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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Abstract Loessite present in a borehole into the Smith Bank Formation (early Triassic age, Central North Sea) differentiates five coeval source terranes for aerosol dust, three long distance sources and two local sources. All were active immediately following the end Permian mass extinction. Long distance sources are sedimentary, basic magmatic and acid–intermediate volcanic. Although predominantly silt‐sized and dominated by quartz with subordinate feldspars, muscovite and illite, evidence of basic and acid–intermediate magmatic/volcanic sources are pervasive. Baddeleyite is diagnostic of basic magmatism, an origin supported by enrichment of plagioclase relative to potassium feldspar. Deduction of acid–intermediate volcanism comes from the collective occurrence of irregular geometry quartz, volcanic shards, Ti‐mineralization, euhedral biotite, sanidine, the co‐occurrence of apatite and zircon, and the common occurrence of a tosuditic clay mineral. The tosuditic phase occurs as an unusual diagenetic dioctahedral chlorite/smectite formed at low temperature (〈45°C), during very shallow burial by the decomposition of unstable rhyo‐dacitic and andesitic grains in alkaline pore water from an adjacent lake that yielded pore fluids with a high Al:Si ratio. The Siberian Traps large igneous province is the likely source terrane for the magmatic and volcanic silt. Locally sourced clay pellets and kaolinite booklets formed from aeolian erosion of an adjacent, periodically desiccated lake‐floor and a kaolinitic regolith, respectively. Inference of a prolonged harsh, arid climate leaves no evidence of any periods of sustained humidity or climatic fluctuation, such as pedogenesis. The association between the end Permian mass extinction, emplacement and aeolian erosion of the Siberian Traps large igneous province, and location of the Smith Bank Formation in a large lacustrine endorheic basin, combine to preserve a record of prolonged harsh climate in the early Triassic. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0037-0746
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-3091
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Wiley
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-10-17
    Description: Scientific progress depends on formulating testable hypotheses informed by the literature. In many domains, however, this model is strained because the number of research papers exceeds human readability. Here, we developed computational assistance to analyze the biomedical literature by reading PubMed abstracts to suggest new hypotheses. The approach was tested...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-06-15
    Description: Using deep Hubble and Spitzer observations Oesch et al. have identified a bright ( M UV –22) star-forming galaxy candidate at z 11. The presence of GN- z 11 implies a number density ~10 –6 Mpc –3 , roughly an order of magnitude higher than the expected value based on extrapolations from lower redshift. Using the unprecedented volume and high resolution of the B lue T ides cosmological hydrodynamical simulation, we study the population of luminous rare objects at z 〉 10. The luminosity function in B lue T ides implies an enhanced number of massive galaxies, consistent with the observation of GN- z 11. We find about 30 galaxies at M UV –22 at z = 11 in the B lue T ides volume, including a few objects about 1.5 mag brighter. The probability of observing GN- z 11 in the volume probed by Oesch et al. is ~13 per cent. The predicted properties of the rare bright galaxies at z = 11 in B lue T ides closely match those inferred from the observations of GN- z 11. B lue T ides predicts a negligible contribution from faint AGN in the observed SED. The enormous increase in volume surveyed by WFIRST will provide observations of ~1000 galaxies with M UV 〈 –22 beyond z = 11 out to z = 13.5.
    Print ISSN: 1745-3925
    Electronic ISSN: 1745-3933
    Topics: Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-04-25
    Description: Predominantly fine-grained strata were deposited in the Smith Bank Formation (Early Triassic) in the Central North Sea area of the Northern Permian Basin. Previously regarded as monotonous red claystone, examination of continuous core reveals abundant stratification, significant variation in colour, siltstone as the prevalent average grain size, and claystone is rare. Loessite occurs beyond the north-western lacustrine margin and aerosol dust has inundated clay pellets derived from aeolian reworking of the desiccated lake floor. The loessite has limited evidence of pluvial reworking but rare fossil roots testify to sufficient moisture to sustain plants. Loessite has not previously been successfully differentiated from other fine-grained strata in the subsurface but this study defines the presence of random grain-fabric orientation as an intrinsic unequivocal characteristic of loessite that formed during air-fall deposition of aerosol dust. Comparison with outcrop data verifies the utility of grain fabric to differentiate loessite. Tosudite, an aluminous di-octahedral regularly ordered mixed-layer chlorite/smectite, which is rare in sedimentary rock, forms a significant proportion (10 to 21%) of the clay mineral fraction of loessite along with a similar quantity of kaolinite. In all other samples, only illite and chlorite are identified, which is typical of fine-grained Triassic strata. In a location, close to the southern lake margin, lacustrine strata are characterised by fining-upward couplets of very-fine grained sandstone into siltstone and mudstone, with occasional desiccated surfaces. Small sand injections and associated sand extrusions are common and indicate periodic fluidisation of sand. Precise stratigraphic location of the Smith Bank Formation is problematic because of extremely sparse fossil preservation however there is no sedimentological evidence for a period of hyper-aridity known from the early Olenekian in continental Europe, which may mean that the North Permian Basin was never hyper-arid or that the Smith Bank Formation is restricted to the Induan. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0037-0746
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-3091
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Wiley
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-02-01
    Description: The lysosomal degradation pathway of autophagy has a crucial role in defence against infection, neurodegenerative disorders, cancer and ageing. Accordingly, agents that induce autophagy may have broad therapeutic applications. One approach to developing such agents is to exploit autophagy manipulation strategies used by microbial virulence factors. Here we show that a peptide, Tat-beclin 1-derived from a region of the autophagy protein, beclin 1, which binds human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 Nef-is a potent inducer of autophagy, and interacts with a newly identified negative regulator of autophagy, GAPR-1 (also called GLIPR2). Tat-beclin 1 decreases the accumulation of polyglutamine expansion protein aggregates and the replication of several pathogens (including HIV-1) in vitro, and reduces mortality in mice infected with chikungunya or West Nile virus. Thus, through the characterization of a domain of beclin 1 that interacts with HIV-1 Nef, we have developed an autophagy-inducing peptide that has potential efficacy in the treatment of human diseases.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3788641/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3788641/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shoji-Kawata, Sanae -- Sumpter, Rhea -- Leveno, Matthew -- Campbell, Grant R -- Zou, Zhongju -- Kinch, Lisa -- Wilkins, Angela D -- Sun, Qihua -- Pallauf, Kathrin -- MacDuff, Donna -- Huerta, Carlos -- Virgin, Herbert W -- Helms, J Bernd -- Eerland, Ruud -- Tooze, Sharon A -- Xavier, Ramnik -- Lenschow, Deborah J -- Yamamoto, Ai -- King, David -- Lichtarge, Olivier -- Grishin, Nick V -- Spector, Stephen A -- Kaloyanova, Dora V -- Levine, Beth -- K08 AI099150/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA142543/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM066099/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM079656/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM094575/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS050199/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS077111/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS084912/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R0I DK083756/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R0I DK086502/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R0I GM066099/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R0I GM079656/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R0I NS063973/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R0I NS077874/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- RC1 DK086502/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM008297/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 AI057156/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54AI057156/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54AI057160/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Feb 14;494(7436):201-6. doi: 10.1038/nature11866. Epub 2013 Jan 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Internal Medicine, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23364696" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/*chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology/*therapeutic use ; Autophagy/*drug effects ; Cell Membrane Permeability ; Cells, Cultured ; Chikungunya virus/drug effects ; HIV-1/drug effects/metabolism/physiology ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Macrophages/cytology ; Membrane Proteins/*chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology/*therapeutic use ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Peptide Fragments/*chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology ; Virus Replication/drug effects ; West Nile virus/drug effects ; nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/metabolism ; tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Call number: SR 90.0002(1407-A)
    In: Professional paper
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: VI, A49 S.
    Series Statement: U.S. Geological Survey professional paper 1407-A
    Language: English
    Location: Lower compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Liquid moulding processes are unique in that resin is infused into a dry fibre preform. Appropriate wet-out of the reinforcing fibres is thus a necessity for the achievement of good composite properties. For this class of manufacturing methods, both macroscopic flow, as related to Darcy's Law and characterized by permeability, and microscopic flow, as related to fibre wet-out, are important. The current research investigates factors affecting permeability and fibre wet-out as related to liquid moulding. Specifically, it is shown that fabric permeability is dependent on the type of test fluid used. Surface tension and contact angle measurements indicate that interactions at the microscopic level between fibre and test fluid account for these differences in permeability. The investigation illustrates the competing nature of macroscopic and microscopic flow in liquid moulding.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract An improved formulation for the pull-out problem is presented, that accounts for mechanical equilibrium at the embedded fibre end, and frictional interfacial forces in the debonded portion. The externally applied stress required to cause catastrophic pull-out is determined as a function of various parameters including the ratio of interfacial shear strength to the interfacial frictional stress. The effects of fibril bundles on stress transfer and initiation of debonding is also investigated and results are compared with those for single fibres. A comparison is made between the stress needed to cause intermediate non-catastrophic debonding with that needed for catastrophic debonding and subsequent pull-out. Some new results are presented which explain phenomenon from earlier experimental investigations, and which show the importance of the constituent scaling on the micromechanisms of damage under consideration.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-4811
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Supergranule revolution rate and lifetime can be measured by cross-correlating pairs of Doppler-velocity maps that have been filtered (by Hathaway's method) to remove other flows. As a conceptual framework for that analysis, this exploratory paper develops an idealized, phenomenological model of supergranule flows. Assumptions made about supergranule cells on the Sun's photosphere include: random location in space and time, and horizontal flows with circular symmetry and having a Simon–Weiss velocity function. Each supergranule is stable for a time, dies, and after a while, a daughter is born at a nearby position determined by a random walk. The effect on the cross-correlations of changing projection onto the line-of-sight as the Sun rotates is analyzed. The total cross-correlation for strips of constant latitude depends on two generic, slowly-varying projection functions. Effects of differential rotation and time-evolution are also considered. GONG observations of June 1994 show systematic variations in the width and shape of correlation peaks with latitude; our model suggests that projection effects alone can account for these without invoking any intrinsic variations of the supergranules.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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