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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Washington, DC : American Geophysical Union
    Associated volumes
    Call number: 5/M 07.0131 ; M 07.0157 ; M 07.0314
    In: Geophysical monograph
    Description / Table of Contents: Contents: The Measure of Radiated Energy and its Behavior. - The View From the Lab. - The View From the Field. - Earthquakes in Theory. - How Efficient is the Earthquake Machine and how Strongare its Working Parts?
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: vii, 327 S. + 1 CD-ROM
    ISBN: 0875904351 , 978-0-87590-435-1
    Series Statement: Geophysical monograph 170
    Classification: A.2.4.
    Location: Reading room
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Basel [u.a.] : Birkhäuser
    Call number: M 95.0235
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    ISBN: 3764329181
    Classification: A.2.4.
    Language: English
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Basel [u.a.] : Birkhäuser
    Call number: M 95.0343
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    ISBN: 3764329181
    Classification: A.2.4.
    Language: English
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Large mine tremors ; source parameters ; ground motion parameters ; Klerksdorp mining district ; Carletonville mining district
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract An investigation of ground motion, recorded using broad-band, wide dynamic-range digital seismographs, of large mine tremors from two South African mining districts with different geologic settings, reveals some essential differences in both seismic source and ground motion parameters. In the Klerksdorp district where the strata are offset by major throughgoing normal faults, the largest tremors, with magnitudes ranging as high as 5.2, tend to be associated with slip on these pre-existing faults. Moreover, the seismic source and ground motion parameters are quite similar to those of natural crustal earthquakes. In the Carletonville district, by contrast, where substantial faults do not exist, the large-magnitude tremors appear to result from the failure of relatively intact rock and cause seismic stress drops and ground motion parameters higher than normally observed for natural shocks. Additionally, there appears to be an upper magnitude limit of about 4 in the Carletonville district. Detailed analyses of an exceptionally large event recorded locally from each of these districts serve to highlight these contrasts.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 142 (1994), S. 467-489 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Stick-slip friction ; mining-induced earthquakes ; seismic efficiency
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Although laboratory stick-slip friction experiments have long been regarded as analogs to natural crustal earthquakes, the potential use of laboratory results for understanding the earthquake source mechanism has not been fully exploited because of essential difficulties in relating seismographic data to measurements made in the controlled laboratory environment. Mining-induced earthquakes, however, provide a means of calibrating the seismic data in terms of laboratory results because, in contrast to natural earthquakes, the causative forces as well as the hypocentral conditions are known. A comparison of stick-slip friction events in a large granite sample with mining-induced earthquakes in South Africa and Canada indicates both similarities and differences between the two phenomena. The physics of unstable fault slip appears to be largely the same for both types of events. For example, both laboratory and mining-induced earthquakes have very low seismic efficiencies $$\eta = \tau _a /\bar \tau$$ where τ a is the apparent stress and $$\bar \tau$$ is the average stress acting on the fault plane to cause slip; nearly all of the energy released by faulting is consumed in overcoming friction. In more detail, the mining-induced earthquakes differ from the laboratory events in the behavior of η as a function of seismic momentM 0. Whereas for the laboratory events η≃0.06 independent ofM 0, η depends quite strongly onM 0 for each set of induced earthquakes, with 0.06 serving, apparently, as an upper bound. It seems most likely that this observed scaling difference is due to variations in slip distribution over the fault plane. In the laboratory, a stick-slip event entails homogeneous slip over a fault of fixed area. For each set of induced earthquakes, the fault area appears to be approximately fixed but the slip is inhomogeneous due presumably to barriers (zones of no slip) distributed over the fault plane; at constant $$\bar \tau$$ , larger events correspond to largerτ a as a consequence of fewer barriers to slip. If the inequality τ a / $$\bar \tau$$ ≤ 0.06 has general validity, then measurements of τ a =µE a /M 0, where μ is the modulus of rigidity andE a is the seismically-radiated energy, can be used to infer the absolute level of deviatoric stress at the hypocenter.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 150 (1997), S. 381-391 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Key words: Wall-rock velocities, rockbursts, slab buckling.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. —Considerable evidence has been reported for wall-rock velocities during rockbursts in deep gold mines that are substantially greater than ground velocities associated with the primary seismic events. Whereas varied evidence suggests that slip across a fault at the source of an event generates nearby particle velocities of, at most, several m/s, numerous observations, in nearby damaged tunnels, for instance, imply wall-rock velocities of the order of 10 m/s and greater. The common observation of slab buckling or breakouts in the sidewalls of damaged excavations suggests that slab flexure may be the mechanism for causing high rock ejection velocities. Following its formation, a sidewall slab buckles, causing the flexure to increase until the stress generated by flexure reaches the limit S that can be supported by the sidewall rock. I assume here that S is the uniaxial compressive strength. Once the flexural stress exceeds S, presumably due to the additional load imposed by a nearby seismic event, the slab fractures and unflexes violently. The peak wall-rock velocity v thereby generated is given by ¶¶ v = (3 + (1 - v²)/2)½ S/(ρE)½¶¶for rock of density ρ, Young's modulus E, and Poisson's ratio ν. Typical values of these rock properties for the deep gold mines of South Africa yield v = 26 m/s and for especially strong quartzites encountered in these same mines, v 〉 50 m/s. Even though this slab buckling process leads to remarkably high ejection velocities and violent damage in excavations, the energy released during this failure is only a tiny fraction of that released in the primary seismic event, typically of magnitude 2 or greater.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 139 (1992), S. 781-800 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Induced seismicity ; earthquake source mechanism ; implosive moment tensor component
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Ground motions, recorded both underground and on the surface in two of the South African Gold mining districts, were inverted to determine complete moment tensors for 10 mining-induced tremors in the magnitude range 1.9 to 3.3. The resulting moment tensors fall into two separate categories. Seven of the events involve substantial coseismic volumetric reduction-ΔV together with normal faulting entailing shear deformation ΣAD, where the summation is over fault planes of areaA and average slipD. For these events the ratio-ΔV/ΣAD ranges from 0.58 to 0.92, with an average value of 0.71. For the remaining three events ΔV is not significantly different from zero; these events are largely double-couple sources involving normal faulting. Surprisingly, the two types of source mechanism appear to be very distinct in that there is not a continuous distribution of the source mix from ΔV=0 to-ΔV≈ΣAD. Presumably, the coseismic closure indicates substantial interaction between a mine stope and adjacent shear failure in the surrounding rock, under the influence of an ambient stress for which the maximum principal stress is oriented vertically.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 262 (1976), S. 378-379 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Table 1 Data on relative plate motion (adapted from Kaula6) Boundary type Length(km) Assumed width (km) Mean transverse velocity (cm yr?1) μ (dyne) cm?2) Contribution to M0 (tot) (dyne cm) Ocean subducted under ocean 13,100 200 4.07 6 x 1011 0.64 x 1029 Ocean subducted under ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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