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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2009-01-24
    Description: Debates about human prehistory often center on the role that population expansions play in shaping biological and cultural diversity. Hypotheses on the origin of the Austronesian settlers of the Pacific are divided between a recent "pulse-pause" expansion from Taiwan and an older "slow-boat" diffusion from Wallacea. We used lexical data and Bayesian phylogenetic methods to construct a phylogeny of 400 languages. In agreement with the pulse-pause scenario, the language trees place the Austronesian origin in Taiwan approximately 5230 years ago and reveal a series of settlement pauses and expansion pulses linked to technological and social innovations. These results are robust to assumptions about the rooting and calibration of the trees and demonstrate the combined power of linguistic scholarship, database technologies, and computational phylogenetic methods for resolving questions about human prehistory.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gray, R D -- Drummond, A J -- Greenhill, S J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Jan 23;323(5913):479-83. doi: 10.1126/science.1166858.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Psychology, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19164742" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bayes Theorem ; Databases, Factual ; *Emigration and Immigration/history ; History, Ancient ; Humans ; *Language ; Linguistics ; *Oceanic Ancestry Group/history ; Pacific Islands ; Philippines ; Phylogeny ; Polynesia ; Population Dynamics ; Taiwan ; Vocabulary
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2006-01-28
    Description: Directly transmitted parasites often provide substantial information about the temporal and spatial characteristics of host-to-host contact. Here, we demonstrate that a fast-evolving virus (feline immunodeficiency virus, FIV) can reveal details of the contemporary population structure and recent demographic history of its natural wildlife host (Puma concolor) that were not apparent from host genetic data and would be impossible to obtain by other means. We suggest that rapidly evolving pathogens may provide a complementary tool for studying population dynamics of their hosts in "shallow" time.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Biek, Roman -- Drummond, Alexei J -- Poss, Mary -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2006 Jan 27;311(5760):538-41.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Wildlife Biology Program, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA. rbiek@emory.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16439664" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alberta/epidemiology ; Animals ; Bayes Theorem ; British Columbia/epidemiology ; Ecosystem ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Genes, env ; Genes, pol ; Geography ; Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline/*classification/*genetics ; Lentivirus Infections/epidemiology/*veterinary/virology ; Microsatellite Repeats ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Montana/epidemiology ; Phylogeny ; Population Dynamics ; *Puma/genetics/virology ; Time Factors ; Wyoming/epidemiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-08-28
    Description: There are two competing hypotheses for the origin of the Indo-European language family. The conventional view places the homeland in the Pontic steppes about 6000 years ago. An alternative hypothesis claims that the languages spread from Anatolia with the expansion of farming 8000 to 9500 years ago. We used Bayesian phylogeographic approaches, together with basic vocabulary data from 103 ancient and contemporary Indo-European languages, to explicitly model the expansion of the family and test these hypotheses. We found decisive support for an Anatolian origin over a steppe origin. Both the inferred timing and root location of the Indo-European language trees fit with an agricultural expansion from Anatolia beginning 8000 to 9500 years ago. These results highlight the critical role that phylogeographic inference can play in resolving debates about human prehistory.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4112997/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4112997/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bouckaert, Remco -- Lemey, Philippe -- Dunn, Michael -- Greenhill, Simon J -- Alekseyenko, Alexander V -- Drummond, Alexei J -- Gray, Russell D -- Suchard, Marc A -- Atkinson, Quentin D -- 260864/European Research Council/International -- R01 GM086887/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG006139/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Aug 24;337(6097):957-60. doi: 10.1126/science.1219669.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Computer Science, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22923579" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Agriculture/history ; Bayes Theorem ; *Cultural Evolution ; History, Ancient ; Humans ; Language/*history ; Linguistics/history ; Phylogeography ; Turkey ; Vocabulary
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2002-03-23
    Description: Well-preserved subfossil bones of Adelie penguins, Pygoscelis adeliae, underlie existing and abandoned nesting colonies in Antarctica. These bones, dating back to more than 7000 years before the present, harbor some of the best-preserved ancient DNA yet discovered. From 96 radiocarbon-aged bones, we report large numbers of mitochondrial haplotypes, some of which appear to be extinct, given the 380 living birds sampled. We demonstrate DNA sequence evolution through time and estimate the rate of evolution of the hypervariable region I using a Markov chain Monte Carlo integration and a least-squares regression analysis. Our calculated rates of evolution are approximately two to seven times higher than previous indirect phylogenetic estimates.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lambert, D M -- Ritchie, P A -- Millar, C D -- Holland, B -- Drummond, A J -- Baroni, C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2002 Mar 22;295(5563):2270-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Molecular BioSciences, Massey University, Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North, New Zealand. D.M.Lambert@massey.ac.nz〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11910113" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antarctic Regions ; Birds/*genetics ; Bone and Bones/metabolism ; Calibration ; Carbon Radioisotopes ; DNA, Mitochondrial/*genetics/isolation & purification ; Ecosystem ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Fossils ; Haplotypes/genetics ; Least-Squares Analysis ; Markov Chains ; Monte Carlo Method ; Phylogeny ; Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2004-11-30
    Description: The widespread extinctions of large mammals at the end of the Pleistocene epoch have often been attributed to the depredations of humans; here we present genetic evidence that questions this assumption. We used ancient DNA and Bayesian techniques to reconstruct a detailed genetic history of bison throughout the late Pleistocene and Holocene epochs. Our analyses depict a large diverse population living throughout Beringia until around 37,000 years before the present, when the population's genetic diversity began to decline dramatically. The timing of this decline correlates with environmental changes associated with the onset of the last glacial cycle, whereas archaeological evidence does not support the presence of large populations of humans in Eastern Beringia until more than 15,000 years later.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shapiro, Beth -- Drummond, Alexei J -- Rambaut, Andrew -- Wilson, Michael C -- Matheus, Paul E -- Sher, Andrei V -- Pybus, Oliver G -- Gilbert, M Thomas P -- Barnes, Ian -- Binladen, Jonas -- Willerslev, Eske -- Hansen, Anders J -- Baryshnikov, Gennady F -- Burns, James A -- Davydov, Sergei -- Driver, Jonathan C -- Froese, Duane G -- Harington, C Richard -- Keddie, Grant -- Kosintsev, Pavel -- Kunz, Michael L -- Martin, Larry D -- Stephenson, Robert O -- Storer, John -- Tedford, Richard -- Zimov, Sergei -- Cooper, Alan -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2004 Nov 26;306(5701):1561-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Henry Wellcome Ancient Biomolecules Centre, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX13PS, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15567864" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alaska ; Animals ; Bayes Theorem ; *Bison/classification/genetics ; Canada ; China ; *Climate ; DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics ; Environment ; *Fossils ; Genetic Variation ; Genetics, Population ; Human Activities ; Humans ; North America ; Phylogeny ; Population Dynamics ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Time
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Eppley-JPL solar constant measurement experiment, noting 12-channel radiometer, filter wavelength limits and high altitude measurements
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-06-27
    Description: Calibration and comparative measurements of pyrheliometric instruments using natural sunlight
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: JPL-TM-33-312 , NASA-CR-83271
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: Measurements of the upward and downward flux of solar radiation in two broad wavelength bands defined by glass filters were made at height between about 300 and 12,000 m in the neighborhood of Barbados during the BOMEX experiment in the summer of 1969. These were examined on selected occasions, apparently cloudless, to determine the attenuation (absorption and upward scattering) that could not be attributed to atmospheric gases and must be considered to be caused by particles. Total particle absorption between the lowest and highest flight levels was found to be of order 5%, and upward scatter of order 1% of the incident radiation. Unexplained attenuation above the highest level was of order 2%. The attenuation attributed to particles was approximately the same magnitude as the geometrical cross section deduced by direct particle sampling on the same flights.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: Applied Optics; 13; Mar. 197
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  • 9
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-12
    Description: Solar constant direct measurements, analyzing energy in UV and visible regions
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: ; ECTRON (
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: Solar constant and spectral energy distribution standard values by high altitude aircraft, balloon and spacecraft measurements
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: ; VUE SCIENTIFIQUE ET
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