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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-04-14
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yu, Byron M -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):449-50. doi: 10.1038/nature17886. Epub 2016 Apr 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27074510" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Brain Mapping ; Executive Function/*physiology ; Female ; Male ; Motor Cortex/*cytology/*physiology ; Movement/*physiology ; Neurons/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-08-29
    Description: Learning, whether motor, sensory or cognitive, requires networks of neurons to generate new activity patterns. As some behaviours are easier to learn than others, we asked if some neural activity patterns are easier to generate than others. Here we investigate whether an existing network constrains the patterns that a subset of its neurons is capable of exhibiting, and if so, what principles define this constraint. We employed a closed-loop intracortical brain-computer interface learning paradigm in which Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) controlled a computer cursor by modulating neural activity patterns in the primary motor cortex. Using the brain-computer interface paradigm, we could specify and alter how neural activity mapped to cursor velocity. At the start of each session, we observed the characteristic activity patterns of the recorded neural population. The activity of a neural population can be represented in a high-dimensional space (termed the neural space), wherein each dimension corresponds to the activity of one neuron. These characteristic activity patterns comprise a low-dimensional subspace (termed the intrinsic manifold) within the neural space. The intrinsic manifold presumably reflects constraints imposed by the underlying neural circuitry. Here we show that the animals could readily learn to proficiently control the cursor using neural activity patterns that were within the intrinsic manifold. However, animals were less able to learn to proficiently control the cursor using activity patterns that were outside of the intrinsic manifold. These results suggest that the existing structure of a network can shape learning. On a timescale of hours, it seems to be difficult to learn to generate neural activity patterns that are not consistent with the existing network structure. These findings offer a network-level explanation for the observation that we are more readily able to learn new skills when they are related to the skills that we already possess.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4393644/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4393644/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sadtler, Patrick T -- Quick, Kristin M -- Golub, Matthew D -- Chase, Steven M -- Ryu, Stephen I -- Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C -- Yu, Byron M -- Batista, Aaron P -- P30 NS076405/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P30-NS076405/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HD071686/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS065065/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01-HD071686/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01-NS065065/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Aug 28;512(7515):423-6. doi: 10.1038/nature13665.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA [2] Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA [3] Systems Neuroscience Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 15261, USA. ; 1] Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA [2] Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA. ; 1] Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA [2] Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA. ; 1] Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA [2] Department of Neurosurgery, Palo Alto Medical Foundation, Palo Alto, California 94301, USA. ; 1] Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA [2] Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA [3] Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA. ; 1] Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA [2] Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA [3] Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA [4]. ; 1] Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA [2] Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA [3] Systems Neuroscience Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 15261, USA [4].〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25164754" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain-Computer Interfaces ; Computers ; Learning/*physiology ; Macaca mulatta ; Male ; *Models, Neurological ; Motor Cortex/cytology/physiology ; Motor Skills/*physiology ; Nerve Net/cytology/physiology ; Neurons/physiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-08-20
    Description: The association of DSIF and NELF with initiated RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) is the general mechanism for inducing promoter-proximal pausing of Pol II. However, it remains largely unclear how the paused Pol II is released in response to stimulation. Here, we show that the release of the paused Pol II is cooperatively regulated by multiple P-TEFbs which are recruited by bromodomain-containing protein Brd4 and super elongation complex (SEC) via different recruitment mechanisms. Upon stimulation, Brd4 recruits P-TEFb to Spt5/DSIF via a recruitment pathway consisting of Med1, Med23 and Tat-SF1, whereas SEC recruits P-TEFb to NELF-A and NELF-E via Paf1c and Med26, respectively. P-TEFb-mediated phosphorylation of Spt5, NELF-A and NELF-E results in the dissociation of NELF from Pol II, thereby transiting transcription from pausing to elongation. Additionally, we demonstrate that P-TEFb-mediated Ser2 phosphorylation of Pol II is dispensable for pause release. Therefore, our studies reveal a co-regulatory mechanism of Brd4 and SEC in modulating the transcriptional pause release by recruiting multiple P-TEFbs via a Mediator- and Paf1c-coordinated recruitment network.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A polarization-dependent rate-equation model on polarization-dependent emission characteristics of internally strained 1.3-μm InGaAsP/InP semiconductor lasers is presented. Among the rate-equation parameters, the polarization-dependent gain and gain-saturation coefficients are calculated using the density-matrix approach and the confinement factors and loss coefficients are related to the waveguide structure. Numerical simulations show that anomalous polarization-dependent emission characteristics can occur when the internal stress is in the 108-dyn/cm2 order of magnitude. Various types of emission characteristics from measurements and simulations are shown and the conditions for these emission characteristics are discussed. Single-polarization emission and two-polarization switching, including polarization bistability, are found in the low-stress regime and two-polarization coexisting characteristics are found in the high-stress regime.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The structures and magnetic properties of R2(Fe1−xSix)17 compounds (R=Dy, Y) were investigated by x-ray phase analysis and magnetic measurements. It is shown that Si substitution for Fe leads to a phase transition at x=0.2, and that the mean iron magnetic moment μFe of R2(Fe1−xSix)17 compounds (R=Dy, Y) decreases as Si concentration x increases; moreover, there is a maximum of dependence Tc(x) at about x=0.16. It is found that the exchange interaction constant AFeFe in R2(Fe1−xSix)17 compounds (R=Dy, Y) increases with x increasing by means of mean-molecular-field analysis of Tc. © 1994 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A coupling model of the pluralistic magnetic component R-T intermetallic compounds (R denotes rare earth, T denotes transition metal) has been proposed by means of the mean-molecular-field analysis. Using the model, the Curie temperature Tc of (Sm1−xPrx)2Fe17 compounds has been calculated and the calculated values have been compared with the experimental values. It is found that the former are consistent with the later. © 1994 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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