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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-04-10
    Description: This paper evaluates the impact of the structural and cohesion funds received by Spain in the period 2007-2013. The analysis is performed with a detailed computable general equilibrium (CGE) model calibrated with a SAM for Spain in 2005 elaborated by the authors, which contains highly detailed information on capital goods and tax rates. The aim of this paper is to quantify the short-run effects of the EU funds in the Spanish economy, which can help economic recovery. Additionally, it is evaluated to what extent these short-run effects may be over- or underestimated due to the closure rule used in this kind of models (neoclassical or Keynesian). The closure determines the endogenous variables in the market clearance conditions, and they affect the results of shocks in final demand. The conclusions show that neoclassical closure, used in previous CGE studies done for Spain, underestimates the impact they have on employment and GDP and captures a fictitious shock in private investment. In this case, employment and real GDP do not almost change, while under Keynesian rule they increase in 1.2 and 0.68%, respectively. These results invalidate some of the estimates derived from previous studies and suggest that the best option to quantify the likely positive short-run effects of raising public investment is only captured through Keynesian closure.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Structural funds ; Computable general equilibrium model ; Investment goods ; Closure rules
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: The paper presents a new calibration for CORTAX (short for CORporate TAXation), which is a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model covering all EU member states, the US, Japan and a tax haven. The CORTAX model was originally built by the Centraal Planbureau (CPB) in the Netherlands based on the earlier OECDTAX model of Sorensen (2001). The calibration presented in this paper updates the base year to 2012. As the previous calibration was for 2007, the two calibrations represent pre- and post-crisis data. CORTAX models many key features of the corporate tax regimes including multinational profit shifting, investment decisions, loss compensation and the debt-equity choice of firms. The model is designed to investigate many aspects of corporate income taxation (CIT), including adjustment or harmonisation of the CIT rate or base and reforms to address the debt bias in CIT. Furthermore, it can examine consolidation of multinational CIT base, which inter alia addresses some of the issues concerning base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS). Given the choices companies have when confronted with changes in their respective environments, it is important to assess the effects of the reform under a general framework, which takes into account the interactions between different parts of internationally open economies, such as the impact of CIT reforms on firms' investment decisions. Indeed, as a computable general equilibrium model, it simulates all main macroeconomic variables, including GDP, investment and employment. The paper gives an explanation of the model structure, describes the data used, the calibration method and provides descriptive statistics for the baseline values of the model, comparing those for 2012 with the previous 2007 values.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Corporate taxation ; Computable general equilibrium model ; Model calibration ; CORTAX
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: This study investigates the economic impact of a recent proposal for a common corporate tax base (CCTB), European Commission (2016a), and a common consolidated corporate tax base with formula apportionment (CCCTB) within the EU, European Commission (2016b). On top of the common base, it considers proposals to reduce the debt bias in corporate taxation. To do so, we employ an applied general equilibrium model (CORTAX) covering all EU Member States, featuring different firm types and modelling many key features of corporate tax regimes, including multinational profit shifting, investment decisions, loss compensation and the debt-equity choice of firms. First, the economic impact of C(C)CTB is assessed, restricting the scope of the reforms to multinationals only. Macroeconomic results show that the common tax base simulations directly affect the cost of capital, which on average falls across the EU, boosting investment, and therefore driving the increase in GDP. Second, C(C)CTB is simulated together with proposals to reduce or eliminate the debt bias in corporate taxation, principally: the comprehensive business income tax (CBIT), the allowance for corporate equity (ACE) and the allowance for corporate capital (ACC). From a financing prospective, all proposals incentivise firms to rely less on debt-financing. From a macroeconomic perspective, the simulations which narrow the tax base by introducing addition deductions, i.e. ACE and ACC, raise GDP, despite the fact that the (ex-ante) CIT revenue is maintained by adjusting the CIT rate. The opposite is the case for the CBIT, which causes a fall in GDP. Third, a group of sensitivity simulations are presented to check for robustness. Among the insights from the sensitivity simulations, one notes that the inclusion of domestic firms in the CCCTB proposal somewhat increases the positive impact on GDP. A broader harmonised tax base results in lower welfare and GDP outcomes than a narrower harmonised tax base, because it more directly impacts the marginal investment decision. Reducing profit shifting slightly lowers investment, though on balance does not negatively impact welfare. The model results are robust to varying the capital-labour substitutability. In summary, the results of this economic modelling evaluation suggest that a fairer and more efficient tax system can be introduced whilst maintaining, and perhaps improving, GDP and welfare in the EU.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Computable General Equilibrium model ; CORTAX ; CCTB ; CCCTB ; Profit-shifting
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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