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  • 1
    ISSN: 0378-1119
    Keywords: Recombinant DNA ; tRNA
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: 5S gene ; Barley ; Wheat ; Addition lines ; In situ hybridization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The genes coding for 5S RNA in barley were cloned, sequenced, and their cluster was assigned to chromosome 2 using wheat-barley chromosome addition lines. High-resolution gel-electrophoresis of DNA and subsequent hybridization revealed new details of the organization of 5S DNA both in wheat and barley. The in situ hybridization of the cloned 5S gene with triploid endosperm nuclei also suggests that these genes are located in a single locus.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-04-28
    Description: Despite the success of potent anti-retroviral drugs in controlling human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, little progress has been made in generating an effective HIV-1 vaccine. Although passive transfer of anti-HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies can protect mice or macaques against a single high-dose challenge with HIV or simian/human (SIV/HIV) chimaeric viruses (SHIVs) respectively, the long-term efficacy of a passive antibody transfer approach for HIV-1 has not been examined. Here we show, on the basis of the relatively long-term protection conferred by hepatitis A immune globulin, the efficacy of a single injection (20 mg kg(-1)) of four anti-HIV-1-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (VRC01, VRC01-LS, 3BNC117, and 10-1074 (refs 9 - 12)) in blocking repeated weekly low-dose virus challenges of the clade B SHIVAD8. Compared with control animals, which required two to six challenges (median = 3) for infection, a single broadly neutralizing antibody infusion prevented virus acquisition for up to 23 weekly challenges. This effect depended on antibody potency and half-life. The highest levels of plasma-neutralizing activity and, correspondingly, the longest protection were found in monkeys administered the more potent antibodies 3BNC117 and 10-1074 (median = 13 and 12.5 weeks, respectively). VRC01, which showed lower plasma-neutralizing activity, protected for a shorter time (median = 8 weeks). The introduction of a mutation that extends antibody half-life into the crystallizable fragment (Fc) domain of VRC01 increased median protection from 8 to 14.5 weeks. If administered to populations at high risk of HIV-1 transmission, such an immunoprophylaxis regimen could have a major impact on virus transmission.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gautam, Rajeev -- Nishimura, Yoshiaki -- Pegu, Amarendra -- Nason, Martha C -- Klein, Florian -- Gazumyan, Anna -- Golijanin, Jovana -- Buckler-White, Alicia -- Sadjadpour, Reza -- Wang, Keyun -- Mankoff, Zachary -- Schmidt, Stephen D -- Lifson, Jeffrey D -- Mascola, John R -- Nussenzweig, Michel C -- Martin, Malcolm A -- AI-100148/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- HHSN261200800001E/PHS HHS/ -- UM1 AI100663-01/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):105-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17677. Epub 2016 Apr 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Biostatistics Research Branch, Division of Clinical Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne (CMMC), University of Cologne, 50931 Cologne, Germany. ; Department I of Internal Medicine, Center of Integrated Oncology Cologne-Bonn, University Hospital Cologne, 50937 Cologne, Germany. ; AIDS and Cancer Virus Program, Leidos Biomedical Research, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland 20815, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27120156" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines/administration & dosage/immunology ; Animals ; Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage/blood/genetics/immunology ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage/blood/genetics/immunology ; Female ; HIV Antibodies/*administration & dosage/blood/genetics/*immunology ; HIV Infections/immunology/prevention & control/transmission ; Half-Life ; Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/chemistry/genetics/immunology ; Macaca mulatta/immunology/virology ; Male ; Mutation/genetics ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; SAIDS Vaccines/administration & dosage/immunology ; Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/blood/*immunology/*prevention & control ; Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/*immunology ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-05-21
    Description: Antiretroviral drugs and antibodies limit HIV-1 infection by interfering with the viral life cycle. In addition, antibodies also have the potential to guide host immune effector cells to kill HIV-1-infected cells. Examination of the kinetics of HIV-1 suppression in infected individuals by passively administered 3BNC117, a broadly neutralizing antibody, suggested that the effects of the antibody are not limited to free viral clearance and blocking new infection but also include acceleration of infected cell clearance. Consistent with these observations, we find that broadly neutralizing antibodies can target CD4(+) T cells infected with patient viruses and can decrease their in vivo half-lives by a mechanism that requires Fcgamma receptor engagement in a humanized mouse model. The results indicate that passive immunotherapy can accelerate elimination of HIV-1-infected cells.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lu, Ching-Lan -- Murakowski, Dariusz K -- Bournazos, Stylianos -- Schoofs, Till -- Sarkar, Debolina -- Halper-Stromberg, Ariel -- Horwitz, Joshua A -- Nogueira, Lilian -- Golijanin, Jovana -- Gazumyan, Anna -- Ravetch, Jeffrey V -- Caskey, Marina -- Chakraborty, Arup K -- Nussenzweig, Michel C -- 1UM1 AI100663-01/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- 8 UL1 TR000043/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- AI081677-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI100148-02/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- F31 AI118555-01/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 May 20;352(6288):1001-4. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf1279. Epub 2016 May 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA. Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. nussen@rockefeller.edu arupc@mit.edu. ; Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute. nussen@rockefeller.edu arupc@mit.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27199430" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-12-31
    Description: Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) by deaminating cytosine residues in immunoglobulin genes (Igh, Igκ, and Igλ). At a lower frequency, AID also causes collateral DNA damage at non-Ig loci, including genes that are rearranged or mutated in B-cell lymphoma. Precisely how AID...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-05-05
    Description: A single injection of anti-HIV-1 antibodies protects against repeated SHIV challenges Nature 533, 7601 (2016). doi:10.1038/nature17677 Authors: Rajeev Gautam, Yoshiaki Nishimura, Amarendra Pegu, Martha C. Nason, Florian Klein, Anna Gazumyan, Jovana Golijanin, Alicia Buckler-White, Reza Sadjadpour, Keyun Wang, Zachary Mankoff, Stephen D. Schmidt, Jeffrey D. Lifson, John R. Mascola, Michel C. Nussenzweig & Malcolm A. Martin Despite the success of potent anti-retroviral drugs in controlling human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, little progress has been made in generating an effective HIV-1 vaccine. Although passive transfer of anti-HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies can protect mice or macaques against a single high-dose challenge with HIV or simian/human (SIV/HIV) chimaeric viruses (SHIVs) respectively, the long-term efficacy of a passive antibody transfer approach for HIV-1 has not been examined. Here we show, on the basis of the relatively long-term protection conferred by hepatitis A immune globulin, the efficacy of a single injection (20 mg kg−1) of four anti-HIV-1-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (VRC01, VRC01-LS, 3BNC117, and 10-1074 (refs 9, 10, 11, 12)) in blocking repeated weekly low-dose virus challenges of the clade B SHIVAD8. Compared with control animals, which required two to six challenges (median = 3) for infection, a single broadly neutralizing antibody infusion prevented virus acquisition for up to 23 weekly challenges. This effect depended on antibody potency and half-life. The highest levels of plasma-neutralizing activity and, correspondingly, the longest protection were found in monkeys administered the more potent antibodies 3BNC117 and 10-1074 (median = 13 and 12.5 weeks, respectively). VRC01, which showed lower plasma-neutralizing activity, protected for a shorter time (median = 8 weeks). The introduction of a mutation that extends antibody half-life into the crystallizable fragment (Fc) domain of VRC01 increased median protection from 8 to 14.5 weeks. If administered to populations at high risk of HIV-1 transmission, such an immunoprophylaxis regimen could have a major impact on virus transmission.
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-03-23
    Description: Early antibody therapy can induce long-lasting immunity to SHIV Nature 543, 7646 (2017). doi:10.1038/nature21435 Authors: Yoshiaki Nishimura, Rajeev Gautam, Tae-Wook Chun, Reza Sadjadpour, Kathryn E. Foulds, Masashi Shingai, Florian Klein, Anna Gazumyan, Jovana Golijanin, Mitzi Donaldson, Olivia K. Donau, Ronald J. Plishka, Alicia Buckler-White, Michael S. Seaman, Jeffrey D. Lifson, Richard A. Koup, Anthony S. Fauci, Michel C. Nussenzweig & Malcolm A. Martin Highly potent and broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies (bNAbs) have been used to prevent and treat lentivirus infections in humanized mice, macaques, and humans. In immunotherapy experiments, administration of bNAbs to chronically infected animals transiently suppresses virus replication, which invariably returns to pre-treatment levels and results in progression to clinical disease. Here we show that early administration of bNAbs in a macaque simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) model is associated with very low levels of persistent viraemia, which leads to the establishment of T-cell immunity and resultant long-term infection control. Animals challenged with SHIVAD8-EO by mucosal or intravenous routes received a single 2-week course of two potent passively transferred bNAbs (3BNC117 and 10-1074 (refs 13, 14)). Viraemia remained undetectable for 56–177 days, depending on bNAb half-life in vivo. Moreover, in the 13 treated monkeys, plasma virus loads subsequently declined to undetectable levels in 6 controller macaques. Four additional animals maintained their counts of T cells carrying the CD4 antigen (CD4+) and very low levels of viraemia persisted for over 2 years. The frequency of cells carrying replication-competent virus was less than 1 per 106 circulating CD4+ T cells in the six controller macaques. Infusion of a T-cell-depleting anti-CD8β monoclonal antibody to the controller animals led to a specific decline in levels of CD8+ T cells and the rapid reappearance of plasma viraemia. In contrast, macaques treated for 15 weeks with combination anti-retroviral therapy, beginning on day 3 after infection, experienced sustained rebound plasma viraemia when treatment was interrupted. Our results show that passive immunotherapy during acute SHIV infection differs from combination anti-retroviral therapy in that it facilitates the emergence of potent CD8+ T-cell immunity able to durably suppress virus replication.
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-10-13
    Description: B cells undergo rapid cell division and affinity maturation in anatomically distinct sites in lymphoid organs called germinal centers (GCs). Homeostasis is maintained in part by B cell apoptosis. However, the precise contribution of apoptosis to GC biology and selection is not well defined. We developed apoptosis-indicator mice and used them to visualize, purify, and characterize dying GC B cells. Apoptosis is prevalent in the GC, with up to half of all GC B cells dying every 6 hours. Moreover, programmed cell death is differentially regulated in the light zone and the dark zone: Light-zone B cells die by default if they are not positively selected, whereas dark-zone cells die when their antigen receptors are damaged by activation-induced cytidine deaminase.
    Keywords: Immunology, Online Only
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2010-07-31
    Description: Programmed genetic rearrangements in lymphocytes require transcription at antigen receptor genes to promote accessibility for initiating double-strand break (DSB) formation critical for DNA recombination and repair. Here, we showed that activated B cells deficient in the PTIP component of the MLL3 (mixed-lineage leukemia 3)-MLL4 complex display impaired trimethylation of histone 3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and transcription initiation of downstream switch regions at the immunoglobulin heavy-chain (Igh) locus, leading to defective immunoglobulin class switching. We also showed that PTIP accumulation at DSBs contributes to class switch recombination (CSR) and genome stability independently of Igh switch transcription. These results demonstrate that PTIP promotes specific chromatin changes that control the accessibility of the Igh locus to CSR and suggest a nonredundant role for the MLL3-MLL4 complex in altering antibody effector function.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3008398/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3008398/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Daniel, Jeremy A -- Santos, Margarida Almeida -- Wang, Zhibin -- Zang, Chongzhi -- Schwab, Kristopher R -- Jankovic, Mila -- Filsuf, Darius -- Chen, Hua-Tang -- Gazumyan, Anna -- Yamane, Arito -- Cho, Young-Wook -- Sun, Hong-Wei -- Ge, Kai -- Peng, Weiqun -- Nussenzweig, Michel C -- Casellas, Rafael -- Dressler, Gregory R -- Zhao, Keji -- Nussenzweig, Andre -- Z01 AR041149-03/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- Z01 AR041149-04/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- Z01 DK047055-01/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- Z01 DK047055-02/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- Z01 DK075003-04/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- Z01 DK075003-05/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- Z99 DK999999/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- ZIA AR041149-05/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- ZIA DK075017-03/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- ZIADK047055-03/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- ZIADK075003-06/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- ZIADK075017-01/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2010 Aug 20;329(5994):917-23. doi: 10.1126/science.1187942. Epub 2010 Jul 29.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Experimental Immunology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20671152" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibody Specificity/genetics ; Carrier Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; Cytidine Deaminase/metabolism ; Dna ; Histones/metabolism ; Immunoglobulin Class Switching/genetics/*physiology ; Immunoglobulin Switch Region ; Methylation ; Mice ; Nuclear Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; Promoter Regions, Genetic ; Recombination, Genetic ; Transcriptional Activation
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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