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  • 1
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    Unknown
    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2012-07-28
    Description: Nearly half of the world's population harbors helminth infections or suffers from allergic disorders. A common feature of this population is the so-called "type 2 immune response," which confers protection against helminths, but also promotes pathologic responses associated with allergic inflammation. However, the mechanisms that initiate and control type 2 responses remain enigmatic. Recent advances have revealed a role for the innate immune system in orchestrating type 2 responses against a bewildering array of stimuli, from nanometer-sized allergens to 20-meter-long helminth parasites. Here, we review these advances and suggest that the human immune system has evolved multiple mechanisms of sensing such stimuli, from recognition of molecular patterns via innate immune receptors to detecting metabolic changes and tissue damage caused by these stimuli.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4078898/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4078898/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pulendran, Bali -- Artis, David -- AI061570/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI074878/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI083480/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI087990/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI095466/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI095608/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- HHSN266200700006C/PHS HHS/ -- N01 AI50025/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI048638/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK057665/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37AI48638/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37DK057665/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI057266/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI090023/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19AI057266/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19AI090023/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54 AI057157/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54AI057157/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Jul 27;337(6093):431-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1221064.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology, Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA. bpulend@emory.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22837519" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Allergens/*immunology ; Animals ; Basophils/immunology ; Biological Evolution ; Cell Communication ; Cellular Microenvironment ; Dendritic Cells/immunology ; Helminthiasis/*immunology ; Helminths/*immunology ; Humans ; Hypersensitivity/*immunology ; *Immunity, Innate ; Inflammation/immunology ; Receptors, Pattern Recognition/immunology/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Th2 Cells/*immunology/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2010-08-14
    Description: Dendritic cells (DCs) play a vital role in initiating robust immunity against pathogens as well as maintaining immunological tolerance to self antigens. However, the intracellular signaling networks that program DCs to become tolerogenic remain unknown. We report here that the Wnt-beta-catenin signaling in intestinal dendritic cells regulates the balance between inflammatory versus regulatory responses in the gut. beta-catenin in intestinal dendritic cells was required for the expression of anti-inflammatory mediators such as retinoic acid-metabolizing enzymes, interleukin-10, and transforming growth factor-beta, and the stimulation of regulatory T cell induction while suppressing inflammatory effector T cells. Furthermore, ablation of beta-catenin expression in DCs enhanced inflammatory responses and disease in a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease. Thus, beta-catenin signaling programs DCs to a tolerogenic state, limiting the inflammatory response.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3732486/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3732486/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Manicassamy, Santhakumar -- Reizis, Boris -- Ravindran, Rajesh -- Nakaya, Helder -- Salazar-Gonzalez, Rosa Maria -- Wang, Yi-Chong -- Pulendran, Bali -- HHSN266 200700006C/PHS HHS/ -- N01 AI50019/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- N01 AI50025/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI048638/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI056499/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK057665/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01DK057665,/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI048638/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK057665/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37AI48638,/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI057266/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19AI057266,/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54 AI057157/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54AI057157/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2010 Aug 13;329(5993):849-53. doi: 10.1126/science.1188510.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Emory Vaccine Center, and Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20705860" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cytokines/metabolism ; Dendritic Cells/*immunology/metabolism ; Gene Expression Profiling ; *Inflammation ; Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/*immunology ; Intestinal Mucosa/cytology/*immunology/metabolism ; Macrophages/immunology/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Transgenic ; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; *Self Tolerance ; Signal Transduction ; T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/cytology/*immunology ; T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/*immunology ; Tretinoin/metabolism ; Wnt Proteins/metabolism ; beta Catenin/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-12-07
    Description: The yellow fever vaccine YF-17D is one of the most successful vaccines ever developed in humans. Despite its efficacy and widespread use in more than 600 million people, the mechanisms by which it stimulates protective immunity remain poorly understood. Recent studies using systems biology approaches in humans have revealed that YF-17D-induced early expression of general control nonderepressible 2 kinase (GCN2) in the blood strongly correlates with the magnitude of the later CD8(+) T cell response. We demonstrate a key role for virus-induced GCN2 activation in programming dendritic cells to initiate autophagy and enhanced antigen presentation to both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. These results reveal an unappreciated link between virus-induced integrated stress response in dendritic cells and the adaptive immune response.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4048998/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4048998/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ravindran, Rajesh -- Khan, Nooruddin -- Nakaya, Helder I -- Li, Shuzhao -- Loebbermann, Jens -- Maddur, Mohan S -- Park, Youngja -- Jones, Dean P -- Chappert, Pascal -- Davoust, Jean -- Weiss, David S -- Virgin, Herbert W -- Ron, David -- Pulendran, Bali -- 084812/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 084812/Z/08/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- N01 AI50019/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- N01 AI50025/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P51 OD011132/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI048638/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK057665/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R56 AI048638/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI057266/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI090023/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54 AI057157/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54 AI057160/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jan 17;343(6168):313-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1246829. Epub 2013 Dec 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24310610" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Antigen Presentation ; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology ; Cell Line ; Cricetinae ; Dendritic Cells/enzymology/*immunology ; Enzyme Activation ; Humans ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Mutant Strains ; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/genetics ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/*biosynthesis/genetics ; Yellow Fever Vaccine/*immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-02-26
    Description: Many successful vaccines induce persistent antibody responses that can last a lifetime. The mechanisms by which they do so remain unclear, but emerging evidence indicates that they activate dendritic cells via Toll-like receptors (TLRs). For example, the yellow fever vaccine YF-17D, one of the most successful empiric vaccines ever developed, activates dendritic cells via multiple TLRs to stimulate proinflammatory cytokines. Triggering specific combinations of TLRs in dendritic cells can induce synergistic production of cytokines, which results in enhanced T-cell responses, but its impact on antibody responses remain unknown. Learning the critical parameters of innate immunity that program such antibody responses remains a major challenge in vaccinology. Here we demonstrate that immunization of mice with synthetic nanoparticles containing antigens plus ligands that signal through TLR4 and TLR7 induces synergistic increases in antigen-specific, neutralizing antibodies compared to immunization with nanoparticles containing antigens plus a single TLR ligand. Consistent with this there was enhanced persistence of germinal centres and of plasma-cell responses, which persisted in the lymph nodes for 〉1.5 years. Surprisingly, there was no enhancement of the early short-lived plasma-cell response relative to that observed with single TLR ligands. Molecular profiling of activated B cells, isolated 7 days after immunization, indicated that there was early programming towards B-cell memory. Antibody responses were dependent on direct triggering of both TLRs on B cells and dendritic cells, as well as on T-cell help. Immunization protected completely against lethal avian and swine influenza virus strains in mice, and induced robust immunity against pandemic H1N1 influenza in rhesus macaques.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3057367/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3057367/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kasturi, Sudhir Pai -- Skountzou, Ioanna -- Albrecht, Randy A -- Koutsonanos, Dimitrios -- Hua, Tang -- Nakaya, Helder I -- Ravindran, Rajesh -- Stewart, Shelley -- Alam, Munir -- Kwissa, Marcin -- Villinger, Francois -- Murthy, Niren -- Steel, John -- Jacob, Joshy -- Hogan, Robert J -- Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo -- Compans, Richard -- Pulendran, Bali -- HHSN266200700006C/PHS HHS/ -- HHSN266200700010C/PHS HHS/ -- N01 AI50025/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI048638/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI048638-07/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI048638-08/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK057665/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK057665-09/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK057665-10/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK057665-11/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK057665-12/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK057665-13/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01DK057665/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI048638/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI048638-09A1/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI048638-10/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI048638-11/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37AI48638/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R56 AI048638/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R56 AI048638-09/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01AI070469/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19AI057266/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19AI090023/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54AI057157/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54AI57158/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Feb 24;470(7335):543-7. doi: 10.1038/nature09737.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21350488" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis/*immunology ; Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis/*immunology ; Antibody Formation/*immunology ; Dendritic Cells/cytology/immunology ; Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/immunology ; Immunity, Innate/*immunology ; Immunologic Memory/*immunology ; Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology ; Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/immunology ; Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage/*immunology ; Lactic Acid ; Ligands ; Lymph Nodes/cytology/immunology ; Lymphocyte Activation ; Macaca mulatta/immunology/virology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Nanoparticles/administration & dosage ; Plasma Cells/cytology/immunology/metabolism ; Polyglycolic Acid ; T-Lymphocytes/immunology ; Toll-Like Receptors/immunology/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: The integrated stress response (ISR) is a homeostatic mechanism by which eukaryotic cells sense and respond to stress-inducing signals, such as amino acid starvation. General controlled non-repressed (GCN2) kinase is a key orchestrator of the ISR, and modulates protein synthesis in response to amino acid starvation. Here we demonstrate in mice that GCN2 controls intestinal inflammation by suppressing inflammasome activation. Enhanced activation of ISR was observed in intestinal antigen presenting cells (APCs) and epithelial cells during amino acid starvation, or intestinal inflammation. Genetic deletion of Gcn2 (also known as Eif2ka4) in CD11c(+) APCs or intestinal epithelial cells resulted in enhanced intestinal inflammation and T helper 17 cell (TH17) responses, owing to enhanced inflammasome activation and interleukin (IL)-1beta production. This was caused by reduced autophagy in Gcn2(-/-) intestinal APCs and epithelial cells, leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), a potent activator of inflammasomes. Thus, conditional ablation of Atg5 or Atg7 in intestinal APCs resulted in enhanced ROS and TH17 responses. Furthermore, in vivo blockade of ROS and IL-1beta resulted in inhibition of TH17 responses and reduced inflammation in Gcn2(-/-) mice. Importantly, acute amino acid starvation suppressed intestinal inflammation via a mechanism dependent on GCN2. These results reveal a mechanism that couples amino acid sensing with control of intestinal inflammation via GCN2.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4854628/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4854628/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ravindran, Rajesh -- Loebbermann, Jens -- Nakaya, Helder I -- Khan, Nooruddin -- Ma, Hualing -- Gama, Leonardo -- Machiah, Deepa K -- Lawson, Benton -- Hakimpour, Paul -- Wang, Yi-chong -- Li, Shuzhao -- Sharma, Prachi -- Kaufman, Randal J -- Martinez, Jennifer -- Pulendran, Bali -- R01 DK088227/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK103185/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI048638/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK042394/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK057665/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI057266/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI090023/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- ZIA ES103286-01/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):523-7. doi: 10.1038/nature17186. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. ; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05508, Brazil. ; Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046, India. ; Division of Pathology, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. ; Virology Core, Emory Vaccine Center and Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. ; Degenerative Disease Program, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037 USA. ; National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Mail Drop D2-01 Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982722" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acids/administration & dosage/deficiency/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Animals ; Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology/metabolism ; Autophagy ; Colitis/etiology/*metabolism/pathology/prevention & control ; Disease Models, Animal ; Epithelial Cells/metabolism ; Female ; Humans ; Inflammasomes/*antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Inflammation/etiology/*metabolism/pathology/prevention & control ; Interleukin-1beta/immunology ; Intestines/*metabolism/*pathology ; Male ; Mice ; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/deficiency/metabolism ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism ; Stress, Physiological ; Th17 Cells/immunology ; Ubiquitin-Activating Enzymes/deficiency/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
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    Unknown
    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2001-07-14
    Description: The immune system is capable of making qualitatively distinct responses against different microbial infections, and recent advances are starting to reveal how it manages this complex task. An integral component of the immune system is a network of cells known as dendritic cells (DCs), which sense different microbial stimuli and convey this information to lymphocytes. A better understanding of DC biology has allowed a model to be constructed in which the type of immune response to an infection is viewed as a function of several determinants, including the subpopulation of DCs, the nature of the microbe, microbe recognition receptors, and the cytokine microenvironment.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pulendran, B -- Palucka, K -- Banchereau, J -- 1R21AI/DE48154-01/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI48638-01/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- DK 57665-01/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2001 Jul 13;293(5528):253-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Baylor Institute for Immunology Research, 3434 Live Oak, Dallas, TX 75204, USA. balip@baylordallas.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11452116" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacteria/immunology ; Cytokines/immunology ; Dendritic Cells/classification/*immunology ; *Drosophila Proteins ; Eukaryota/immunology ; Fungi/immunology ; Humans ; *Immunity ; Immunotherapy ; Membrane Glycoproteins/immunology ; Receptors, Cell Surface/immunology ; Toll-Like Receptors ; Viruses/immunology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A degree of conservation of the genes located between class II and class I [central major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes] is apparent among mammalian species including primates and the mouse. Few others have been analyzed. The caprine MHC is of particular interest, since it has recently been observed that susceptibility to a lentivirus-induced polyarthritis (caprine arthritis) segregates with serologically defined MHC class I antigens. This arthritis resembles, in a number of respects, rheumatoid arthritis in man. Human cDNA probes were used to examine the caprine central MHC and class I and II genes by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in order to define the polymorphism and linkage of central MHC genes to class I and class II genes. An outbred population of dairy goats (Saanen, British Alpine, Anglo Nubian, and Toggenberg) was examined for class I and class II RFLPs. Both regions were found to be highly polymorphic. The number of fragments hybridizing to an HLA-B7 probe after Eco RI, Bam HI, Bgl II, or Hind III digestion suggests there may be 10–13 class I genes. The degree of polymorphism was comparable to that reported in the mouse. Limited polymorphism was found in the central MHC genes. The caprine C4 and CYP21 genes were duplicated and demonstrated RFLP with Bam HI, Hind III, Eco RV, and Taq I. An infrequent Taq I C2 polymorphism was found. PFGE revealed substantial conservation of both the order and linkage of the central MHC genes when compared with mous and man. C4, C2, CYP21, HSP70, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) genes are all located within 800 kilobase (kb) of the class I loci. Distant from the class I region, the C4, C2, and CYP21 genes are linked on a short genomic segment (180 kb Not I and 190 kb Pvu I fragments). HSP70 cohybridizes with the complement genes on a 380 kb Mlu I fragment. Linkage of HSP70, TNF, and class I genes was found on a single Not I fragment (610 kb). TNF and class I cohybridize on Pvu I (730 kb) and Not I (610 kb) fragments. Conservation of a similar central MHC genomic structure across species argues for functional interaction between the central MHC genes. We postulate selection for these central MHC genes through their role as non antigen-specific regulators of immune response.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-03-11
    Description: CD8 T cells are a potent tool for eliminating intracellular pathogens and tumor cells. Thus, eliciting robust CD8 T-cell immunity is the basis for many vaccines under development. However, the relationship between antigen load and the magnitude of the CD8 T-cell response is not well-described in a human immune response....
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-08-27
    Description: Homo sapiens are genetically diverse, but dramatic demographic and socioeconomic changes during the past century have created further diversification with respect to age, nutritional status, and the incidence of associated chronic inflammatory disorders and chronic infections. These shifting demographics pose new challenges for vaccination, as emerging evidence suggests that age,...
    Keywords: 100th Anniversary, Vaccines Special Feature
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-03-09
    Description: Significantly higher levels of plasma CXCL13 [chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13] were associated with the generation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against HIV in a large longitudinal cohort of HIV-infected individuals. Germinal centers (GCs) perform the remarkable task of optimizing B-cell Ab responses. GCs are required for almost all B-cell...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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