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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-01-20
    Description: Author(s): A. Zecca, L. Chiari, E. Trainotti, A. Sarkar, S. d’A. Sanchez, M. H. F. Bettega, M. T. do N. Varella, M. A. P. Lima, and M. J. Brunger We report on measurements of total cross sections for positron scattering from the fundamental organic molecule methane (CH 4 ). The energy range of these measurements was 0.1–50 eV, whereas the energy resolution was ∼ 100 meV when our Ni moderator was used and ∼ 260 meV when the W moderator was employe... [Phys. Rev. A 85, 012707] Published Thu Jan 19, 2012
    Keywords: Atomic and molecular collisions and interactions
    Print ISSN: 1050-2947
    Electronic ISSN: 1094-1622
    Topics: Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Computational models are valuable tools for predicting the population effects prior to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authorization of a modified risk claim on a tobacco product. We have developed and validated a population model using best modeling practices. Our model consists of a Markov compartmental model based on cohorts starting at a defined age and followed up to a specific age accounting for 29 tobacco-use states based on a cohort members transition pathway. The Markov model is coupled with statistical mortality models and excess relative risk ratio estimates to determine survival probabilities from use of smokeless tobacco. Our model estimates the difference in premature deaths prevented by comparing Base Case (“world-as-is”) and Modified Case (the most likely outcome given that a modified risk claim is authorized) scenarios. Nationally representative transition probabilities were used for the Base Case. Probabilities of key transitions for the Modified Case were estimated based on a behavioral intentions study in users and nonusers. Our model predicts an estimated 93,000 premature deaths would be avoided over a 60-year period upon authorization of a modified risk claim. Our sensitivity analyses using various reasonable ranges of input parameters do not indicate any scenario under which the net benefit could be offset entirely.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-08-15
    Description: We have sequenced miRNA libraries from human embryonic, neural and foetal mesenchymal stem cells. We report that the majority of miRNA genes encode mature isomers that vary in size by one or more bases at the 3' and/or 5' end of the miRNA. Northern blotting for individual miRNAs showed that the proportions of isomiRs expressed by a single miRNA gene often differ between cell and tissue types. IsomiRs were readily co-immunoprecipitated with Argonaute proteins in vivo and were active in luciferase assays, indicating that they are functional. Bioinformatics analysis predicts substantial differences in targeting between miRNAs with minor 5' differences and in support of this we report that a 5' isomiR-9–1 gained the ability to inhibit the expression of DNMT3B and NCAM2 but lost the ability to inhibit CDH1 in vitro . This result was confirmed by the use of isomiR-specific sponges. Our analysis of the miRGator database indicates that a small percentage of human miRNA genes express isomiRs as the dominant transcript in certain cell types and analysis of miRBase shows that 5' isomiRs have replaced canonical miRNAs many times during evolution. This strongly indicates that isomiRs are of functional importance and have contributed to the evolution of miRNA genes.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-02-10
    Description: India, occupying the center stage of Paleolithic and Neolithic migrations, has been underrepresented in genome-wide studies of variation. Systematic analysis of genome-wide data, using multiple robust statistical methods, on (i) 367 unrelated individuals drawn from 18 mainland and 2 island (Andaman and Nicobar Islands) populations selected to represent geographic, linguistic,...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-02-03
    Description: This study investigates the first-order Himalayan mountain topography from the perspective of deep-crustal flow patterns in the Indo-Asia collision zone. Using a thin-viscous-sheet model we theoretically predict that flat hinterland topography with a stable elevation (Type I) can develop only when the lithospheric slab underthrusts with a threshold velocity ( V s * ). For V s 〉 V s * , the hinterland continuously gains in elevation, leading to Type II topography. This type is characterized by varying first-order surface slopes, but always facing the mountain front. Conversely, the elevated hinterland masses undergo gravity-driven subsidence, forming a topography (Type III) with characteristic backward surface slopes when V s 〈 V s * . We evaluate V s * as a function of: (i) the regional slope of the initial first-order surface topography (α); (ii) the angle of underthrusting (β); and (iii) the relative width of foreland plain (), assuming little effects of surface erosion. Our model shows two characteristic deep-crustal flow patterns: corner flow and vortex flow. The corner flow pattern, described by upwardly pointed hyperbolic streamlines, is responsible for Type II topography. Conversely, the vortex flow leads to Type III, whereas the transition between the two gives rise to Type I. This corner-to-vortex type flow transition commences on decreasing V s .
    Print ISSN: 0305-8719
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4927
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-10-24
    Description: Sequence developments in rift basins are considered to be influenced largely by tectonics and to a lesser extent by eustatic sea-level and climate. Studies indicate that in passive margin basins climate can mask the effects of tectonics and eustasy by modulating the sediment supply. It is, however, less understood how the sedimentary sequence in rift basins might respond to strong climatic fluctuations where tectonic pulses generate rapid accommodation space. Here a case study has been provided to assess the effect of climate vis à vis sea-level and tectonics on sequence development in the Cambay rift basin, western India, during the Early Palaeogene (Late Palaeocene to Early Eocene) super greenhouse globe. Facies analysis of this shale–lignite sequence suggests deposition in a lagoon/bay, developed over the Deccan Trap basement. Detailed sequence stratigraphic analysis using basin-wide representative composite sections, marker lignite seam, event bed and high resolution carbon isotope ( δ 13 C) chemostratigraphy suggest an overall transgressive motif. Among the three prominent Early Eocene eustatic highstands, only the one at ca 53.7 Ma is expressed by the thickest coal accumulation throughout the basin. Expression of the other sequence stratigraphic surfaces is subdued and can be due to the overall finer grain size of the sediment or local variation in the subsidence rate at different fault controlled mini-basins. Enigmatic presence of a maximum flooding surface coinciding with the 53.7 Ma climate event (Eocene thermal maximum 2), manifested by negative carbon isotope excursion, indicates possible influence of climate over and above tectonics in developing the rift sequence. Qualitative rainfall variation assessed using the magnitude of the carbon isotope excursion and pollen abundance, show that relatively dry/low precipitation climatic phase during the Eocene thermal maximum 2 hindered the siliclastic supply to the basin. Thus, it has been inferred that climate induced high siliciclastic supply possibly enhanced the autocyclic reorganization, hindering the development of the key sequence stratigraphic surfaces across the basin during climate extremes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0037-0746
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-3091
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Wiley
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-09-12
    Description: Neurodegeneration is a devastating manifestation in the majority of 〉50 lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs). Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are the most common childhood neurodegenerative LSDs. Mutations in 13 different genes (called CLN s) underlie various types of NCLs, of which the infantile NCL (INCL) and congenital NCL (CNCL) are the most lethal. Although inactivating mutations in the CLN1 gene encoding palmitoyl-protein thioesterase-1 (PPT1) cause INCL, those in the CLN10 gene encoding cathepsin D (CD) underlie CNCL. PPT1 is a lysosomal thioesterase that cleaves the thioester linkage in S -acylated proteins required for their degradation by lysosomal hydrolases like CD. Thus, PPT1 deficiency causes lysosomal accumulation of these lipidated proteins (major constituents of ceroid) leading to INCL. We sought to determine whether there is a common pathogenic link between INCL and CNCL. Using biochemical, histological and confocal microscopic analyses of brain tissues and cells from Cln1 –/– mice that mimic INCL, we uncovered that Cln10 /CD is overexpressed. Although synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum, the CD-precursor protein (pro-CD) is transported through endosome to the lysosome where it is proteolytically processed to enzymatically active-CD. We found that despite Cln10 overexpression, the maturation of pro-CD to enzymatically active-CD in lysosome was disrupted. This defect impaired lysosomal degradative function causing accumulation of undegraded cargo in lysosome leading to INCL. Notably, treatment of intact Cln1 –/– mice as well as cultured brain cells derived from these animals with a thioesterase-mimetic small molecule, N - tert -butyl-hydroxylamine, ameliorated the CD-processing defect. Our findings are significant in that they define a pathway in which Cln1 mutations disrupt the maturation of a major degradative enzyme in lysosome contributing to neuropathology in INCL and suggest that lysosomal CD deficiency is a common pathogenic link between INCL and CNCL.
    Print ISSN: 0964-6906
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2083
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-06-16
    Description: Motivation: The alignment of sequencing reads to a transcriptome is a common and important step in many RNA-seq analysis tasks. When aligning RNA-seq reads directly to a transcriptome (as is common in the de novo setting or when a trusted reference annotation is available), care must be taken to report the potentially large number of multi-mapping locations per read. This can pose a substantial computational burden for existing aligners, and can considerably slow downstream analysis. Results: We introduce a novel concept, quasi-mapping, and an efficient algorithm implementing this approach for mapping sequencing reads to a transcriptome. By attempting only to report the potential loci of origin of a sequencing read, and not the base-to-base alignment by which it derives from the reference, RapMap—our tool implementing quasi-mapping—is capable of mapping sequencing reads to a target transcriptome substantially faster than existing alignment tools. The algorithm we use to implement quasi-mapping uses several efficient data structures and takes advantage of the special structure of shared sequence prevalent in transcriptomes to rapidly provide highly-accurate mapping information. We demonstrate how quasi-mapping can be successfully applied to the problems of transcript-level quantification from RNA-seq reads and the clustering of contigs from de novo assembled transcriptomes into biologically meaningful groups. Availability and implementation: RapMap is implemented in C ++11 and is available as open-source software, under GPL v3, at https://github.com/COMBINE-lab/RapMap . Contact: rob.patro@cs.stonybrook.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
    Print ISSN: 1367-4803
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2059
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Medicine
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-05-09
    Description: Long recognized as an evolutionarily ancient cell type involved in tissue homeostasis and immune defense against pathogens, macrophages are being rediscovered as regulators of several diseases, including cancer. Here we show that in mice, mammary tumor growth induces the accumulation of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) that are phenotypically and functionally distinct from mammary tissue macrophages (MTMs). TAMs express the adhesion molecule Vcam1 and proliferate upon their differentiation from inflammatory monocytes, but do not exhibit an "alternatively activated" phenotype. TAM terminal differentiation depends on the transcriptional regulator of Notch signaling, RBPJ; and TAM, but not MTM, depletion restores tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T cell responses and suppresses tumor growth. These findings reveal the ontogeny of TAMs and a discrete tumor-elicited inflammatory response, which may provide new opportunities for cancer immunotherapy.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4204732/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4204732/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Franklin, Ruth A -- Liao, Will -- Sarkar, Abira -- Kim, Myoungjoo V -- Bivona, Michael R -- Liu, Kang -- Pamer, Eric G -- Li, Ming O -- AI101251/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA008748/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI101251/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI039031/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 May 23;344(6186):921-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1252510. Epub 2014 May 8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Immunology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), New York, NY 10065, USA. Graduate Program in Immunology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; New York Genome Center, New York, NY 10022, USA. ; Immunology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. ; Immunology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), New York, NY 10065, USA. lim@mskcc.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24812208" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Proliferation ; Female ; Inflammation/immunology/pathology ; Macrophages/*immunology ; Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/*immunology/*pathology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Monocyte-Macrophage Precursor Cells/immunology ; Receptors, Notch/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-03-26
    Description: Induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a major HIV vaccine goal. Germline-targeting immunogens aim to initiate bnAb induction by activating bnAb germline precursor B cells. Critical unmet challenges are to determine whether bnAb precursor naive B cells bind germline-targeting immunogens and occur at sufficient frequency in humans for reliable vaccine responses. Using deep mutational scanning and multitarget optimization, we developed a germline-targeting immunogen (eOD-GT8) for diverse VRC01-class bnAbs. We then used the immunogen to isolate VRC01-class precursor naive B cells from HIV-uninfected donors. Frequencies of true VRC01-class precursors, their structures, and their eOD-GT8 affinities support this immunogen as a candidate human vaccine prime. These methods could be applied to germline targeting for other classes of HIV bnAbs and for Abs to other pathogens.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4872700/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4872700/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jardine, Joseph G -- Kulp, Daniel W -- Havenar-Daughton, Colin -- Sarkar, Anita -- Briney, Bryan -- Sok, Devin -- Sesterhenn, Fabian -- Ereno-Orbea, June -- Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr -- Deresa, Isaiah -- Hu, Xiaozhen -- Spencer, Skye -- Jones, Meaghan -- Georgeson, Erik -- Adachi, Yumiko -- Kubitz, Michael -- deCamp, Allan C -- Julien, Jean-Philippe -- Wilson, Ian A -- Burton, Dennis R -- Crotty, Shane -- Schief, William R -- P01 AI094419/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01 AI110657/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P41GM103393/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084817/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI100663/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 25;351(6280):1458-63. doi: 10.1126/science.aad9195.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Program in Molecular Structure and Function, Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M5G 0A4, Canada. ; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Statistical Center for HIV/AIDS Research and Prevention (SCHARP), Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. ; IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Program in Molecular Structure and Function, Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M5G 0A4, Canada. Departments of Biochemistry and Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. ; IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02129, USA. ; Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA, USA. schief@scripps.edu shane@lji.org. ; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02129, USA. schief@scripps.edu shane@lji.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27013733" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines/*immunology ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry/*immunology/isolation & purification ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry/*immunology/isolation & purification ; Antibody Affinity ; B-Lymphocytes/immunology ; Cell Separation ; Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques ; Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry/genetics/*immunology ; Germ Cells/*immunology ; HIV Antibodies/chemistry/*immunology/isolation & purification ; HIV-1/*immunology ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Peptide Library ; Precursor Cells, B-Lymphoid/*immunology ; Protein Conformation
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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