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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-03-24
    Description: To determine the long-term sensitivity of the Greenland ice sheet to a warmer climate, we explored how it responded to the Holocene thermal maximum (8–5 cal. kyr B.P.; calibrated to calendar years before present, i.e., A.D. 1950), when lake records show that local atmospheric temperatures in Greenland were 2–4 °C warmer than the present. Records from five new threshold lakes complemented with existing geological data from south of 70°N show that the ice margin was retracted behind its present-day extent in all sectors for a limited period between ca. 7 and 4 cal. kyr B.P. and in most sectors from ca. 1.5 to 1 cal. kyr B.P., in response to higher atmospheric and ocean temperatures. Ice sheet simulations constrained by observations show good correlation with the timing of minimum ice volume indicated by the threshold lake observations; the simulated volume reduction suggests a minimum contribution of 0.16 m sea-level equivalent from the entire Greenland ice sheet, with a centennial ice loss rate of as much as 100 Gt/yr for several millennia during the Holocene thermal maximum. Our results provide an estimate of the long-term rates of volume loss that can be expected in the future as regional air and ocean temperatures approach those reconstructed for the Holocene thermal maximum.
    Print ISSN: 0091-7613
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2682
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2008-08-23
    Description: Brown fat can increase energy expenditure and protect against obesity through a specialized program of uncoupled respiration. Here we show by in vivo fate mapping that brown, but not white, fat cells arise from precursors that express Myf5, a gene previously thought to be expressed only in the myogenic lineage. We also demonstrate that the transcriptional regulator PRDM16 (PRD1-BF1-RIZ1 homologous domain containing 16) controls a bidirectional cell fate switch between skeletal myoblasts and brown fat cells. Loss of PRDM16 from brown fat precursors causes a loss of brown fat characteristics and promotes muscle differentiation. Conversely, ectopic expression of PRDM16 in myoblasts induces their differentiation into brown fat cells. PRDM16 stimulates brown adipogenesis by binding to PPAR-gamma (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-gamma) and activating its transcriptional function. Finally, Prdm16-deficient brown fat displays an abnormal morphology, reduced thermogenic gene expression and elevated expression of muscle-specific genes. Taken together, these data indicate that PRDM16 specifies the brown fat lineage from a progenitor that expresses myoblast markers and is not involved in white adipogenesis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2583329/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2583329/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Seale, Patrick -- Bjork, Bryan -- Yang, Wenli -- Kajimura, Shingo -- Chin, Sherry -- Kuang, Shihuan -- Scime, Anthony -- Devarakonda, Srikripa -- Conroe, Heather M -- Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye -- Tempst, Paul -- Rudnicki, Michael A -- Beier, David R -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- R01 AR044031/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR044031-11/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405-27/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Aug 21;454(7207):961-7. doi: 10.1038/nature07182.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and the Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 1 Jimmy Fund Way, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18719582" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipocytes, Brown/cytology/*metabolism ; Adipocytes, White/metabolism ; Adipose Tissue, Brown/cytology ; Animals ; COS Cells ; *Cell Differentiation/genetics ; Cell Line ; Cercopithecus aethiops ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Male ; Mice ; Muscle Development/genetics ; Muscle, Skeletal/cytology/growth & development/*metabolism ; Myogenic Regulatory Factor 5/genetics ; PPAR gamma/genetics ; Transcription Factors/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-01-13
    Description: Quantitative and mechanistically detailed kinetics of the reaction of hydroxyl radical (OH) with carbon monoxide (CO) have been a longstanding goal of contemporary chemical kinetics. This fundamental prototype reaction plays an important role in atmospheric and combustion chemistry, motivating studies for accurate determination of the reaction rate coefficient and its pressure and temperature dependence at thermal reaction conditions. This intricate dependence can be traced directly to details of the underlying dynamics (formation, isomerization, and dissociation) involving the reactive intermediates cis - and trans -HOCO, which can only be observed transiently. Using time-resolved frequency comb spectroscopy, comprehensive mechanistic elucidation of the kinetics of the isotopic analog deuteroxyl radical (OD) with CO has been realized. By monitoring the concentrations of reactants, intermediates, and products in real time, the branching and isomerization kinetics and absolute yields of all species in the OD + CO reaction are quantified as a function of pressure and collision partner.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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