42,000 calendar years before present (43-42 kyr cal BP), by association with Aurignacian sites and lithic assemblages assumed to have been made by modern humans rather than by Neanderthals. However, the actual physical evidence for modern humans is extremely rare, and direct dates reach no farther back than about 41-39 kyr cal BP, leaving a gap. Here we show, using stratigraphic, chronological and archaeological data, that a fragment of human maxilla from the Kent's Cavern site, UK, dates to the earlier period. The maxilla (KC4), which was excavated in 1927, was initially diagnosed as Upper Palaeolithic modern human. In 1989, it was directly radiocarbon dated by accelerator mass spectrometry to 36.4-34.7 kyr cal BP. Using a Bayesian analysis of new ultrafiltered bone collagen dates in an ordered stratigraphic sequence at the site, we show that this date is a considerable underestimate. Instead, KC4 dates to 44.2-41.5 kyr cal BP. This makes it older than any other equivalently dated modern human specimen and directly contemporary with the latest European Neanderthals, thus making its taxonomic attribution crucial. We also show that in 13 dental traits KC4 possesses modern human rather than Neanderthal characteristics; three other traits show Neanderthal affinities and a further seven are ambiguous. KC4 therefore represents the oldest known anatomically modern human fossil in northwestern Europe, fills a key gap between the earliest dated Aurignacian remains and the earliest human skeletal remains, and demonstrates the wide and rapid dispersal of early modern humans across Europe more than 40 kyr ago.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Higham, Tom -- Compton, Tim -- Stringer, Chris -- Jacobi, Roger -- Shapiro, Beth -- Trinkaus, Erik -- Chandler, Barry -- Groning, Flora -- Collins, Chris -- Hillson, Simon -- O'Higgins, Paul -- FitzGerald, Charles -- Fagan, Michael -- England -- Nature. 2011 Nov 2;479(7374):521-4. doi: 10.1038/nature10484.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QY, UK. thomas.higham@rlaha.ox.ac.uk〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22048314" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bayes Theorem ; Caves ; Dentition ; Emigration and Immigration/*history ; Fossils ; Great Britain ; History, Ancient ; Humans ; Maxilla/*anatomy & histology ; Neanderthals/anatomy & histology ; Radiometric Dating
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-06-30
    Description: Desmosomes are intercellular adhesive junctions that impart strength to vertebrate tissues. Their dense, ordered intercellular attachments are formed by desmogleins (Dsgs) and desmocollins (Dscs), but the nature of trans-cellular interactions between these specialized cadherins is unclear. Here, using solution biophysics and coated-bead aggregation experiments, we demonstrate family-wise heterophilic specificity: All...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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