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  • 1
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract This paper reports the first results of a program for the investigation of the detailed electronic and magnetic structure of type II superconductors. The structure of a single flux bundle or vortex in an infinite superconducting specimen is investigated, assuming weak coupling and a spherical Fermi surface of the material. The equations governing the gap parameterΔ(r) and the vector potentialA(r) are suitably scaled and simplified using the symmetry of the system. These equations can be solved numerically only; for their solution the asymptotics ofΔ(r) andA(r) far from the center of the vortex are required. These asymptotics are derived here by properly linearising the equations; they are found to be of the typer −1/2 exp (−r/rin0) wherer 0 is determined by temperature and material parameters. Implicit equations forr 0 are derived and discussed. We find that for materials withκ-values less than 1.7 (e.g. pure niobium)r 0 becomes complex at low temperatures; i.e. the deviation ofΔ(r) andA(r) from their values at infinity is a damped oscillation as function ofr.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0930-7516
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Industrial Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Grade efficiencies must be measured in order to characterize particle collection in cyclones. For real, irregularly shaped partcles, the grade efficiencies depend on the shape and orientation of the particles and the flow around them. Therefore, the collection characteristics of cyclones should be defined in relation to spherical particles. Deviations occurring on the use of real, irregularly shaped dusts can then be attributed to a material influence. A fast and accurate measuring technique to determine the collection characteristic for spherical particles is described, followed by the presentation of results of extensive investigations on small model cyclones. A similarity relationship is presented. The validity of this relationship was confirmed by investigations with similar, larger cyclones.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0930-7516
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Due to induced turbulent interactions between particles to be separated and the scrubbing liquid present as droplets, very good collection efficiency down to submicron particle size can be achieved as shown by detailed studies [1]. Assumed are suitable flow conditions, a long residence time and a certain droplet size distribution or a special liquid dispersion system. As the name implies, the cyclone scrubber basically consists of a cyclone. This cyclone serves as a contact space in which the interaction between dust particles and scrubbing liquid droplets takes place, and as a droplet separator. Thus, under normal conditions, a water saturated but dust- and droplet-free gas stream leaves the cyclone. The droplets are generated by a pneumatic atomization nozzle, arranged at the cyclone inlet in the direction of flow. A complete theoretical description of the three-dimensional, three-phase, non-steady turbulent flow in the cyclone scrubber has not been possible up to now. The detailed experimental investigations presented in this work, and covering multiple parameters, led to physically based conclusions about the dominant interactions and separation mechanisms involved. Grade efficiencies which did not fall below 0.75, down to a particle size of 0.5 μm, could be measured by an optical particle counter. Collection efficiency of 99.2% was determined by gravimetric analysis of the dust load, according to VDI-guideline 2066, in the raw and clean gas sections of the dust load, according to VDI-guideline 2066, in the raw and clean gas sections of the cyclone scrubber.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0934-0866
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In order to characterize flow separation and classification processes, particle size distributions must be measured in the airborne state without affecting the state of dispersion or disturbing the flow. Light scattering devices with an optically defined measuring volume are specially designed for this purpose. However the light scattering device must be calibrated using non-ideal particles which are present within the multiphase flow, preferably on an equivalent diameter based on settling rate. Such a calibration can be achieved by measuring with an optical particle counter before and after an impactor in droplet systems and a sampling cyclone in systems of solid particles. By measuring the calibration curves the size distribution of the investigated particles are also determined. This measuring technique allows the best use of the optical particle counter in industrially relevant cases which may have high particle concentrations, wide distributions, non-ideal particles and an undefined state of dispersion.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0934-0866
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: For many years efforts have been made to describe the complex process of particle separation in cyclones, and a multitude of separation models have been set up. A comparison of such separation models fails because insufficient usable test results are available and systematic and precise investigations are missing.It is important for the design of cyclones to rate their separation properties by means of the fractional collection efficiency. On account of the known measuring problems, the data supply of reliable fractional efficiency curves of cyclones is still too small. Fractional efficiency as a function of the entrance velocity was measured with a high-speed optical measuring technique. Measurements of low dust concentrations are presented. Geometrically similar cyclones of four different sizes were investigated. The fractional efficiency curves are plotted versus dimensionless parameters and the validity of the design criteria gained in this way is shown. The influence of particle shape on the fractional efficiency curves is discussed.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Advanced Materials 1 (1989), S. 89-90 
    ISSN: 0935-9648
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0935-9648
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0934-0866
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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