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  • 1
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2001-11-03
    Description: The mammoth lineage provides an example of rapid adaptive evolution in response to the changing environments of the Pleistocene. Using well-dated samples from across the mammoth's Eurasian range, we document geographical and chronological variation in adaptive morphology. This work illustrates an incremental (if mosaic) evolutionary sequence but also reveals a complex interplay of local morphological innovation, migration, and extirpation in the origin and evolution of a mammalian species. In particular, northeastern Siberia is identified as an area of successive allopatric innovations that apparently spread to Europe, where they contributed to a complex pattern of stasis, replacement, and transformation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lister, A M -- Sher, A V -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2001 Nov 2;294(5544):1094-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK. a.lister@ucl.ac.uk〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11691991" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Africa ; Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; *Elephants/anatomy & histology/physiology ; Europe ; *Fossils ; Molar/anatomy & histology ; Paleodontology ; Siberia
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2004-11-30
    Description: The widespread extinctions of large mammals at the end of the Pleistocene epoch have often been attributed to the depredations of humans; here we present genetic evidence that questions this assumption. We used ancient DNA and Bayesian techniques to reconstruct a detailed genetic history of bison throughout the late Pleistocene and Holocene epochs. Our analyses depict a large diverse population living throughout Beringia until around 37,000 years before the present, when the population's genetic diversity began to decline dramatically. The timing of this decline correlates with environmental changes associated with the onset of the last glacial cycle, whereas archaeological evidence does not support the presence of large populations of humans in Eastern Beringia until more than 15,000 years later.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shapiro, Beth -- Drummond, Alexei J -- Rambaut, Andrew -- Wilson, Michael C -- Matheus, Paul E -- Sher, Andrei V -- Pybus, Oliver G -- Gilbert, M Thomas P -- Barnes, Ian -- Binladen, Jonas -- Willerslev, Eske -- Hansen, Anders J -- Baryshnikov, Gennady F -- Burns, James A -- Davydov, Sergei -- Driver, Jonathan C -- Froese, Duane G -- Harington, C Richard -- Keddie, Grant -- Kosintsev, Pavel -- Kunz, Michael L -- Martin, Larry D -- Stephenson, Robert O -- Storer, John -- Tedford, Richard -- Zimov, Sergei -- Cooper, Alan -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2004 Nov 26;306(5701):1561-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Henry Wellcome Ancient Biomolecules Centre, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX13PS, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15567864" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alaska ; Animals ; Bayes Theorem ; *Bison/classification/genetics ; Canada ; China ; *Climate ; DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics ; Environment ; *Fossils ; Genetic Variation ; Genetics, Population ; Human Activities ; Humans ; North America ; Phylogeny ; Population Dynamics ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Time
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    Unknown
    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2015-11-14
    Description: Mammoths provide a detailed example of species origins and dispersal, but understanding has been impeded by taxonomic confusion, especially in North America. The Columbian mammoth Mammuthus columbi was thought to have evolved in North America from a more primitive Eurasian immigrant. The earliest American mammoths (1.5 million years ago), however, resemble the advanced Eurasian M. trogontherii that crossed the Bering land bridge around that time, giving rise directly to M. columbi. Woolly mammoth M. primigenius later evolved in Beringia and spread into Europe and North America, leading to a diversity of morphologies as it encountered endemic M. trogontherii and M. columbi, respectively. In North America, this included intermediates ("M. jeffersonii"), suggesting introgression of M. primigenius with M. columbi. The lineage illustrates the dynamic interplay of local adaptation, dispersal, and gene flow in the evolution of a widely distributed species complex.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lister, A M -- Sher, A V -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Nov 13;350(6262):805-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aac5660.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Earth Sciences, Natural History Museum, London SW7 5BD, UK. a.lister@nhm.ac.uk. ; Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Moscow 119071, Russia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26564853" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptation, Physiological ; Animal Migration ; Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Europe ; Fossils ; Gene Flow ; Mammoths/anatomy & histology/*classification/genetics ; Molar/anatomy & histology ; North America ; Tooth Wear/pathology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-8310
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-8310
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary 1. A study has been made of the infrared absorption spectra in the 400–700 cm−1 region for additives of the zinc dialkyldithiophosphate type containing alkyl radicals of differing structure. 2. The absorption spectra in the 500–600 cm−1 region can be used to judge the structure of short alkyl radicals in mixed zinc dialkydithiophosphates. 3. Using the inverse relationship between the integral specific extinction coefficients of the P-S band and the molecular mass of the salt, one can determine the average number of carbon atoms in the alkyl radicals of mixed zinc dialkyldithiophosphates. 4. It has been shown that additives of the zinc dialkyldithiophosphate type consist not only of neutral salts, but also of basic salts that can be determined on the basis of the absorption band at 480 cm−1.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-9325
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Conclusions 1. In the welded joints studied according to the results of short-term static tests the basic metal and the heat-affected zone have higher strength and lower ductility than weld metal. 2. A crack in the metal of the heat-affected zone in the test welded joints always deviated from the plane of its development solely in the direction of the basic metal. 3. An increase in loading frequency from 0.5 to 25 Hz leads to a reduction in FCG rate in the basic metal and in weld metal by factors of two and ten respectively. With a loading frequency of 0.5 Hz the FCG rate in basic metal and weld metal is the same. With a loading frequency of 25 Hz the FCG rate in the basic metal in the medium-amplitude section of the FCG diagram is higher by a factor of ten compared with the FCG rate in weld metal, and the threshold value Kth is lower by a factor of 2.5 than in weld metal. 4. Characteristics of static, cyclic, and dynamic fracture toughness for the basic metal and metal of the heat-affected zone differ insignificantly. For weld metal cyclic and dynamic fracture toughness characteristics are almost the same, but compared with the value of fracture toughness with static loading they are lower by a factor of 1.5.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-9325
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract We have investigated the effect of nitrogen and oxygen contaminants within a range of concentrations of 0.05–0.35 % on the mechanical properties and crack resistance of a 2V-type ductile titanium alloy. We have demonstrated that the characteristics of crack resistance in the alloy experience changes that are not uniquely defined as the content of the nitrogen and oxygen increases. We have established a quantitative relationship between the content of the impurities and the geometric parameters of the platelike structure. We have proposed correlation relationships which make it possible to estimate the characteristics of crack resistance in the alloy on the basis of known hardness values and the geometric parameters of the structure.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-9325
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Investigations were carried out into the fatigue crack growth resistance of welded joints in structural titanium alloys contaminated with embrittling impurities. The crack closure effect was taken into account so that it is possible to determine the effective stress intensity factor. The results show that the fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) depends strongly on the magnitude and direction of residual stresses. The dependence of the FCGR in welded joints and structural titanium alloys on the range of the effective stress intensity factor is invariant to the magnitude and direction of the residual welding stresses.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-8310
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Conclusions 1. Laboratory tests have been conducted of metal (Ba, Ca, Zn, Pb, Ni) dialkyl and diaryldithiophosphates and also of zinc dialkylmonothiophosphate and phosphate as antioxidants and corrosion inhibitors at various temperatures. It is shown that all the compounds tested, except for zinc di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate, retard the oxidation of hydrocarbons and are corrosion inhibitors. With an increase in temperature the action of the majority of additives is weakened. 2. Zinc and barium dinonylphenyldithiophosphates exhibit the greatest antioxidant and anticorrosion properties at ail temperatures tested. 3. It has been established that the anticorrosion activity, and the antioxidant activity of additives of the metal dialkyldithiophosphate type is caused primarily by the presence of thioic sulfur.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-885X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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