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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Key words Magnetic bacteria ; Biomineralization ; Magnetite ; 16S rRNA ; In situ hybridization ; Ultrastructure ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Natural enrichments of magnetic bacteria from the Itaipu lagoon near Rio de Janeiro were dominated by coccoid-to-ovoid morphotypes that produced unusually large magnetosomes. To determine the phylogenetic position of these unusual microorganisms, 16S rRNA genes were retrieved from bacteria magnetically separated from sediment of the Itaipu lagoon by in vitro amplification and cloning of PCR products into a plasmid vector. Partial sequencing of the obtained clones revealed two clusters of closely related sequences affiliated to a distinct lineage consisting exclusively of magnetic bacteria within the α-subclass of Proteobacteria. For a detailed phylogenetic analysis, several almost complete sequences of the 16S rRNA genes were determined. One representative clone of each cluster provided a PCR template for the in vitro transcription of group-specific polynucleotide probes complementary to a variable region of the 16S rRNA molecule. At least three different morphotypes of magnetic bacteria were reliably identified by post-embedding hybridization of ultra-thin sections. Electron microscopic analyses of hybridized cells enabled for the first time a detailed description of the morphological variety and ultrastructure of phylogenetically identified, uncultured magnetic bacteria. Two distinct coccoid bacteria were identified by the transcript probe complementary to the 16S rRNA sequence mabrj12, whereas the probe complementary to the sequence mabrj58 allowed the identification of an ovoid morphotype that displayed magnetosomes with the largest volumes observed to date.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Key words Freeze sectioning ; Fluorescent ¶oligonucleotide probes ; In situ hybridization ; Intestinal microorganisms ; Mastotermes darwiniensis ; Oxygen microsensors ; rRNA ; Termites
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We examined the abundance and spatial distribution of major phylogenetic groups of the domain Bacteria in hindguts of the Australian lower termite Mastotermes darwiniensis by using in situ hybridization with group-specific, fluorescently labeled, rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Between 32.0 ± 7.2% and 52.3 ± 8.2% of the DAPI-stained cells in different hindgut fractions were detected with probe EUB338, specific for members of the domain Bacteria. About 85% of the prokaryotic cells were associated with the flagellates of the thin-walled anterior region (P3a) and the thick wall of the posterior region (P3b/P4) of the hindgut, as shown by DAPI staining. At most, half of the EUB338-detected cells hybridized with one of the other probes that targeted a smaller assemblage within the bacterial domain. In most fractions, cells were found in varying numbers with probe ALF1b, which targeted members of the α-Proteobacteria, whereas substantial amounts of sulfate-reducing bacteria, gram-positive bacteria with a high DNA G+C content and members of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) phylum could be detected only in the wall fraction of P3b/P4. This clearly indicates that the hindgut microhabitats differ in the composition of their microbial community. In situ hybridization of cryosections through the hindgut showed only low numbers of bacteria attached to the P3a wall. In contrast, the wall of P3b was densely colonized by rod- and coccus-shaped bacteria, which could be assigned to the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster of the CFB phylum and to the group of gram-positive bacteria with a high DNA G+C content, respectively. Oxygen concentration profiles determined with microelectrodes revealed steep oxygen gradients both in P3a and P3b. Oxygen was consumed within 100 μm below the gut surface, and anoxic conditions prevailed in the central portions of both gut regions, indicating that oxygen consumption in the hindgut does not depend on the presence of a biofilm on the hindgut wall.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-03-08
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-06-04
    Description: Due to sampling difficulties, little is known about microbial communities associated with sinking marine snow in the twilight zone. A drifting sediment trap was equipped with a viscous cryogel and deployed to collect intact marine snow from depths of 100 and 400 m off Cape Blanc (Mauritania). Marine snow aggregates were fixed and washed in situ to prevent changes in microbial community composition and to enable subsequent analysis using catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). The attached microbial communities collected at 100 m were similar to the free-living community at the depth of the fluorescence maximum (20 m) but different from those at other depths (150, 400, 550, and 700 m). Therefore, the attached microbial community seemed to be “inherited” from that at the fluorescence maximum. The attached microbial community structure at 400 m differed from that of the attached community at 100 m and from that of any free-living community at the tested depths, except that collected near the sediment at 700 m. The differences between the particle-associated communities at 400 m and 100 m appeared to be due to internal changes in the attached microbial community rather than de novo colonization, detachment, or grazing during the sinking of marine snow. The new sampling method presented here will facilitate future investigations into the mechanisms that shape the bacterial community within sinking marine snow, leading to better understanding of the mechanisms which regulate biogeochemical cycling of settling organic matter.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-03-08
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-02-16
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-02-28
    Description: A large fraction of globally produced methane is converted to CO2 by anaerobic oxidation in marine sediments. Strong geochemical evidence for net methane consumption in anoxic sediments is based on methane profiles, radiotracer experiments and stable carbon isotope data. But the elusive microorganisms mediating this reaction have not yet been isolated, and the pathway of anaerobic oxidation of methane is insufficiently understood. Recent data suggest that certain archaea reverse the process of methanogenesis by interaction with sulphate-reducing bacteria. Here we provide microscopic evidence for a structured consortium of archaea and sulphate-reducing bacteria, which we identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization using specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. In this example of a structured archaeal-bacterial symbiosis, the archaea grow in dense aggregates of about 100 cells and are surrounded by sulphate-reducing bacteria. These aggregates were abundant in gas-hydrate-rich sediments with extremely high rates of methane-based sulphate reduction, and apparently mediate anaerobic oxidation of methane.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: The present findings have revealed a new aspect of how mechanisms of gastric mucosal resistance to injury are called into effect and are coordinated by the nervous system. Capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in the stomach play a physiological role in monitoring acid influx into the superficial mucosa. Once activated, they strengthen gastric mucosal defense against deep injury, with a key process in this respect being an increase in blood flow through the gastric mucosa. This concept opens up completely new perspectives in the physiology and pathophysiology of the gastric mucosa if we consider that the long-term integrity of the gastric mucosa may be under the subtle control of acid-sensitive sensory neurons and that, vice versa, improper functioning of these neural control mechanisms may predispose to gastric ulcer disease.The present observations also indicate that some of the peptides contained in gastric sensory nerve endings might fulfill a transmitter or mediator role in controlling gastric mucosal blood flow and integrity. Whereas substance P and neurokinin A are unlikely to play a role in the regulation of gastric mucosal blood flow, there is severalfold evidence that CGRP is very important in this respect. This peptide, which in the rat gastric mucosa originates exclusively from spinal sensory neurons,2,4,27 is released upon stimulation of sensory nerve endings and is extremely potent in facilitating gastric mucosal blood flow and in protecting the mucosa from injurious factors. Selective ablation of spinal sensory neurons containing CGRP weakens the resistance of the gastric mucosa against acid injury, which is most likely due to inhibition of protective vasodilator reflexes. We now aim at providing direct pharmacological evidence that antagonism of endogenously released CGRP results in similar pathophysiological consequences as ablation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology letters 100 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Microbial ecology has long been hampered by the fact that most microorganisms cannot be identified in situ because of the lack of morphological diversity. The immunofluorescence approach has yielded important insights into the spatial distribution of microorganisms but has its severe limitations. The recently introduced fluorescently labelled, ribosomal RNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes have successfully been applied for the detection and identification in situ of individual microbial cells and evade some of the principal problems of the fluorescent antibodies. The design and synthesis of these phylogenetically nested probes does not require cultivation and isolation of the target organism and can therefore be used to monitor the population distribution and dynamics of hitherto uncultured microorganisms.
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  • 10
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    American Society for Microbiology
    In:  Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71 (1). pp. 467-479.
    Publication Date: 2017-06-28
    Description: In this study we investigated by using 16S rRNA-based methods the distribution and biomass of archaea in samples from (i) sediments above outcropping methane hydrate at Hydrate Ridge (Cascadia margin off Oregon) and (ii) massive microbial mats enclosing carbonate reefs (Crimea area, Black Sea). The archaeal diversity was low in both locations; there were only four (Hydrate Ridge) and five (Black Sea) different phylogenetic clusters of sequences, most of which belonged to the methanotrophic archaea (ANME). ANME group 2 (ANME-2) sequences were the most abundant and diverse sequences at Hydrate Ridge, whereas ANME-1 sequences dominated the Black Sea mats. Other seep-specific sequences belonged to the newly defined group ANME-3 (related to Methanococcoides spp.) and to the Crenarchaeota of marine benthic group B. Quantitative analysis of the samples by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that ANME-1 and ANME-2 co-occurred at the cold seep sites investigated. At Hydrate Ridge the surface sediments were dominated by aggregates consisting of ANME-2 and members of the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus branch (DSS) (ANME-2/DSS aggregates), which accounted for 〉90% of the total cell biomass. The numbers of ANME-1 cells increased strongly with depth; these cells accounted 1% of all single cells at the surface and more than 30% of all single cells (5% of the total cells) in 7- to 10-cm sediment horizons that were directly above layers of gas hydrate. In the Black Sea microbial mats ANME-1 accounted for about 50% of all cells. ANME-2/DSS aggregates occurred in microenvironments within the mat but accounted for only 1% of the total cells. FISH probes for the ANME-2a and ANME-2c subclusters were designed based on a comparative 16S rRNA analysis. In Hydrate Ridge sediments ANME-2a/DSS and ANME-2c/DSS aggregates differed significantly in morphology and abundance. The relative abundance values for these subgroups were remarkably different at Beggiatoa sites (80% ANME-2a, 20% ANME-2c) and Calyptogena sites (20% ANME-2a, 80% ANME-2c), indicating that there was preferential selection of the groups in the two habitats. These variations in the distribution, diversity, and morphology of methanotrophic consortia are discussed with respect to the presence of microbial ecotypes, niche formation, and biogeography.
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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