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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2007-04-14
    Description: The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is an abundant primate species that diverged from the ancestors of Homo sapiens about 25 million years ago. Because they are genetically and physiologically similar to humans, rhesus monkeys are the most widely used nonhuman primate in basic and applied biomedical research. We determined the genome sequence of an Indian-origin Macaca mulatta female and compared the data with chimpanzees and humans to reveal the structure of ancestral primate genomes and to identify evidence for positive selection and lineage-specific expansions and contractions of gene families. A comparison of sequences from individual animals was used to investigate their underlying genetic diversity. The complete description of the macaque genome blueprint enhances the utility of this animal model for biomedical research and improves our understanding of the basic biology of the species.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rhesus Macaque Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Rogers, Jeffrey -- Katze, Michael G -- Bumgarner, Roger -- Weinstock, George M -- Mardis, Elaine R -- Remington, Karin A -- Strausberg, Robert L -- Venter, J Craig -- Wilson, Richard K -- Batzer, Mark A -- Bustamante, Carlos D -- Eichler, Evan E -- Hahn, Matthew W -- Hardison, Ross C -- Makova, Kateryna D -- Miller, Webb -- Milosavljevic, Aleksandar -- Palermo, Robert E -- Siepel, Adam -- Sikela, James M -- Attaway, Tony -- Bell, Stephanie -- Bernard, Kelly E -- Buhay, Christian J -- Chandrabose, Mimi N -- Dao, Marvin -- Davis, Clay -- Delehaunty, Kimberly D -- Ding, Yan -- Dinh, Huyen H -- Dugan-Rocha, Shannon -- Fulton, Lucinda A -- Gabisi, Ramatu Ayiesha -- Garner, Toni T -- Godfrey, Jennifer -- Hawes, Alicia C -- Hernandez, Judith -- Hines, Sandra -- Holder, Michael -- Hume, Jennifer -- Jhangiani, Shalini N -- Joshi, Vandita -- Khan, Ziad Mohid -- Kirkness, Ewen F -- Cree, Andrew -- Fowler, R Gerald -- Lee, Sandra -- Lewis, Lora R -- Li, Zhangwan -- Liu, Yih-Shin -- Moore, Stephanie M -- Muzny, Donna -- Nazareth, Lynne V -- Ngo, Dinh Ngoc -- Okwuonu, Geoffrey O -- Pai, Grace -- Parker, David -- Paul, Heidie A -- Pfannkoch, Cynthia -- Pohl, Craig S -- Rogers, Yu-Hui -- Ruiz, San Juana -- Sabo, Aniko -- Santibanez, Jireh -- Schneider, Brian W -- Smith, Scott M -- Sodergren, Erica -- Svatek, Amanda F -- Utterback, Teresa R -- Vattathil, Selina -- Warren, Wesley -- White, Courtney Sherell -- Chinwalla, Asif T -- Feng, Yucheng -- Halpern, Aaron L -- Hillier, Ladeana W -- Huang, Xiaoqiu -- Minx, Pat -- Nelson, Joanne O -- Pepin, Kymberlie H -- Qin, Xiang -- Sutton, Granger G -- Venter, Eli -- Walenz, Brian P -- Wallis, John W -- Worley, Kim C -- Yang, Shiaw-Pyng -- Jones, Steven M -- Marra, Marco A -- Rocchi, Mariano -- Schein, Jacqueline E -- Baertsch, Robert -- Clarke, Laura -- Csuros, Miklos -- Glasscock, Jarret -- Harris, R Alan -- Havlak, Paul -- Jackson, Andrew R -- Jiang, Huaiyang -- Liu, Yue -- Messina, David N -- Shen, Yufeng -- Song, Henry Xing-Zhi -- Wylie, Todd -- Zhang, Lan -- Birney, Ewan -- Han, Kyudong -- Konkel, Miriam K -- Lee, Jungnam -- Smit, Arian F A -- Ullmer, Brygg -- Wang, Hui -- Xing, Jinchuan -- Burhans, Richard -- Cheng, Ze -- Karro, John E -- Ma, Jian -- Raney, Brian -- She, Xinwei -- Cox, Michael J -- Demuth, Jeffery P -- Dumas, Laura J -- Han, Sang-Gook -- Hopkins, Janet -- Karimpour-Fard, Anis -- Kim, Young H -- Pollack, Jonathan R -- Vinar, Tomas -- Addo-Quaye, Charles -- Degenhardt, Jeremiah -- Denby, Alexandra -- Hubisz, Melissa J -- Indap, Amit -- Kosiol, Carolin -- Lahn, Bruce T -- Lawson, Heather A -- Marklein, Alison -- Nielsen, Rasmus -- Vallender, Eric J -- Clark, Andrew G -- Ferguson, Betsy -- Hernandez, Ryan D -- Hirani, Kashif -- Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard -- Kolb, Jessica -- Patil, Shobha -- Pu, Ling-Ling -- Ren, Yanru -- Smith, David Glenn -- Wheeler, David A -- Schenck, Ian -- Ball, Edward V -- Chen, Rui -- Cooper, David N -- Giardine, Belinda -- Hsu, Fan -- Kent, W James -- Lesk, Arthur -- Nelson, David L -- O'brien, William E -- Prufer, Kay -- Stenson, Peter D -- Wallace, James C -- Ke, Hui -- Liu, Xiao-Ming -- Wang, Peng -- Xiang, Andy Peng -- Yang, Fan -- Barber, Galt P -- Haussler, David -- Karolchik, Donna -- Kern, Andy D -- Kuhn, Robert M -- Smith, Kayla E -- Zwieg, Ann S -- 062023/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- R01 HG002939/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003068/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2007 Apr 13;316(5822):222-34.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. agibbs@bcm.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17431167" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biomedical Research ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Gene Duplication ; Gene Rearrangement ; Genetic Diseases, Inborn ; Genetic Variation ; *Genome ; Humans ; Macaca mulatta/*genetics ; Male ; Multigene Family ; Mutation ; Pan troglodytes/genetics ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Species Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2007-04-14
    Description: To understand the demographic history of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and document the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the genome, we partially resequenced five Encyclopedia of DNA Elements regions in 9 Chinese and 38 captive-born Indian rhesus macaques. Population genetic analyses of the 1467 single-nucleotide polymorphisms discovered suggest that the two populations separated about 162,000 years ago, with the Chinese population tripling in size since then and the Indian population eventually shrinking by a factor of four. Using coalescent simulations, we confirmed that these inferred demographic events explain a much faster decay of LD in Chinese (r(2) approximately 0.15 at 10 kilobases) versus Indian (r(2) approximately 0.52 at 10 kilobases) macaque populations.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hernandez, Ryan D -- Hubisz, Melissa J -- Wheeler, David A -- Smith, David G -- Ferguson, Betsy -- Rogers, Jeffrey -- Nazareth, Lynne -- Indap, Amit -- Bourquin, Traci -- McPherson, John -- Muzny, Donna -- Gibbs, Richard -- Nielsen, Rasmus -- Bustamante, Carlos D -- 1R01HG003229/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- NSF0516310/PHS HHS/ -- RR00163/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- RR015383/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- RR05090/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2007 Apr 13;316(5822):240-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Biological Statistics and Computational Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17431170" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; China ; DNA, Mitochondrial ; Demography ; Genetics, Medical ; Humans ; India ; *Linkage Disequilibrium ; Macaca mulatta/*genetics ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2008-02-22
    Description: Quantifying the number of deleterious mutations per diploid human genome is of crucial concern to both evolutionary and medical geneticists. Here we combine genome-wide polymorphism data from PCR-based exon resequencing, comparative genomic data across mammalian species, and protein structure predictions to estimate the number of functionally consequential single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) carried by each of 15 African American (AA) and 20 European American (EA) individuals. We find that AAs show significantly higher levels of nucleotide heterozygosity than do EAs for all categories of functional SNPs considered, including synonymous, non-synonymous, predicted 'benign', predicted 'possibly damaging' and predicted 'probably damaging' SNPs. This result is wholly consistent with previous work showing higher overall levels of nucleotide variation in African populations than in Europeans. EA individuals, in contrast, have significantly more genotypes homozygous for the derived allele at synonymous and non-synonymous SNPs and for the damaging allele at 'probably damaging' SNPs than AAs do. For SNPs segregating only in one population or the other, the proportion of non-synonymous SNPs is significantly higher in the EA sample (55.4%) than in the AA sample (47.0%; P 〈 2.3 x 10(-37)). We observe a similar proportional excess of SNPs that are inferred to be 'probably damaging' (15.9% in EA; 12.1% in AA; P 〈 3.3 x 10(-11)). Using extensive simulations, we show that this excess proportion of segregating damaging alleles in Europeans is probably a consequence of a bottleneck that Europeans experienced at about the time of the migration out of Africa.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2923434/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2923434/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lohmueller, Kirk E -- Indap, Amit R -- Schmidt, Steffen -- Boyko, Adam R -- Hernandez, Ryan D -- Hubisz, Melissa J -- Sninsky, John J -- White, Thomas J -- Sunyaev, Shamil R -- Nielsen, Rasmus -- Clark, Andrew G -- Bustamante, Carlos D -- P50 GM065509/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM065509-070006/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG003229/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG003229-03/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL072904/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Feb 21;451(7181):994-7. doi: 10.1038/nature06611.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18288194" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Africa/ethnology ; Alleles ; Computational Biology ; Emigration and Immigration ; Europe/ethnology ; Exons/genetics ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Heterozygote ; Homozygote ; Humans ; Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/*genetics ; United States
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-07-11
    Description: Background: Next generation sequencing and advances in genomic enrichment technologies have enabled the discovery of the full spectrum of variants from common to rare alleles in the human population. The application of such technologies can be limited by the amount of DNA available. Whole genome amplification (WGA) can overcome such limitations. Here we investigate applicability of using WGA by comparing SNP and INDEL variant calls from a single genomic/WGA sample pair from two capture separate experiments: a 50 Mbp whole exome capture and a custom capture array of 4 Mbp region on chr12. Results: Our results comparing variant calls derived from genomic and WGA DNA show that the majority of variant SNP and INDEL calls are common to both callsets, both at the site and genotype level and suggest that allele bias plays a minimal role when using WGA DNA in re-sequencing studies. Conclusions: Although the results of this study are based on a limited sample size, they suggest that using WGA DNA allows the discovery of the vast majority of variants, and achieves high concordance metrics, when comparing to genomic DNA calls.
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-2164
    Topics: Biology
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-07-20
    Description: High-throughput sequencing technology enables population-level surveys of human genomic variation. Here, we examine the joint allele frequency distributions across continental human populations and present an approach for combining complementary aspects of whole-genome, low-coverage data and targeted high-coverage data. We apply this approach to data generated by the pilot phase of the Thousand Genomes Project, including whole-genome 2–4× coverage data for 179 samples from HapMap European, Asian, and African panels as well as high-coverage target sequencing of the exons of 800 genes from 697 individuals in seven populations. We use the site frequency spectra obtained from these data to infer demographic parameters for an Out-of-Africa model for populations of African, European, and Asian descent and to predict, by a jackknife-based approach, the amount of genetic diversity that will be discovered as sample sizes are increased. We predict that the number of discovered nonsynonymous coding variants will reach 100,000 in each population after ∼1,000 sequenced chromosomes per population, whereas ∼2,500 chromosomes will be needed for the same number of synonymous variants. Beyond this point, the number of segregating sites in the European and Asian panel populations is expected to overcome that of the African panel because of faster recent population growth. Overall, we find that the majority of human genomic variable sites are rare and exhibit little sharing among diverged populations. Our results emphasize that replication of disease association for specific rare genetic variants across diverged populations must overcome both reduced statistical power because of rarity and higher population divergence.
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2008-09-02
    Description: Understanding the genetic structure of human populations is of fundamental interest to medical, forensic and anthropological sciences. Advances in high-throughput genotyping technology have markedly improved our understanding of global patterns of human genetic variation and suggest the potential to use large samples to uncover variation among closely spaced populations. Here we characterize genetic variation in a sample of 3,000 European individuals genotyped at over half a million variable DNA sites in the human genome. Despite low average levels of genetic differentiation among Europeans, we find a close correspondence between genetic and geographic distances; indeed, a geographical map of Europe arises naturally as an efficient two-dimensional summary of genetic variation in Europeans. The results emphasize that when mapping the genetic basis of a disease phenotype, spurious associations can arise if genetic structure is not properly accounted for. In addition, the results are relevant to the prospects of genetic ancestry testing; an individual's DNA can be used to infer their geographic origin with surprising accuracy-often to within a few hundred kilometres.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2735096/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2735096/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Novembre, John -- Johnson, Toby -- Bryc, Katarzyna -- Kutalik, Zoltan -- Boyko, Adam R -- Auton, Adam -- Indap, Amit -- King, Karen S -- Bergmann, Sven -- Nelson, Matthew R -- Stephens, Matthew -- Bustamante, Carlos D -- R01 GM083606/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM083606-01/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM083606-02/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Nov 6;456(7218):98-101. doi: 10.1038/nature07331. Epub 2008 Aug 31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Interdepartmental Program in Bioinformatics, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. jnovembre@ucla.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18758442" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Emigration and Immigration ; Europe/ethnology ; Genetic Variation/*genetics ; *Genetics, Population ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Genotype ; *Geography ; Humans ; Phylogeny ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Principal Component Analysis ; Quantitative Trait, Heritable ; Sample Size
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-11-29
    Electronic ISSN: 2296-7745
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Frontiers Media
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