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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-10-16
    Description: Our data set includes nine probability maps of sea ice extent, available in .jpeg and shapfiles. They were created from historical maps of sea ice extent off Iceland dating back to 1877 compiled by Koch (1945) that we digitized. We use these maps in combination with sea ice charts from the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) and Koch's sea ice index from 1820 to 1939 to provide spatial maps of estimated sea ice extent between Iceland and Greenland back to 1821. The probability maps should be used in combination with the table: Summary of Koch's Index Years, in order to know which years fall under which category.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 10 data points
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-16
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 115 data points
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-10-16
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 13.0 MBytes
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-12-16
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 89 data points
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  • 5
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Andresen, Camilla S; McCarthy, David J; Dylmer, Christian Valdemar; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Kuijpers, Antoon; Lloyd, Jerry M (2010): Interaction between subsurface ocean waters and calving of the Jakobshavn Isbræ during the late Holocene. The Holocene, 21(2), 211-224, https://doi.org/10.1177/0959683610378877
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: A marine sediment core from Vaigat in Disko Bugt, West Greenland, has been analysed in terms of lithology, dinoflagellate cysts and foraminifera in order to evaluate the influence of oceanographic variability on West Greenland glacier stability. The data show that during the past 5200 years the Atlantic foraminiferal abundance in the subsurface waters of the West Greenland Current (WGC) episodically increased, indicating periods of increases in the inflow of subsurface warm Atlantic water at 2000 - 1500 cal. yr BP and 1300 cal. yr BP as well as periods of less pronounced increased bottom-water temperatures around 4700 - 4000 cal. yr BP, 3100 - 2800, 2600, 1000 - 800, 500 - 400, and at 200 cal. yr. The sedimentological and dinoflagellate cyst data indicate that these episodes with enhanced advection of Irminger Sea-derived waters are accompanied by increased iceberg rafting, which we link to increased iceberg calving in relation to destabilization of the Jakobshavn Isbrae. The long-term trend in the data documents the end of a late-Holocene Thermal Maximum between 5200 and 4300 cal. yr BP and a final onset of the Neoglaciation at 3500 cal. yr BP. Increased responses of the iceberg rafting after 3500 cal. yr BP, reflects a westward/seaward advance of the glacier margin in relation to onset of Neoglaciation and a development of the glacier into a floating tongue after 2000 cal. yr BP. A comparison of our record with a record from the eastern North Atlantic indicates that a NAO-like anomaly pattern between subsurface waters in West Greenland and atmospheric temperature in the Eastern North Atlantic may have been operating during most of the late Holocene. However, during the past 1000 years the NAO signal may have weakened as some other mode of climate variability overprints the anti-phase climate signal in this region.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2011. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Nature Publishing Group for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Nature Geoscience 5 (2012): 37-41, doi:10.1038/ngeo1349.
    Description: During the early 2000s the Greenland Ice Sheet experienced the largest ice mass loss observed on the instrumental record1, largely as a result of the acceleration, thinning and retreat of major outlet glaciers in West and Southeast Greenland2-5. The quasi-simultaneous change in the glaciers suggests a common climate forcing and increasing air6 and ocean7-8 temperatures have been indicated as potential triggers. Here, we present a new record of calving activity of Helheim Glacier, East Greenland, extending back to c. 1890 AD. This record was obtained by analysing sedimentary deposits from Sermilik Fjord, where Helheim Glacier terminates, and uses the annual deposition of sand grains as a proxy for iceberg discharge. The 120 year long record reveals large fluctuations in calving rates, but that the present high rate was reproduced only in the 1930s. A comparison with climate indices indicates that high calving activity coincides with increased Atlantic Water and decreased Polar Water influence on the shelf, warm summers and a negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Our analysis provides evidence that Helheim Glacier responds to short-term (3-10 years) large-scale oceanic and atmospheric fluctuations.
    Description: This study has been supported by Geocenter Denmark in financial support to the SEDIMICE project. CSA was supported by the Danish Council for Independent Research│Nature and Universe (Grant no. 09-064954/FNU). FSt was supported by NSF ARC 0909373 and by WHOI’s Ocean and Climate Change Institute and MHRI was supported by the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation.
    Description: 2012-06-11
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, 2014. This article is posted here by permission of Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin 31 (2014): 79-82.
    Description: During the past decades, the Greenland ice sheet has experienced a marked increase in mass loss resulting in an increased contribution to global sea-level rise. The three largest outlet glaciers in Greenland have increased their discharge, accelerated, thinned and retreated between 1996 and 2005. After 2005 most of them have slowed down again although not to previous levels. Geodetic observations suggest that rapid increase in mass loss from the north-western part of the ice sheet occurred during 2005–2010 (Kjeldsen et al. 2013). Warming of the subsurface water masses off Greenland may have triggered the acceleration of outlet glaciers from the ice sheet (Straneo & Heimbach 2013). The North Atlantic subpolar gyre, which transports water to South-East and West Greenland via the warm Irminger Current, warmed in the mid-1990s. Increased inflow of warm subpolar waters likely led to increased submarine melting of tidewater glaciers. Climate, glacier configuration and fjord bathymetry play fundamental roles for outlet glacier dynamics and thus knowledge of these parameters is warranted. In particular, the bathymetry of a fjord gives important information about the exchange between fjord waters close to marine-terminating glaciers and the shelf and ocean. However, only sparse bathymetric data are available for the majority of fjords in Greenland. The International bathymetry chart for the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO) does not provide adequate data for the fjords and gives the impression that water depths in fjords are typically 〈200 m. Here we present the first detailed bathymetric data from Upernavik Isfjord in North-West Greenland, which were obtained during a cruise led by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland in August 2013. The purpose of the cruise was to retrieve sediment cores, collect hydrographic data and map the bathymetry of the fjord. In this paper, we also estimate retreat rates of the Upernavik Isstrøm since 1849 and evaluate them in the context of climate variability, glacier setting and fjord bathymetry.
    Description: The ‘Upernavik Glacier Project’ is funded by Geocenter Danmark.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    facet.materialart.
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Vermassen, Flor; Andreasen, Nanna; Wangner, David J; Thibault, Nicolas; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Jackson, Rebecca; Schmidt, Sabine; Kjær, Kurt Henrik; Andresen, Camilla S (accepted): A reconstruction of warm water inflow to Upernavik Isstrøm since AD 1925 and its relation to glacier retreat. Climate of the Past Discussions, 1-24, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-2018-174
    Publication Date: 2019-10-12
    Description: The mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet has increased over the past two decades. Marine-terminating glaciers contribute significantly to this mass loss due to increased melting and ice discharge. Rapid retreat periods of these tidewater glaciers have been linked to the concurrent inflow of warm, Atlantic derived waters. However, little is known about the 15 variability of Atlantic-derived waters within these fjords, due to a lack of multi-annual, in situ measurements. Thus, to better understand the potential role of ocean warming on glacier retreat, reconstructions that characterize the variability of Atlantic water inflow to these fjords are required. Here, we investigate foraminiferal assemblages in a sediment core from Upernavik Fjord, West Greenland, in which the major ice stream Upernavik Isstrøm terminates. We investigate the environmental characteristics that control species diversity and derive that it is predominantly controlled by changes in bottom water 20 variability. Hence, we provide a reconstruction of Atlantic water inflow to Upernavik Fjord, spanning the period 1925-2012. This reconstruction reveals peak Atlantic water inflow during the 1930s and again after 2000, a pattern that is similar to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). We compare these results to historical observations of front positions of Upernavik Isstrøm. This reveals that inflow of warm, Atlantic-derived waters indeed likely contributed to high retreat rates in the 1930s and after 2000. However, moderate retreat rates of Upernavik Isstrøm also prevailed in the 1960s/1970s, showing that retreat 25 continued despite reduced Atlantic water inflow, albeit at a lower rate. Considering the link between bottom water variability and the AMO in Upernavik Fjord and the fact that a persistent negative phase of the AMO is expected for the next decade, Atlantic water inflow into the fjord may decrease in the next ~10 years.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 2 datasets
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-10-12
    Description: During the early 2000s the Greenland Ice Sheet experienced the largest ice-mass loss of the instrumental record, largely as a result of the acceleration, thinning and retreat of large outlet glaciers in West and southeast Greenland. The quasi-simultaneous change in the glaciers suggests a common climate forcing. Increasing air and ocean temperatures have been indicated as potential triggers. Here, we present a record of calving activity of Helheim Glacier, East Greenland, that extends back to about AD 1890, based on an analysis of sedimentary deposits from Sermilik Fjord, where Helheim Glacier terminates. Specifically, we use the annual deposition of and grains as a proxy for iceberg discharge. Our record reveals large fluctuations in calving rates, but the present high rate was reproduced only in the 1930s. A comparison with climate indices indicates that high calving activity coincides with a relatively strong influence of Atlantic water and a lower influence of polar water on the shelf off Greenland, as well as with warm summers and the negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Our analysis provides evidence that Helheim Glacier responds to short-term fluctuations of large-scale oceanic and atmospheric conditions, on timescales of 3-10 years.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 196 data points
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2002-01-01
    Print ISSN: 0091-7613
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2682
    Topics: Geosciences
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