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  • 1
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    In:  Nederlandse Faunistische Mededelingen (0169-2453) vol.45 (2105) p.1
    Publication Date: 2017-12-07
    Description: Goudwespen zijn fraaie insecten, met felle metaalkleuren in de tinten rood, groen en blauw. Ze parasiteren vaak bij bijen en angeldragende wespen. In dit artikel wordt de eerste vondst van Chrysis equestris voor Nederland beschreven, waarmee het aantal in Nederland gevonden soorten nu op 57 komt. Deze goudwesp parasiteert bij de plooivleugelwesp Discoelius zonalis. Ze wordt in haar hele areaal weinig gevangen.
    Keywords: Hymenoptera ; Chrysididae ; Chrysis equestris ; verspreiding ; biologie ; herkenning ; Nederland ; 42.75
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 2
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    In:  Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi (1878-9080) vol.42 (2019) p.36
    Publication Date: 2018-08-17
    Description: Phylogenetic analyses of a combined DNA data matrix containing nuclear small and large subunits (nSSU, nLSU) and mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) ribosomal RNA and the largest and second largest subunits of the RNA polymerase II (rpb1, rpb2) of representative Pezizomycotina revealed that the enigmatic genera Xylobotryum and Cirrosporium form an isolated, highly supported phylogenetic lineage within Leotiomyceta. Acknowledging their morphological and phylogenetic distinctness, we describe the new class Xylobotryomycetes, containing the new order Xylobotryales with the two new families Xylobotryaceae and Cirrosporiaceae. The two currently accepted species of Xylobotryum, X. andinum and X. portentosum, are described and illustrated by light and scanning electron microscopy. The generic type species X. andinum is epitypified with a recent collection for which a culture and sequence data are available. Acknowledging the phylogenetic distinctness of Candelariomycetidae from Lecanoromycetes revealed in previous and the current phylogenetic analyses, the new class Candelariomycetes is proposed.
    Keywords: Ascomycota ; Dothideomycetes ; Eurotiomycetes ; five new taxa ; multigene phylogenetic analyses ; pyrenomycetes ; Sordariomycetes
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-08-17
    Description: Colletotrichum species are plant pathogens, saprobes, and endophytes on a range of economically important hosts. However, the species occurring on pear remain largely unresolved. To determine the morphology, phylogeny and biology of Colletotrichum species associated with Pyrus plants, a total of 295 samples were collected from cultivated pear species (including P. pyrifolia, P. bretschneideri, and P. communis) from seven major pearcultivation provinces in China. The pear leaves and fruits affected by anthracnose were sampled and subjected to fungus isolation, resulting in a total of 488 Colletotrichum isolates. Phylogenetic analyses based on six loci (ACT, TUB2, CAL, CHS-1, GAPDH, and ITS) coupled with morphology of 90 representative isolates revealed that they belong to 10 known Colletotrichum species, including C. aenigma, C. citricola, C. conoides, C. fioriniae, C. fructicola, C. gloeosporioides, C. karstii, C. plurivorum, C. siamense, C. wuxiense, and two novel species, described here as C. jinshuiense and C. pyrifoliae. Of these, C. fructicola was the most dominant, occurring on P. pyrifolia and P. bretschneideri in all surveyed provinces except in Shandong, where C. siamense was dominant. In contrast, only C. siamense and C. fioriniae were isolated from P. communis, with the former being dominant. In order to prove Koch’s postulates, pathogenicity tests on pear leaves and fruits revealed a broad diversity in pathogenicity and aggressiveness among the species and isolates, of which C. citricola, C. jinshuiense, C. pyrifoliae, and C. conoides appeared to be organ-specific on either leaves or fruits. This study also represents the first reports of C. citricola, C. conoides, C. karstii, C. plurivorum, C. siamense, and C. wuxiense causing anthracnose on pear.
    Keywords: Colletotrichum ; multi-gene phylogeny ; pathogenicity ; Pyrus
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-08-27
    Description: In many lichen-forming fungi, molecular phylogenetic analyses lead to the discovery of cryptic species within traditional morphospecies. However, in some cases, molecular sequence data also questions the separation of phenotypically characterised species. Here we apply an integrative taxonomy approach ‒ including morphological, chemical, molecular, and distributional characters ‒ to re-assess species boundaries in a traditionally speciose group of hair lichens, Bryoria sect. Implexae. We sampled multilocus sequence and microsatellite data from 142 specimens from a broad intercontinental distribution. Molecular data included DNA sequences of the standard fungal markers ITS, IGS, GAPDH, two newly tested loci (FRBi15 and FRBi16), and SSR frequencies from 18 microsatellite markers. Datasets were analysed with Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic reconstruction, phenogram reconstruction, STRUCTURE Bayesian clustering, principal coordinate analysis, haplotype network, and several different species delimitation analyses (ABGD, PTP, GMYC, and DISSECT). Additionally, past population demography and divergence times are estimated. The different approaches to species recognition do not support the monophyly of the 11 currently accepted morphospecies, and rather suggest the reduction of these to four phylogenetic species. Moreover, three of these are relatively recent in origin and cryptic, including phenotypically and chemically variable specimens. Issues regarding the integration of an evolutionary perspective into taxonomic conclusions in species complexes, which have undergone recent diversification, are discussed. The four accepted species, all epitypified by sequenced material, are Bryoria fuscescens, B. glabra, B. kockiana, and B. pseudofuscescens. Ten species rank names are reduced to synonymy. In the absence of molecular data, they can be recorded as the B. fuscescens complex. Intraspecific phenotype plasticity and factors affecting the speciation of different morphospecies in this group of Bryoria are outlined.
    Keywords: chemotypes ; cryptic species ; haplotypes ; incomplete lineage sorting ; integrative taxonomy ; microsatellites ; speciation ; species concepts
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-08-31
    Description: Ips typographus (Coleoptera, Scolytinae) is a spruce-infesting bark beetle that occurs throughout Europe and Asia. The beetle can cause considerable damage, especially when colonized trees are stressed and beetle populations increase. Although some studies have shown that populations of I. typographus in Europe, China and Japan are genetically distinct, these populations are biologically similar, including a strong association with ophiostomatoid fungi. To date, only two Leptographium spp. have been reported from the beetle in China, while 40 species have been reported from Europe and 13 from Japan. The aims of this study were to identify the ophiostomatoid fungal associates of I. typographus in north-eastern China, and to determine whether the fungal assemblages reflect the different geographical populations of the beetle. Field surveys in Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces yielded a total of 1 046 fungal isolates from 145 beetles and 178 galleries. Isolates were grouped based on morphology and representatives of each group were identified using DNA sequences of the ribosomal LSU, ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and elongation factor 1-α gene regions. A total of 23 species of ophiostomatoid fungi were identified, including 12 previously described species and 11 novel species, all of which are described here. The dominant species were Ophiostoma bicolor, Leptographium taigense and Grosmannia piceiperda D, representing 40.5 %, 27.8 % and 17.8 % of the isolates, respectively. Comparisons of species from China, Europe and Japan are complicated by the fact that some of the European and all the Japanese species were identified based only on morphology. However, assuming that those identifications are correct, five species were shared between Europe, Japan and China, two species were shared between China and Japan, five between Europe and China, and two between Europe and Japan. Consequently, Ips typographus populations in these different geographic areas have different fungal assemblages, suggesting that the majority of these beetle-associations are promiscuous. The results also suggested that the symbionts of the bark beetle do not reflect the population structures of the beetle. The use of fungal symbiont assemblages to infer population structures and invasion history of its vectors should thus be interpreted with circumspection.
    Keywords: 11 new taxa ; Ophiostomatales ; Microascales ; vector ; Scolytinae
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
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  • 6
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    Springer International Publishing
    In:  Fission-Track Thermochronology and its Application to Geology | Springer Textbooks in Earth Sciences, Geography and Environment
    Publication Date: 2018-09-04
    Description: The geomorphologic evolution of orogens has been a subject of revived interest and accelerated development over the past few decades, thanks to both the increasing availability of high-resolution data and computing power and the realisation that orogenic topography plays a central role in coupling deep-earth and surface processes. Low-temperature thermochronology takes a central place in this revived interest, as it allows us to link quantitative geomorphology to the spatial and temporal patterns of exhumation. In particular, rock cooling rates over million-year timescales derived from thermochronological data have been used to reconstruct rock exhumation histories, to detect km-scale relief changes, and to document lateral shifts in relief. In this chapter, we review how classic approaches of determining exhumation histories have contributed to our understanding of landscape evolution, and we highlight novel approaches to quantifying relief changes that have been developed over the last decade. We discuss how patterns of exhumation in laterally accreting orogens are recorded by low-temperature thermochronology, and how such data can be applied to infer temporal variations in exhumation rates, providing indirect constraints on topographic development. We subsequently review recent studies aimed at quantifying relief development and modification associated with river incision, glacial modifications of landscapes, and shifts in the position of range divides. We also point out how interpretations of some datasets are non-unique, emphasizing the importance of understanding the full range of processes that may influence landscape morphology and how each may affect spatial patterns of thermochronologic ages.
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/BookItem
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  • 7
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    Springer
    In:  Karst Water Environment : Advances in Research, Management and Policy | The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry
    Publication Date: 2018-09-11
    Description: Examination of microbial communities within karst aquifers is an important aspect of determining the quality of the drinking water obtained from groundwater. While past work has been based on culture-based assays, a more complete view of the microbial community within karst aquifers can be achieved using molecular approaches based on DNA sequencing. Due to a reduced cell number when compared to surface environments, collecting sufficient microbial cells for analysis in karst aquifers can be problematic. In addition to issues of cell density, particulates due to the geologic location, technological limitations of equipment that can be hand-carried and work for extended periods underground, and even the physical access to some of these subsurface sites, all contribute to making examination of the microbiology in karst aquifers a challenge. This chapter highlights some of the approaches we have used to successfully isolate microbial cells for DNA extraction from an aquifer accessed in a remote cave location. The methods we developed can aid other researchers to evaluate the microbiology of similar isolated karst aquifers.
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/BookItem
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  • 8
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    Elsevier
    In:  In: Encyclopedia of Ecology. , ed. by Fath, B. D. Elsevier, Oxford, UK, pp. 108-115. 2. ed. ISBN 978-0-444-63768-0
    Publication Date: 2018-10-16
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-10-23
    Description: Highlights • New 40Ar/39Ar dates from SW Pacific and Zealandia igneous rocks form the basis of a revised tectonic model. • Intraplate lavas erupted onto continental, LIP and oceanic crust from 99 to 78 Ma. • Spreading ridges and transforms adjusted themselves around a collided Hikurangi Plateau. • Kinematically stable Pacific-Antarctic spreading became established from c. 84 Ma. • Osbourn Trough Sea floor spreading possibly ceased at c. 79 Ma. Abstract New 40Ar/39Ar ages of igneous rocks clarify the nature, timing and rates of movement of the oceanic Pacific, Phoenix, Farallon and Hikurangi plates against Gondwana and Zealandia in the Late Cretaceous. With some qualifications, cessation of spreading at the Osbourn Trough is dated c. 79 Ma, i.e. 30–20 m.y. later than 110–100 Ma Hikurangi Plateau-Gondwana collision. Oceanic crust of pre-84 Ma is confirmed to be present at the eastern end of the Chatham Rise, and a 99–78 Ma intraplate lava province erupted across juxtaposed Zealandia, Hikurangi Plateau and oceanic crust. We propose a new regional tectonic model in which a mechanically jammed Hikurangi Plateau resulted in the dynamic propagation of small, kinematically misaligned short-length 110–84 Ma spreading centres and long-offset fracture zones. It is only from c. 84 Ma that geometrically stable spreading became localized at what is now the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge, as Zealandia started to split from Gondwana.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
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    Taylor & Francis Group
    In:  The Anthropocene Debate and Political Science | Routledge Research in Global Environmental Governance
    Publication Date: 2018-10-23
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/BookItem
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2018-10-26
    Description: After Rock-Eval & TOC screening and heterogeneity evaluation on 91 Palaeogene source rock samples from a well drilled in the Austrian Molasse Basin, ten shale samples were selected for detailed investigations by means of pyrolysis-gas chromatography, bulk kinetics and biomarker identification and quantification. Afterwards, 2-D biplots based on principal component analysis were applied to unravel the palaeo-environmental control on the development of petroleum source rocks. All samples are immature source rocks with good petroleum generation potentials. The redox environment during deposition was generally reducing, and palaeosalinity is suggested to be the main factor causing the differences in organic carbon contents among the samples. The hydrogen index values, the gas generation preferences and the aromaticity of the products are controlled by both depositional environment and precursors, and the product of a salinity indicator (MTTC) and the oleanane index is introduced as predictive proxy to evaluate these features. The maturity indicator (Tmax) is revealed as dominated by the stability of the kerogen structure which is controlled by the proportion of organic sulphur compounds in the kerogen. The global Eocene-Oligocene climate change from a greenhouse to an icehouse world is suggested to play an important role in changing the palaeoenvironment and further in influencing the development of petroleum source rocks by triggering upwelling, increasing the palaeo-sea water salinity and decreasing the deposition of carbonate-minerals. The chemometric method suggested here acts as a powerful tool in identifying the controlling factors for the petroleum generation potential among many variables, and can be applied more widely in petroleum geology when multi-parameters are involved to get quick and meaningful correlations.
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2018-10-29
    Description: There is increasing evidence that abrupt vegetation shifts and large-scale erosive phases occurred in Central Africa during the third millennium before present. Debate exists as to whether these events were caused by climate change and/or intensifying human activities related to the Bantu expansion. In this study, we report on a multi-proxy investigation of a sediment core (KZR-23) recovered from the Congo submarine canyon. Our aim was to reconstruct climate, erosion and vegetation patterns in the Congo Basin for the last 10,000yrs, with a particular emphasis on the late Holocene period. Samples of modern riverine suspended particulates were also analyzedto characterize sediment source geochemical signatures from across the Congo watershed. We find that a sudden increase of bulk sediment aluminium-to-potassium (Al/K) ratios and initial radiocarbon ages of bulk organic matter occurred after 2,200yrs ago, coincident with a pollen-inferred vegetation change suggesting forest retreat and development of savannas. Although hydrogen isotope compositions of plant waxes (δDwax) do not reveal a substantial hydroclimate shift during this period, neodymium isotopes and rare earth elements in detrital fractions indicate provenance changes for the sediment exported from the Congo Basin at that time, hence suggesting a reorganization of spatial rainfall patterns across Central Africa during this event. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for changing landscapes in Central Africa from about 2,200yrs ago, associated with synchronous events of vegetation changes and enhanced erosion of pre-aged and highly weathered soils. These events coincided remarkably well with the arrival of Iron Age communities into the rainforest, as inferred from comparison to regional archaeological syntheses. While the human impact on the environment remains difficult to quantify at the scale of the vast Congo Basin, we tentatively propose that strengthening of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability at that time played a key role in triggering the observed environmental changes, and possibly acted as a driver for the eastward migration of Bantu-speaking peoples across Central Africa.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2018-10-19
    Description: A new window for better understanding the accretion onto strongly magnetized neutron stars in X-ray binaries is opening. In these systems the accreted material follows the magnetic field lines as it approaches the neutron star, forming accretion columns above the magnetic poles. The plasma falls toward the neutron star surface at near-relativistic speeds, losing energy by emitting X-rays. The X-ray spectral continua are commonly described using phenomenological models, i.e., power laws with different types of curved cut-offs at higher energies. Here we consider high luminosity pulsars. In these systems the mass transfer rate is high enough that the accreting plasma is thought to be decelerated in a radiation-dominated radiative shock in the accretion columns. While the theory of the emission from such shocks had already been developed by 2007, a model for direct comparison with X-ray continuum spectra in xspec or isis has only recently become available. Here we analyze the broadband X-ray spectra of the accreting pulsars Centaurus X-3 and 4U1626-67 obtained withNuSTAR. We present results from traditional empirical modeling as well as successfully apply the radiation-dominated radiative shock model. We also fit the energy-dependent pulse profiles of 4U 1626-67 using a new relativistic light bending model.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN59939 , American Astronomical Society; 8-12 Jan. 2018; Washington DC; United States
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2018-10-17
    Description: NASA has developed and commercialized high temperature coatings and bearings for extreme conditions. These technologies are now under consideration by industry for automotive applications such as turbochargers, fuel cell compressors and exhaust gas path mechanism applications. In this presentation, a review of Oil-Free technologies and their current state-of-development is introduced. Key NASA contributions to the field as documented by patents, research papers and technology demonstrations is also presented.
    Keywords: Mechanical Engineering
    Type: GRC-E-DAA-TN50940 , Schaeffler International Bearing Meeting; 25 Jan. 2018; Herzogenaurach; Germany
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2018-11-02
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2018-10-30
    Description: Highlights • New 40Ar/39Ar age and geochemical (major, trace element, Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope) data are presented from the Walvis Ridge, belonging to the Tristan-Gough hotspot track in the South Atlantic. • The entire Tristan-Gough hotspot system, including Walvis Ridge, display a spatially continuous age progression. • The Gough-type component is the dominant geochemical flavor of the Tristan-Gough plume and has also been identified in the Discovery and Shona hotspot systems. • The geochemical heterogeneity in the South Atlantic DUPAL region can be reproduced by mixing of Gough-type enriched mantle with continental crust and a FOZO/PREMA-like component. • The HIMU-type alkalic lavas on the Walvis Ridge and older part of Shona hotspot track are ∼30 Ma younger in age than the EMI-type primarily tholeiitic basement lavas at a given locality. Abstract Long-lived spatial geochemical zonation of the Tristan-Gough and Discovery hotspot tracks and temporal variations from EMI-type basement to HIMU-type late-stage volcanism at the Walvis Ridge and Shona hotspot tracks point to a complex evolution and multiple source areas for the South Atlantic hotspots. Here we report 40Ar/39Ar age and geochemical (major and trace element, Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope) data for samples from 16 new sites on the Walvis Ridge. This aseismic ridge is the oldest submarine expression of the Tristan-Gough mantle plume and represents the initial reference locality of the EMI end member in the South Atlantic Ocean. The EMI-type lavas display an excellent age progressive trend of ∼31 mm/a along the entire Tristan-Gough hotspot track, indicating constant plate motion over a relatively stationary melt anomaly over the last ∼115 Ma. The Gough-type EMI composition of the Tristan-Gough hotspot track is the dominant composition on the 〉70 Ma part of the Walvis Ridge, the Etendeka and Parana flood basalts, and along the Gough sub-track, extending from DSDP Site 525A on the SW Walvis Ridge to Gough Island, whereas Tristan-type EMI dominates on the Tristan Track, extending from DSDP Sites 527 and 528 to Tristan da Cunha Island. Gough-type EMI is also the dominant composition of the northern Discovery and Shona hotspot tracks, suggesting that these hotspots tap a common source reservoir. The continuous EMI-type supply over ≥132 Ma, coupled with high 3He/4He (〉10 RA), points to a deep-seated reservoir for this mantle material. The Tristan and Southern Discovery EMI-type flavors can be reproduced by mixing of the Gough-type component with (1) FOZO/PREMA to produce Tristan-type lavas, and (2) marine sediments or upper continental crust to generate the Southern Discovery-type composition. South Atlantic hotspots with EMI-type compositions overlie the margin (1 % ∂Vs velocity contour) of the African Large Low Shear Velocity Province (LLSVP), which may promote the emergence of geochemical “zonation”. The St. Helena HIMU-type volcanism, however, is located above internal portions of the LLSVP, possibly reflecting a layered LLSVP.
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  • 17
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    Elsevier
    In:  Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 172 . pp. 855-877.
    Publication Date: 2018-10-29
    Description: Gas hydrates are crystalline ice-like structures formed from water and gas molecules at high pressure and low temperature conditions. They are considered as near-future energy resources. Recently, there have been many drilling activities in gas hydrates in both permafrost regions (mainly Mallik wells, Canada; Ignik Sikumi #1 well, Alaska; Mount Elbert #1, Alaska) and marine sediments (the wells drilled in Gulf of Mexico and India drilling expeditions). In this study, it is aimed to evaluate and analyze logging-while drilling data (LWD) and other drilling data of these drilling activities. Initially, all drilling parameters (i.e. rate of penetration, weight on bit, torques, mud logs, etc.) of these wells were collected and drawn to see the change in parameters with depths. In order to indicate the changes in drilling parameters in the sediments containing gas hydrates, gas hydrate saturations were estimated from resistivity logs and NMR logs in this study. High resistivity log values and methane peaks in drilling fluid were good indicators of gas hydrate existence. During the drilling of permafrost formations and gas hydrates deposited in coarse sands as pore filling, the rate of penetration generally decreased. Differently, there was not almost any change in the rate of penetration during the drilling of fracture-filling gas hydrates within silts/clay in India. Borehole enlargements (washouts) were commonly seen in the wells drilled in marine sediments (Gulf of Mexico and Indian expeditions). However, this effect was minimum during the drilling of the wells in permafrost regions. This difference is due to the loose sediments in marine environment. Furthermore, gamma and density logs were seriously affected by washouts, mainly in marine sediments. It was observed that pore-filling gas hydrates affect the rate of penetration and keep the sediments stable because well collapses mainly occurred in the sediments without any gas hydrates. However, the temperature of drilling fluid should be close to the temperature of gas hydrate zones to reduce the effect of drilling on gas hydrate dissociation for the wells both in permafrost and marine sediments. In Gulf Mexico and Indian drilling expeditions, riser and wellhead equipment were not used. However, the usage of surface casing might decrease the risk of borehole collapses due to very loose sediments close to sea floor. Another important outcome of this study is that the pressure gradient follows hydrostatic pressure gradients according to the pressure analysis within gas hydrate stability zones of marine sediments. Finally, the analyses of drilling parameters revealed that drilling through gas hydrate bearing strata is not as risky as it might have been considered. The key is hidden in appropriate drilling design.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2018-10-29
    Description: Highlights • Thermodynamic and kinetic influences of NaCl on HFC-125a hydrate were investigated. • NaCl enrichment in the unconverted solution resulted in a lower conversion. • The presence of NaCl had little effect on the ΔH of HFC-125a hydrate. • The hydrate dissociation was retarded due to the formation of NaCl⋅2H2O. In this study, HFC-125a was selected as a hydrate-forming guest for gas hydrate-based desalination. The thermodynamic and kinetic effects of NaCl on HFC-125a hydrates were investigated with a primary focus on phase equilibria, gas uptake, dissociation enthalpy, and dissociation behavior. The equilibrium curve of HFC-125a hydrate shifted to higher pressure regions at any given temperature depending on the concentration of NaCl. The presence of NaCl also reduced the gas uptake and conversion to hydrates, because of the enrichment of NaCl in the solution during gas-hydrate formation. Even though NaCl did not affect the dissociation enthalpy of the HFC-125a hydrate, the thermograms obtained using a high-pressure micro-differential scanning calorimeter (HP μ-DSC) demonstrated that HFC-125a + NaCl hydrates started to dissociate at lower temperatures due to NaCl in unconverted solutions. Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) patterns indicated that the HFC-125a hydrate (sII) was transformed into Ih as it dissociated. The dissociation of HFC-125a + NaCl hydrates was retarded and completely ended at higher temperatures compared to the pure HFC-125a hydrate by the sodium chloride dihydrate (NaCl⋅2H2O). Overall, these results could facilitate a better understanding of HFC-125a hydrates in the presence of NaCl; further, they might also be useful in the design and operation of hydrate-based desalination plants using HFC-125a.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2018-11-08
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2018-11-09
    Description: Multiple toxic and bioactive compounds produced by Alexandrium spp. cause adverse effects on bivalves, but these effects are frequently difficult to attribute to a single compound class. To disentangle the effect of neurotoxic vs lytic secondary metabolites, we exposed blue mussels to either a paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) producing Alexandrium spp. strain, or to an exclusively lytic compound (LC) producing strain, or a strain containing both compound classes, to evaluate the time dependent effects after 3 and 7 days of feeding. Tested parameters comprised signs of paralysis, feeding activity, and immune cell integrity (hemocyte numbers and viability; lysosomal membrane destabilization) and function (ROS production). Both compound classes caused paralysis and immune impairment. The only effect attributable exclusively to PST was increased phagocytic activity after 3 days and impaired feeding activity after 7 days, which curtailed toxin accumulation in digestive glands. Paralysis signals and lysosomal membrane destabilization were more closely, but not exclusively, matched with LC exposure. Effects on circulating hemocyte integrity and immune related functions were mostly transient or remain stable within 7 days; except for increased lysosomal labialization and decreased extracellular ROS production when mussels were exposed to the toxin combination. M. edulis displays adaptive fitness traits to survive and maintain immune capacity upon prolonged exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of PST and/or LC producing Alexandrium strains.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2018-11-06
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  • 22
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    Elsevier
    In:  Multiple stressors in river ecosystems. Status, impacts and prospects for the future
    Publication Date: 2018-11-07
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2018-11-12
    Description: We present a transport-reaction model (TRACTION) specifically designed to account for non-ideal transport effects in the presence of thermodynamic (e.g. salinity or temperature) gradients. The model relies on the most fundamental concept of solute diffusion, which states that the chemical potential gradient (Maxwell’s model) rather than the concentration gradient (Fick’s law) is the driving force for diffusion. In turn, this requires accounting for species interactions by applying Pitzer’s method to derive species chemical potentials and Onsager coefficients instead of using the classical diffusion coefficients. Electrical imbalances arising from varying diffusive fluxes in multicomponent systems, like seawater, are avoided by applying an electrostatic gradient as an additional transport contribution. We apply the model to pore water data derived from the seawater mixing zone at the submarine Mercator mud volcano in the Gulf of Cadiz. Two features are particularly striking at this site: (i) Ascending halite-saturated fluids create strong salinity (NaCl) gradients in the seawater mixing zone that result in marked chemical activity, and thus chemical potential gradients. The model predicts strong transport-driven deviations from the mixing profile derived from the commonly used Fick’s diffusion model, and is capable of matching well with the profile shapes observed in the pore water concentration data. Even better agreement to the observed data is achieved when ion pairs are transported separately. (ii) The formation of authigenic gypsum (several wt%) occurs in the surface sediments, which is typically restricted to evaporitic surface processes. Very little is known about the gypsum paragenesis in the subseafloor and we first present possible controls on gypsum solubility, such as pressure, temperature, and salinity (pTS), as well as the common ion and ion pairing effects. Due to leaching of deep diapiric salt, rising fluids of the MMV are saturated with respect to gypsum (as well as celestite and barite). Several processes that could drive these fluids towards gypsum supersaturation and hence precipitation were postulated and numerically quantified. In line with the varied morphology of the observed gypsum crystals, gypsum paragenesis at the MMV is likely a combination of two temperature-related processes. Gypsum solubility increases with increasing temperature, especially in strong electrolyte solutions and the first mechanism involves the cooling of saturated fluids along the geothermal gradient during their ascent. Secondly, local temperature changes, i.e. cooling during the transition from MMV activity towards dormancy results in the cyclic build-up of gypsum. The model showed that the interpretation of field data can be majorly misguided when ignoring non-ideal effects in extreme diagenetic settings. While at first glance the pore water profiles at the Mercator mud volcano would indicate strong reactive influences in the seawater mixing zone, our model shows that the observed species distributions are in fact primarily transport-controlled. The model results for SO4 are particularly intriguing, as SO4 is shown to diffuse into the sediment along its increasing (!) concentration gradient. Also, a pronounced gypsum saturation peak can be observed in the seawater mixing zone. This peak is not related to the dissolution of gypsum but is simply a result of the non-ideal transport forces acting on the activity profile of SO4 and Ca profiles.
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2018-11-14
    Description: This study contributes to the understanding of long- and short-term determinants of cooperation among water users. We experimentally investigate the potential of water users’ self-governance in enhancing their contributions to a common pool as opposed to external regulation. Our focus is on the irrigated areas of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Due to their Soviet past, these countries have a reputation for low bottom-up cooperation potential. Based on the different pre-Soviet irrigation traditions of the two study sites, we assess the effectiveness of short-term incentives compared to long term cultural factors of cooperation. History might matter, but we find it does not predetermine the success of current water decentralization in ancient as compared to relatively recently established irrigation sites. Our study reveals that external regulation, in fact, decreases farmers’ cooperation, whereas face-to-face communication increases it. This finding calls into question the top-down approach prevalent in current water policies of the region. Moreover, it suggests the viability of endogenous cooperation and hence encourages the implementation of truly self-governed water management policies in Central Asia. However, the substantial heterogeneity in individual contributions apparent at the village level also signals a warning that one-size-fits-all approaches to local cooperation are unlikely to succeed.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Water-management ; Self-governance ; Field experiment ; Cultural determinants ; Central Asia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2018-11-13
    Description: Among the most derived calanoid copepod superfamily Clausocalanoidea about half of the genera belong to the so-called “Bradfordian” families that are defined by the presence of sensory setae at the maxilla and maxilliped. Many of these “Bradfordian” taxa are insufficiently well described, because their taxonomy is complicated and phylogenetic relationships are not completely resolved. We therefore aimed to unravel their phylogenetic relationships using molecular multi-gene analyses. We conducted molecular multi-gene analysis on 26 species from 15 genera representing all seven “Bradfordian” families using five gene fragments, the nuclear ribosomal 18S, 28S and internal transcribed spacer 2 DNA, and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b. The monophyly of “Bradfordians” as one lineage in the superfamily Clausocalanoidea was supported by Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference multi-gene analyses. Except for the support of species belonging to the same genus and specimens belonging to the same species, no phylogenetic relationships among genera and families were supported. The impossibility of resolving phylogenetic relationships among “Bradfordian” genera and families may be due to the young age or fast radiation of “Bradfordians” within the mostly derived calanoid superfamily Clausocalanoidea. Therefore, mutation rates might be not sufficient to track phylogenetic relationships. Evidence on phylogenetic relationships between genera and families remain unresolved after implementing integrated morphological and molecular taxonomic approaches.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2018-11-20
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2018-11-20
    Description: Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is an important recreational and commercial fisheries target species in the Northern hemisphere. Release rates are high in the recreational fishery due to regulatory and voluntary catch-and-release practice. Although post-release mortality of cod is relatively low, there is potential for further reductions. The most effective way to reduce post-release mortality is to minimize the catch of sublegal fish or non-target species and to reduce hooking injuries by using more selective fishing methods. This study investigated the influence of the lure/bait type on: (1) size of fish, (2) catch and harvest, (3) proportion of bycatch, (4) hooking location, and (5) injury (bleeding) in the western Baltic Sea recreational cod fishery. Data were collected via random onboard sampling of 35 charter vessel angling trips (778 anglers) and during two supplementary studies in the western Baltic Sea. Overall, the median total length was significantly higher for cod caught on artificial lures (39 cm) than for cod caught on natural bait (28 cm), leading to a 43% higher proportion of sublegal (〈38 cm) cod for bait than for lure. Median catch-per-unit-efforts (number of captured cod per angling hour) did not differ significantly between lure and bait angling (both: 0.49 cod per hour), whereas the median harvest-per-unit-effort (number of captured cod ≥ minimum landing size (38 cm) per angling hour) was significantly higher for lure (0.24 cod ≥38 cm per hour) than for bait angling (0.06 cod ≥38 cm per hour). The incidence of deep hooking and severe bleeding was significantly higher for bait angling. Furthermore, bait angling significantly increased bycatch of other species dominated by whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and European flounder (Platichthys flesus). Cod anglers can reduce the catch of sublegal cod and non-target species and minimize hooking injuries of released fish by using lures instead of bait in the western Baltic Sea. Thus, voluntary terminal gear recommendations may be an effective tool for anglers and managers to increase selectivity in recreational cod fisheries.
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: The present study is based on a series of two-dimensional simple shear numerical simulations of two-phase non-linear viscous materials used to investigate the mechanical behaviour of two-phase aggregates representing partially molten rocks. These simulations couple viscoplastic deformation with dynamic recrystallisation (DRX). The aim of these simulations is to investigate the competition between deformation and recrystallisation, and how they affect the mechanical behaviour and resulting microstructures of the deforming material. We systematically vary the melt to solid rock ratio, the dihedral angle of melt and the ratio of DRX vs. deformation. The results show that the amount of DRX and the dihedral angle have a first-order impact on the bulk rheology and the melt distribution in the aggregate. The numerical results allow defining two regimes, depending on the relative contribution of deformation and DRX: (1) a deformation-dominated regime at high strain rates (i.e., with a low ratio of recrystallisation vs. viscoplastic deformation) and (2) a recrystallisation-dominated regime at low strain rates (i.e., with a high ratio of recrystallisation vs. viscoplastic deformation). The first case results in systems bearing large connected melt pockets whose viscous flow controls the deformation of the aggregate, while disconnected smaller melt pockets develop in models where dynamic recrystallisation dominates. The results of this study allow us to better understand the development of connected melt pockets, which may focus melt flow. The distribution of the melt phase plays a key role in the formation of larger-scale melt-enriched shear bands, which in turn has a direct influence on large-scale convective mantle flow.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2018-11-21
    Description: Non-classical nonlinear elasticity in micro-inhomogeneous materials such as rocks and cracked or granular materials leads to a number of phenomena ranging from hysteresis and memory to a transient response of elastic properties to perturbations in dynamic or quasi-static experiments. Dynamic acousto-elastic testing (DAET) provides very detailed observations of some of these phenomena that are still not fully understood in terms of their physical origin. We suggest that the observations of non-classical nonlinear elasticity can be related to the physics of friction. We propose a conceptual model for the nonlinear elasticity based on friction of internal interfaces and the process of contact aging that leads to an increase of friction with increasing contact time. The central element of the model is the continuous interplay between (1) softening that occurs as small-scale damage due to shear motion of internal contacts and (2) stiffening (healing) as a thermally activated process of establishing connections across the contact at the current strain state. Chemical bonds, mineral fibres or capillary bridges are the most likely candidates for the physical nature of these connections. Our model qualitatively describes dynamic softening, hysteresis, slow dynamics and the shape of DAET loops including the absence of cusps and the loop orientation that leads to a stiffening at both maxima and minima of the dynamic strain
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2018-11-27
    Description: The neodymium isotope proxy has become a valuable tool for the reconstruction of past ocean water mass provenance and mixing. For its accurate application, knowledge about the origin and preservation of Nd in sedimentary archives is crucial. Recently, concerns have emerged regarding the applicability of neodymium isotopes as a conservative palaeo water mass tracer, given potential Nd fluxes from sediments into bottom waters (Abbott et al., 2015a) and inferred relabelling of ocean waters by settling detrital material (Roberts and Piotrowski, 2015). Consequently, a decoupling of water mass provenance and proxy variations may arise. We investigate the mobility of Nd around extreme detrital sedimentation events such as glacial ice rafting pulses and turbidite deposition in the Northeast Atlantic. The constructed records from sediment leachates span extreme Nd isotope variations including volcanic (εNd ∼ 0) and Laurentian (εNd ∼ −27) sources. We find that Nd was released into pore waters from reactive detritus inside some detrital layers during early diagenesis, thereby overprinting any archived bottom water Nd signature and precluding the reconstruction of past water mass provenance during the affected time intervals. However, we do not observe any definite indication of diffusive vertical migration of Nd into adjacent layers. Furthermore, bottom water Nd isotope signatures were not modified to a measurable degree by any potential benthic flux of Nd during the deposition of these detrital sediment layers. Consequently, the Nd isotope composition of the pelagic glacial Northeast Atlantic water masses were resilient to such episodic large detrital fluxes. Apart from extreme local sedimentation events, we confirm the presence of detritally overprinted deep waters north of 47°N during the peak glacial from comparison of Northeast Atlantic depth transects. We furthermore suggest that the sensitivity of deep waters to this overprinting effect increased during periods of reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and elevated ice rafting. Overall, our study demonstrates that a thorough evaluation of the proportion of Nd originating from physical water mass advection versus in situ chemical inputs is crucial for the reliable application of Nd isotopes as a water mass tracer.
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2018-11-27
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  • 32
    facet.materialart.
    Springer
    In:  Natural Gas Engines: For Transportation and Power Generation | Energy, Environment, and Sustainability
    Publication Date: 2018-11-29
    Description: Lean-burn natural gas engines can be used to reduce exhaust emissions significantly. However, as the mixture is leaned out, the occurrence of extinction and incomplete combustion increases, resulting in poor performance and stability, as well as elevated levels of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. The partially stratified charge (PSC) method can be used to mitigate these issues, while extending the lean misfire limit (LML) beyond its equivalent, homogeneous level. In this chapter, the PSC ignition and combustion processes are examined following a comprehensive experimental and numerical approach. Experiments are conducted in an idealized PSC configuration, using a constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC), to identify the principle enabling mechanisms of the PSC methodology. Engine tests conducted in a single-cylinder research engine (SCRE) demonstrate the feasibility of various PSC implementations in improving performance and emission characteristics in real-world settings. Complementary numerical analyses for the CVCC are obtained through large eddy simulations (LES), while Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) simulations are conducted for SCRE with reduced chemical kinetics. The corresponding simulated results provide additional insights in characterizing the effect of fuel stratification on flame kernel maturation and flame propagation, the interplay between chemistry and turbulence at different overall air–fuel ratios, as well as formation of major pollutant species.
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/BookItem
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2018-11-29
    Description: This paper investigates the interplay between the German incentive regulation and renewable capacity integration. A comprehensive review of the current incentive regulation scheme and its 2016 amendment is first presented. Then, results of ten representative interviews with large-scale distribution system operators are analyzed. Firstly, all necessary grid integration measures could so far be implemented. Secondly, creating proper incentives for intelligent operating equipment to partly substitute conventional grid expansion remains a challenge. Thirdly, the new curtailment regulation of 2016 is welcome, but will not become a substitute for grid expansion as long as renewable integration rates are high. Moreover, the discussions on further improvements to the incentive regulation scheme reveal a distribution conflict between grid operators and grid users.
    Language: English
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: This open access book looks at how a democracy can devolve into a post-factual state. The media is being flooded by populist narratives, fake news, conspiracy theories and make-believe. Misinformation is turning into a challenge for all of us, whether politicians, journalists, or citizens. In the age of information, attention is a prime asset and may be converted into money, power, and influence - sometimes at the cost of facts. The point is to obtain exposure on the air and in print media, and to generate traffic on social media platforms. With information in abundance and attention scarce, the competition is ever fiercer with truth all too often becoming the first victim. Reality Lost: Markets of Attention, Misinformation and Manipulation is an analysis by philosophers Vincent F. Hendricks and Mads Vestergaard of the nuts and bolts of the information market, the attention economy and media eco-system which may pave way to postfactual democracy. Here misleading narratives become the basis for political opinion formation, debate, and legislation. To curb this development and the threat it poses to democratic deliberation, political self-determination and freedom, it is necessary that we first grasp the mechanisms and structural conditions that cause it.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2018-11-28
    Description: Life cycle and reproduction of Calanus hyperboreus were studied during a year of record low ice cover in the southeastern Beaufort Sea. Stages CIV, adult females and CV dominated the overwintering population, suggesting a 2- to 3-year life cycle. Within two spring-summer months in the upper water column females filled their energy reserves before initiating their downward seasonal migration. From February to March, vigorous reproduction (20–65 eggs f−1 d−1) delivered numerous eggs (29 000 eggs m−2) at depth and nauplii N1-N3 (17 000 ind. m−2) in the water column. However, CI copepodite recruitment in May, coincident with the phytoplankton bloom, was modest in Amundsen Gulf compared to sites outside the gulf. Consequently, C. hyperboreus abundance and biomass stagnated throughout summer in Amundsen Gulf. As a mismatch between the first-feeding stages and food was unlikely under the favourable feeding conditions of April-May 2008, predation on the egg and larval stages in late winter presumably limited subsequent recruitment and population growth. Particularly abundant in Amundsen Gulf, the copepods Metridia longa and C. glacialis were likely important consumers of C. hyperboreus eggs and nauplii. With the ongoing climate-driven lengthening of the ice-free season, intensification of top-down control of C. hyperboreus recruitment by thriving populations of mesopelagic omnivores and carnivores like M. longa may counteract the potential benefits of increased primary production over the Arctic shelves margins for this key prey of pelagic fish, seabirds and the bowhead whale.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2018-11-28
    Description: Protodunes emerge from a flat sand bed at the upwind margin of White Sands Dune Field, and, over several hundred meters, transition into fully developed dunes. Here, we investigate spatial and temporal changes in topography across this transition from 2007 to 2016 using lidar-derived topography, structure-from-motion-derived topography, and RTK GPS. We characterize the deposits present in 2015 using ground penetrating radar. Symmetric protodunes give way downwind to an asymmetric protodune at the transition to slipface development. Between 2007 and 2016, protodune amplitude increased from 0.2 m to 4.0 m, migration rate increased from 3.2 m/yr to 6.1 m/yr, and wavelength increased from 76 m to 122 m. Ground-penetrating radar surveys show strata between flat and 15° make up the stratigraphic architecture of the protodunes. Strata increase in steepness commensurate with an increase in amplitude. Decimeter accumulations of low-angle strata associated with initial protodune stages give way to 4 m of accumulation composed of sets up to 1 m thick prior to slipface development. Topsets present in the thickest sets indicate near critical angles of bedform climb. Growth and slipface development occur by aerodynamic sand trapping and protodune merging. Changes in asymmetry erase initial slipfaces prior to permanent slipface development, after which efficient sand trapping and scour promotes the transition to a dune across 20 m in 5 years. Protodune stratification has hallmarks of sandsheet stratification and can be appreciated within the greater suite of processes that create low-angle eolian stratification found in modern and ancient environments.
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2018-11-29
    Description: Germany’s ambition to promote sustainable energy globally, on the basis of its own “Energiewende,” has led to the development of a multi-faceted international energy transition policy with various activities and an agenda to promote renewables and energy efficiency abroad. While domestic energy policy developments in Germany have received substantial attention in research and public debate, this is still less true for the country’s international energy transition policy. With the new German government’s program now having taken shape and implementation starting, it is time to assess the foundations and likely direction of and the most relevant challenges for Germany’s efforts to promote sustainable energy internationally. This perspective article takes a look at the aspects shaping Germany’s outreach to partner countries outside the EU to promote sustainable energy and addresses open questions related to its agenda. Germany’s international energy transition policy builds on a longstanding track record, but in order to maintain credibility and visibility in leadership for sustainable energy, two key challenges remain: setbacks in domestic climate mitigation efforts are putting into question claims for climate leadership and struggles to expand the Energiewende beyond the electricity sector require a new spin to international collaboration efforts, more and more directed toward bidirectional exchange and mutual learning.
    Language: English
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  • 38
    Call number: M 18.91817
    Description / Table of Contents: This book is focused on the basics of applying thermochronology to geological and tectonic problems, with the emphasis on fission-track thermochronology. It is conceived for relatively new practitioners to thermochronology, as well as scientists experienced in the various methods. The book is structured in two parts. Part I is devoted to the fundamentals of the fission-track method, to its integration with other geochronologic methods, and to the basic principles of statistics for fission-track dating and sedimentology applied to detrital thermochronology. Part I also includes the historical development of the technique and thoughts on future directions. Part II is devoted to the geological interpretation of the thermochronologic record. The thermal frame of reference and the different approaches for the interpretation of fission-track data within a geological framework of both basement and detrital studies are discussed in detail. Separate chapters demonstrate the application of fission-track thermochronology from various perspectives (e.g., tectonics, petrology, stratigraphy, hydrocarbon exploration, geomorphology), with other chapters on the application to basement rocks in orogens, passive continental margins and cratonic interiors, as well as various applications of detrital thermochronology.
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XV, 393 Seiten , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9783319894195
    Series Statement: Springer Textbooks in Earth Sciences, Geography and Environment
    Classification: A.3.12.
    Language: English
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2018-12-04
    Description: Phylogenetic and taxonomic studies on the brown-rot fungi Postia and related genera, are carried out. Phylogenies of these fungi are reconstructed with multiple loci DNA sequences including the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS), the large subunit (nLSU) and the small subunit (nSSU) of nuclear ribosomal RNA gene, the small subunit of mitochondrial rRNA gene (mtSSU), the translation elongation factor 1-α gene (TEF1), the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB1) and the second subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2). Ten distinct clades of Postia s.lat. are recognized. Four new genera, Amaropostia, Calcipostia, Cystidiopostia and Fuscopostia, are established, and nine new species, Amaropostia hainanensis, Cyanosporus fusiformis, C. microporus, C. mongolicus, C. piceicola, C. subhirsutus, C. tricolor, C. ungulatus and Postia sublowei, are identified. Illustrated descriptions of the new genera and species are presented. Identification keys to Postia and related genera, as well as keys to the species of each genus, are provided.
    Keywords: Fomitopsidaceae ; multi-marker analyses ; Oligoporus ; phylogeny ; taxonomy ; Tyromyces ; wood-inhabiting fungi
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2018-12-04
    Description: Elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide are a common stressor for fish and other aquatic animals. In particular, intensive aquaculture can impose prolonged periods of severe environmental hypercapnia, manifold exceeding CO2 concentrations of natural habitats. In order to cope with this stressor, gills are essential and constitute the primary organ in the acclimatization process. Yet, despite a general understanding of changes in ion regulation, not much is known with regard to other cellular mechanisms. In this study, we apply RT-qPCR to investigate changes in the expression of several genes associated with metabolism, stress and immunity within gills of juvenile turbot (Psetta maxima) after an eight-week exposure to different concentrations of CO2 (low = ~3000 μatm, medium = ~15000 μatm and high = ~25000 μatm CO2). Histological examination of the gill tissue only found a significant increase of hypertrophied secondary lamella in the highest tested treatment level. gene expression results, on the other hand, implied both, mutual and dose-dependent transcriptional adjustments. Comparable up-regulation of IL-1ß, LMP7 and Grim19 at medium and high hypercapnia indicated an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within gill cells. Simultaneous increase in Akirin and PRDX transcripts at medium CO2 indicated enhanced anti-oxidant activity and regulation of transcription, while reduced mRNA concentrations of COX, EF1α and STAT2 at high CO2 denoted suppressed protein synthesis and reduced metabolic capacity. In addition to upregulated DFAD and ApoE expression, implying compensating repair measures, gills exposed to the highest tested treatment level seemed to operate close to or even beyond their maximum capacity. Thus, fitting the model of capacity limitation, our results provide evidence for accretive intracellular hypoxia and oxidative stress in the gills of turbot, dependent on the level of environmental hypercapnia. Further, genes, such as COX, may be valuable biomarkers when attempting to discriminate between a successful and an overpowered stress response.
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2018-12-04
    Description: Highlights • A small fraction of corrugated detachment fault surfaces is eventually exposed at the seafloor. • Seafloor slopes indicate effective friction of ∼0.2 on shallow part of detachments. • Moderate-offset detachment faults may be largely blanketed by hanging wall material. • Seafloor-shaping processes profoundly alter the morphology of oceanic core complexes. Abstract While oceanic detachment faults have been proposed to account for the accretion of ∼40% of new seafloor in the North Atlantic ocean, clear exposures of large-offset, often-corrugated fault surfaces remain scarce and spatially limited. To help resolve this paradox, we examine the conditions under which detachment fault growth may or may not lead to extensive exposure of corrugated fault planes at the seafloor. Using high-resolution bathymetry from four detachment faults at the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, we investigate the rafting of hanging wall-derived debris over emerging fault scarps, which can lead to covering shallow-dipping corrugated fault surfaces. We model this process using critical taper theory, and infer low effective friction coefficients (∼0.2) on the shallowest portion of detachment faults. A corollary to this result is that detachments emerging from the seafloor at angles 〈13° are more likely to become blanketed under an apron of hanging wall material. We generalize these findings as a simple model for the progressive exposure and flexural rotation of detachment footwalls, which accounts for the continued action of seafloor-shaping processes. Our model suggests that many moderate-offset, hidden detachment faults may exist along slow mid-ocean ridges, and do not feature an exposed fault surface.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2018-12-04
    Description: Highlights • Increased glacial sedimentation rates do not generate sufficient overpressure to trigger a landslide. • Simulated overpressures for different sedimentation scenarios do not significantly differ. • A glacimarine layer underneath rapidly-deposited sediments is important for overpressure build-up. • An earthquake of M6.9 or larger at a short distance from the Tampen Slide headwall could have triggered the Tampen Slide. Abstract Trough mouth fans are environments characterized by high sediment supply during glacial stages and the occurrence of large-scale instabilities. The geological record indicates that several of these environments have failed repeatedly resulting in large submarine landslides. The roles of sedimentation rate, weak layers, glacial loading and unloading as well as seismic activity on triggering megaslides in trough-mouth-fan systems is still unclear. A better understanding of the preconditioning factors, triggers and consequences of these landslides is crucial due to the hazard they pose to coastal communities and offshore industries. In this paper, we focus on the North Sea Trough Mouth Fan, which is the result of massive glacial sediment input delivered to the shelf edge through the Norwegian Channel, southeast Nordic Seas margin. The Tampen Slide, one of several large paleo-landslides that have happened within the North Sea Trough Mouth Fan, took place at c. 130 ka (end of MIS 6), and removed an estimated 1800 km3 of sediment. Here, we use boundary conditions from the Tampen Slide and 2D Finite Element Modeling (Abaqus software from Simulia) to evaluate the effects of variations in sedimentation rates as well as sediment properties on the generation of excess pore pressure, fluid flow, and slope stability along the axis of the trough-mouth-fan system. The model domain, 40 km in length and 2 km in height, is dominated by glacigenic debris flows and glacimarine sediment deposits. We use geotechnical data measured on samples of glacigenic and glacimarine sediment deposits from the nearby Ormen Lange gas field area to constrain the model. We evaluate the stability of the slope under various scenarios, including constant sediment loading, episodic changes in sedimentation rates and abrupt pulses in sediment delivery for a 61 kyr period (MIS 6). The models show that increased sedimentation rates during glacial stages do not generate sufficient excess pore pressure to set off a landslide. Furthermore, the simulated overpressures for the different sedimentation scenarios do not significantly differ at the end of the model runs. The results also highlight the importance of a basal glacimarine sediment layer underneath the rapidly-deposited sediments for the build-up of overpressure. Consequently, this glacimarine sediment layer has the inherited potential to act as a weak layer facilitating instability. However, as overpressure due to sediment deposition alone does not result in slope failure, we couple the preconditioned slope with earthquake ground shaking. Based on attenuation models, an earthquake of approximately M6.9 or larger at a short distance from the Tampen Slide headwall could have triggered the landslide. Therefore, we suggest glacial sedimentation and a glacimarine sediment layer to represent preconditioning factors, and seismic shaking as the final trigger mechanism for the Tampen Slide, i.e. similar to the situation that lead to the development of the Storegga Slide in the same area.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2018-12-04
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2018-12-04
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2018-12-04
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2018-12-04
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2018-12-06
    Description: Stable isotopes (15,14N, 18,16O) of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N) were measured in sediment porewaters and benthic flux chambers across the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) from 74 to 1000 m water depth. Sediments at all locations were net consumers of bottom water NO3−. In waters shallower than 400 m, this sink was largely attributed to dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) by filamentous nitrate-storing bacteria (Marithioploca and Beggiatoa) and to denitrification by foraminifera. The apparent N isotope effect of benthic NO3− loss (15εapp) was 7.4 ± 0.7‰ at microbial mat sites and 2.5 ± 0.9‰ at the lower fringe of the OMZ (400 m) where foraminifera were abundant. The OMZ sediments were a source of 15N-enriched NO2− (28.9 to 65.5‰) and NH4+ (19.4–20.5‰) to the bottom water. Model simulations generally support a previous hypothesis attributing the 15NH4+ enrichment to a coupling between DNRA and anammox (termed DAX) using biologically-stored NO3− from Marithioploca and NH4+ from the porewater. The model predicts that 40% of NO3− that is actively transported into the sediment by Marithioploca is reduced to N2 by this pathway. DAX enhances N2 fluxes by a factor of 2–3 and accounts for 70% of fixed N loss to N2. Moreover, because most of the ambient porewater NH4+ is generated by DNRA, up to two-thirds of biologically-transported NO3− could end up being lost to N2. This challenges the premise that Marithioploca-dominated sediments tend to conserve fixed N. By limiting the flux of 15NH4+ back to the ocean, DAX also tends to decrease benthic N fractionation. Tracking the fate of NH4+ once it leaves the sediment is critical for understanding how the benthos contributes to N isotope signals in the water column.
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2018-12-06
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  • 49
    Keywords: Machinery ; Engineering ; Artificial intelligence ; Service industries ; Manufacturing, Machines, Tools ; Computational Intelligence ; Artificial Intelligence (incl. Robotics) ; Services
    Notes: Chapter 4 is available open access under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License via link.springer.com | Contents: Introduction --- Engineering and business requirements definition, analysis and validation --- Life cycle Management for Product-Service Systems --- A Platform for Product-Service Design and Manufacturing Intelligence --- Tools and procedures to embed and retrieve Product-Service lifecycle knowledge --- Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Costing for PSS --- Use cases --- Business Exploitation
    Pages: IX, 143 pages : 85 illustrations, 84 illustrations in color
    ISBN: 978-3-319-95848-4
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2018-12-03
    Description: The chapter presents a review of sea ice properties in relation to sub-seasonal to seasonal (S2S) predictions in the Arctic and the Antarctic. After a concise presentation of the main processes governing sea ice physics, the spatial distribution, seasonal cycle, and variability of sea ice in both poles are described. Using a variety of observations and model reconstructions of the four recent decades, the memory of the main descriptors of the sea ice state is quantified. In both the Arctic and the Antarctic, persistence of the sea ice areal properties emerges as the primarily source of sea ice sub-seasonal predictability, with strong dependence on season. Further memory can be obtained from reemergence mechanisms, implying processes internal to sea ice and coupling with the atmosphere and the ocean. In addition, lessons from modeling studies are addressed in terms of potential sea ice predictability and actual predictive skill. Finally, the chapter provides an overview of our understanding of the possible role of sea ice as a source of S2S atmospheric predictability, both in the polar regions and beyond.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Inbook , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 51
    Cham : Springer
    Keywords: Citizenship ; Political sociology ; Political science ; Citizenship ; Political Sociology ; Public International Law ; Political Science
    Notes: This open access book raises crucial questions about the citizenship of the European Union. Is it a new citizenship beyond the nation-state although it is derived from Member State nationality? Who should get it? What rights and duties does it entail? Should EU citizens living in other Member States be able to vote there in national elections? If there are tensions between free movement and social rights, which should take priority? And should the European Court of Justice determine what European citizenship is about or the legislative institutions of the EU or national parliaments? This book collects a wide range of answers to these questions from legal scholars, political scientists, and political practitioners. It is structured as a series of three conversations in which authors respond to each other. This exchange of arguments provides unique depth to the debate | Contents: European Citizenship: Still a Fundamental Status?: Jo Shaw --- Part I: Should EU Citizens Living in Other Member States Vote There in National Elections?: EU-Citizens Should Have the Right to Vote in National Elections: Philippe Cayla and Catriona Seth --- EU Citizens Should Have Voting Rights in National Elections, but in Which Country?: Rainer Bauböck --- A European or a National Solution to the Democratic Deficit?: Alain Brun --- EU Accession to the ECHR Requires Ensuring the Franchise for EU Citizens in National Elections: Andrew Duff --- How to Enfranchise Second Country Nationals? Test the Options for Best Fit, Easiest Adoption and Lowest Costs: David Owen --- What’s in a People? Social Facts, Individual Choice, and the European Union: Dimitry Kochenov --- Testing the Bonds of Solidarity in Europe’s Common Citizenship Area: Jo Shaw --- ‘An Ever Closer Union Among the Peoples of Europe’: Union Citizenship, Democracy, Rights and the Enfranchisement of Second Country Nationals: Richard Bellamy --- Five Pragmatic Reasons for a Dialogue with and Between Member States on Free Movement and Voting Rights: Kees Groenendijk --- Don’t Start with Europeans First. An Initiative for Extending Voting Rights Should Also Promote Access to Citizenship for Third Country Nationals: Hannes Swoboda --- Voting Rights and Beyond...: Martin Wilhelm --- One Cannot Promote Free Movement of EU Citizens and Restrict Their Political Participation: Dora Kostakopoulou --- Second Country EU Citizens Voting in National Elections is an Important Step, but Other Steps Should be Taken First: Ángel Rodríguez --- A More Comprehensive Reform is Needed to Ensure that Mobile Citizens Can Vote: Sue Collard --- Incremental Changes are Not Enough - Voting Rights Are a Matter of Democratic Principle: Tony Venables --- Mobile Union Citizens Should Have Portable Voting Rights Within the EU: Roxana Barbulescu --- Concluding Remarks: Righting Democratic Wrongs: Philippe Cayla and Catriona Seth --- Part II: Freedom of Movement Under Attack: Is It Worth Defending as the Core of EU Citizenship?: Freedom of Movement Needs to Be Defended as the Core of EU Citizenship: Floris de Witte --- The Failure of Union Citizenship Beyond the Single Market: Daniel Thym --- State Citizenship, EU Citizenship and Freedom of Movement: Richard Bellamy --- Free Movement as a Means of Subject-Formation: Defending a More Relational Approach to EU Citizenship: Päivi Johanna Neuvonen --- Free Movement Emancipates, but What a Freedom This Is?: Vesco Paskalev --- Free Movement and EU Citizenship from the Perspective of Intra-European Mobility: Saara Koikkalainen --- The New Cleavage Between Mobile and Immobile Europeans: Rainer Bauböck --- Whose Freedom of Movement Is Worth Defending?: Sarah Fine --- The Court and the Legislators: Who Should Define the Scope of Free Movement in the EU?: Martijn van den Brink --- Reading Too Much and Too Little into the Matter? Latent Limits and Potentials of EU Freedom of Movement: Julija Sardelić --- What to Say to Those Who Stay? Free Movement Is a Human Right of Universal Value: Kieran Oberman --- Union Citizenship for UK Citizens: Glyn Morgan --- UK Citizens as Former EU Citizens: Predicament and Remedies: Reuven (Ruvi) Ziegler --- ‘Migrants’, ‘Mobile Citizens’ and the Borders of Exclusion in the European Union: Martin Ruhs --- EU Citizenship, Free Movement and Emancipation: A Rejoinder: Floris de Witte --- Part III: Should EU Citizenship Be Duty-Free?: EU Citizenship Needs a Stronger Social Dimension and Soft Duties: Maurizio Ferrera --- Liberal Citizenship Is Duty-Free: Christian Joppke --- Building Social Europe Requires Challenging the Judicialisation of Citizenship: Susanne K. Schmidt --- EU Citizenship Should Speak Both to the Mobile and the Non-Mobile European: Frank Vandenbroucke --- The Impact and Political Accountability of EU Citizenship: Dorte Sindbjerg Martinsen --- ‘Feed Them First, Then Ask Virtue of Them’: Broadening and Deepening Freedom of Movement: Andrea Sangiovanni --- EU Citizenship, Duties and Social Rights: Martin Seeleib-Kaiser --- Why Compensating the ‘Stayers’ for the Costs of Mobility is the Wrong Way to Go: Julia Hermann --- Balancing the Rights of European Citizenship with Duties Towards National Citizens: An Inter-national Perspective: Richard Bellamy --- Grab the Horns of the Dilemma and Ride the Bull: Rainer Bauböck --- Why Adding Duties to European Citizenship is Likely to Increase the Gap Between Europhiles and Eurosceptics: Theresa Kuhn --- Enhancing the Visibility of Social Europe: A Practical Agenda for ‘the Last Mile’: Ilaria Madama --- Towards a ‘Holding Environment’ for Europe’s (Diverse) Social Citizenship Regimes: Anton Hemerijck --- Imagine: European Union Social Citizenship and Post-Marshallian Rights and Duties: Dora Kostakopoulou --- Why the Crisis of European Citizenship Is a Crisis of European Democracy: Sandra Seubert --- Regaining the Trust of the Stay-at-Homes: Three Strategies: Philippe Van Parijs --- Social Citizenship, Democratic Values and European Integration: a Rejoinder: Maurizio Ferrera
    Pages: XVIII, 313 pages : 6 illustrations
    ISBN: 978-3-319-89904-6
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    Keywords: Public policy ; Political science ; Legislative bodies ; Europe-Politics and government ; Economic policy ; Social policy ; Public Policy ; Governance and Government ; Legislative and Executive Politics ; European Politics ; Political Economy/Economic Policy ; Social Policy
    Notes: Swiss citizens approve of their government and the way democracy is practiced; they trust the authorities and are satisfied with the range of services Swiss governments provide. This is quite unusual when compared to other countries. This open access book provides insight into the organization and the functioning of the Swiss state. It claims that, beyond politics, institutions and public administration, there are other factors which make a country successful. The authors argue that Switzerland is an interesting case, from a theoretical, scientific and a more practice-oriented perspective. While confronted with the same challenges as other countries, Switzerland offers different solutions, some of which work astonishingly well. Andreas Ladner is Professor for Political Institutions and Public Administration at the Institut de Hautes Études en Administration Publique (IDHEAP) at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland. His research interests include the quality of democracy, political institutions and public administration, local government, political parties and voting advice applications. Nils Soguel is Professor of Public Finance at the Institut de Hautes Études en Administration Publique at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland. His research interests include public sector financial management, fiscal policy, fiscal federalism and the evaluation of non-market goods and services. Yves Emery is Professor for Public Management and Human Resource at the Institut de Hautes Études en Administration Publique at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland. His areas of research include HRM strategies, work identities, motivation and competencies of civil servants and public managers. Sophie Weerts is Associate Professor of Public Law at the Institut de Hautes Études en Administration Publique at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland. Her research interests are in constitutional and administrative law. They focus on the structural sources and transformation of public law and the separation of powers. She also works on human rights, language policies and gender policy. Stéphane Nahrath is Professor of Public Policy at the Institut de Hautes Études en Administration Publique at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland. His areas of research include comparative public policy, sustainable resource management and circular economy | Contents: Introduction --- Society, Government, and the Political System Andreas Ladner --- The Organization and Provision of Public Services Andreas Ladner --- The Characteristics of Public Administration in Switzerland Andreas Ladner --- The concept of Law and the principe of legality Sophie Weerts --- The preparliamentary phase in law-drafting : the power issues at stake Christine Guy-Ecabert --- The Federal Administration as an actor in the domestic integration of international law Sophie Weerts / Amalia Sophia --- Soft Law Instruments in Public Law Alexandre Flückiger --- Judicial federalism and constitutional review in the Swiss Judiciary Pascal Mahon --- The new model of Swiss public management Jean-Loup Chappelet --- Public Private Partnerships: A Swiss Perspective Laure Athias / Moudo Macina / Pascal Wicht --- In-depth modernization of HRM in the public sector: the Swiss way Yves Emery --- Communication and Transparency Martial Pasquier --- The Road to Digital and Smart Government in Switzerland Tobias Mettler.-Financial management system, legislation and stakeholders Nils Soguel --- The Swiss way of presenting the governments’ financial statements Nils Soguel --- Tax power and tax competition Nils Soguel --- Fiscal Equalization: Financial transfers between governments Nils Soguel --- Social security policy Giuliano Bonoli --- Health Policy Josef Philipp Trein --- Policy Networks and the Role(s) of Public Administrations Frédéric Varone / Karin Miryam Ingold/ Manuel Fischer --- Factors contributing to the strong institutionalization of policy evaluation in Switzerland Katia Horber-Papazian / Marion Baud-Lavigne
    Pages: XXIX, 384 pages : 31 illustrations
    ISBN: 978-3-319-92380-2
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    Keywords: Internet marketing ; Digital media ; Philosophy ; Behavioral economics ; Online Marketing/Social Media ; Digital/New Media ; Philosophy of Technology ; Behavioral/Experimental Economics
    Notes: This open access book looks at how a democracy can devolve into a post-factual state. The media is being flooded by populist narratives, fake news, conspiracy theories and make-believe. Misinformation is turning into a challenge for all of us, whether politicians, journalists, or citizens. In the age of information, attention is a prime asset and may be converted into money, power, and influence – sometimes at the cost of facts. The point is to obtain exposure on the air and in print media, and to generate traffic on social media platforms. With information in abundance and attention scarce, the competition is ever fiercer with truth all too often becoming the first victim. Reality Lost: Markets of Attention, Misinformation and Manipulation is an analysis by philosophers Vincent F. Hendricks and Mads Vestergaard of the nuts and bolts of the information market, the attention economy and media eco-system which may pave way to postfactual democracy. Here misleading narratives become the basis for political opinion formation, debate, and legislation. To curb this development and the threat it poses to democratic deliberation, political self-determination and freedom, it is necessary that we first grasp the mechanisms and structural conditions that cause it. | Contents: Chapter 1. Attention Economics --- Chapter 2. The News Market --- Chapter 3. Attention Speculation and Political Bubbles --- Chapter 4. Alternative Facts, Misinformation, and Fake News --- Chapter 5. Fact Resistance, Populism, and Conspiracy Theory --- Chapter 6. The Post-Factual Democracy
    Pages: XXI, 144 pages : 49 illustrations
    ISBN: 978-3-030-00812-3
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    Pages: xvi, 287 Seiten , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9781138735828 , 9781315186313 (electronic)
    Series Statement: Routledge studies in energy transitions
    Language: English
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 55
    Description / Table of Contents: Chapter 1. Introduction -- Chapter 2. Glacier changes since the Little Ice Age -- Chapter 3. An inventory of proglacial systems in Austria, Switzerland and across Patagonia -- Chapter 4. Debris-covered glaciers -- Chapter 5. Closing the balance of ice, water and sediment fluxes through the terminus of Gepatschferner -- Chapter 6. (Ground) Ice in the proglacial zone -- Chapter 7. Periglacial morphodynamics in the Upper Kaunertal -- Chapter 8. Rock slope instability in the proglacial zone: State of the Art -- Chapter 9. Rockfall at proglacial rockwalls - A case study from the Kauner Valley, Austria -- Chapter 10. Glacial sediment stores and their re-working -- Chapter 11. Slope wash, gully erosion and debris flows on lateral moraines in the upper kaunertal, Austria -- Chapter 12. Sediment transport in proglacial rivers -- Chapter 13. Fluvial sediment transport in the proglacial Fagge River, Kaunertal, Austria -- Chapter 14. Proglacial lakes in high mountain environments -- Chapter 15. Sediment budgets in high-mountain areas: Review and challenges -- Chapter 16. Sediment connectivity in proglacial areas -- Chapter 17. A sediment budget of the Upper Kauner Valley -- Chapter 18. The uncalm development of proglacial soils in the European Alps since 1850 -- Chapter 19. Vegetation succession and biogeomorphic interactions in glacier forelands
    Description / Table of Contents: This book discusses the recession of alpine glaciers since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA), which has been accelerating in the past decades. It provides an overview of the research in the field, presenting definitions and information about the different proglacial areas and systems. A number of case studies are from the PROSA project group which encompasses the expertise of geomorphologists, geologists, glaciologists and geodesists. The PROSA joint project (High-resolution measurements of morphodynamics in rapidly changing PROglacial Systems of the Alps) is determined to tackle the problems of geomorphic activity on sediment export through a quantification of sediment fluxes effected by the aforementioned geomorphic processes within the forefield of the Gepatschferner glacier (Central Alps, Austria)
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (VI, 361 p. 123 illus., 83 illus. in color)
    Edition: Online edition Springer eBook Collection. Earth and Environmental Science
    ISBN: 9783319941844 , 9783319941820 (print) , 9783319941837 (print)
    Series Statement: Geography of the Physical Environment
    URL: Volltext  (ZZ)
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    Description / Table of Contents: List of Contributors -- 1 Fundamentals of Nonlinear Acoustical Techniques and Sideband Peak Count -- 2 Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy: Assessing Global Damage -- 3 Modelling and Numerical Simulations in Nonlinear Acoustics Used for Damage Detection -- 4 Structural Damage Detection Based on Nonlinear Acoustics - Application Examples -- 5 Nonlinear and Hysteretic Constitutive Models for Wave Propagation in Solid Media With Cracks and Contacts -- 6 Nonlinear Ultrasonic Techniques for Material Characterization -- 7 Nonlinear Ultrasonic Responses of Contacting Interfaces -- 8 Nonlinear Acoustic Response of Damage Applied for Diagnostic Imaging -- 9 Nonlinear Guided Waves and Thermal Stresses -- 10 Subharmonic Phased Array for Crack Evaluation (SPACE) -- 11 A Unified Treatment of Nonlinear Viscoelasticity and Non-Equilibrium Dynamics -- 12 Cement-Based Material Characterization Using Nonlinear Single Impact Resonant Acoustic Spectroscopy -- 13 Dynamic Acousto-Elastic Testing -- 14 Time Reversal Acoustics -- 15 Multiscale Quantification of Damage Precursor in Composites -- 16 Anharmonic Interactions of Probing Ultrasonic Waves with the Applied Loads Including Applications Suitable for Structural Health Monitoring -- 17 Noncontact Nonlinear Ultrasonic Wave Modulation for Fatigue Crack and Delamination Detection -- 18 Characterizing Fatigue Cracks Using Active Sensor Networks -- Index
    Description / Table of Contents: This multi-contributed volume provides a practical, applications-focused introduction to nonlinear acoustical techniques for nondestructive evaluation. Compared to linear techniques, nonlinear acoustical/ultrasonic techniques are much more sensitive to micro-cracks and other types of small distributed damages. Most materials and structures exhibit nonlinear behavior due to the formation of dislocation and micro-cracks from fatigue or other types of repetitive loadings well before detectable macro-cracks are formed. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) tools that have been developed based on nonlinear acoustical techniques are capable of providing early warnings about the possibility of structural failure before detectable macro-cracks are formed. This book presents the full range of nonlinear acoustical techniques used today for NDE. The expert chapters cover both theoretical and experimental aspects, but always with an eye towards applications. Unlike other titles currently available, which treat nonlinearity as a physics problem and focus on different analytical derivations, the present volume emphasizes NDE applications over detailed analytical derivations. The introductory chapter presents the fundamentals in a manner accessible to anyone with an undergraduate degree in Engineering or Physics and equips the reader with all of the necessary background to understand the remaining chapters. This self-contained volume will be a valuable reference to graduate students through practising researchers in Engineering, Materials Science, and Physics. Represents the first book on nonlinear acoustical techniques for NDE applications Emphasizes applications of nonlinear acoustical techniques Presents the fundamental physics and mathematics behind nonlinear acoustical phenomenon in a simple, easily understood manner Covers a variety of popular NDE techniques based on nonlinear acoustics in a single volume
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XIV, 759 p. 461 illus., 323 illus. in color)
    Edition: Online edition Springer eBook Collection. Engineering
    ISBN: 9783319944760 , 9783319944746 (print) , 9783319944753 (print)
    URL: Volltext  (ZZ)
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2018-12-07
    Description: This study presents new high resolution sedimentary δ15N records from piston cores collected within and outside the present-day eastern south Pacific oxygen minimum zone along a latitudinal transect from 3.5°S to 15°S. Radiocarbon dating of foraminifera and organic matter show that the cores cover the Holocene and the last deglaciation with high sedimentation rate allowing interpretations at millennial to centennial timescale. High δ15N values, reaching 10‰ and large amplitude changes, with a magnitude of ~4‰, are observed in the southern part of the studied area during the last 18 ka BP. In contrast, the northern Peruvian cores located on the edge of the OMZ show low δ15N values varying from 4 to 6‰ with amplitude of only 1‰, during the same time period. δ15N values decrease in all the studied cores from the last deglaciation to the early Holocene (17 to 8.5 ka BP) and reach a minimum value during the mid-Holocene. The δ15N variations are attributed to microbial N-loss to N2, e.g. denitrification and/or anammox, and the characteristic 15N-enriched signal that is recorded in the underlying sediments under suboxic to anoxic conditions where denitrifiers thrive. Surprisingly, δ15N values from cores located within the OMZ show similar values as the more northern cores located outside the OMZ between 5 and 8.5 ka BP. This minimum is not related to local changes in export production, reconstructed from sedimentary organic carbon, total nitrogen and bromine, but appears to be controlled by changes in the ventilation of the area. The low δ15N values recorded between 8.5 and 5 ka BP are well correlated with more arid conditions developed along the Peruvian margin and an increase of the sea surface temperature gradient along the Peruvian margin and between the West and East Pacific along the equator, implying an intensification of the Hadley circulation and climatic conditions similar to La Niña-like state. Consequently, these mid-Holocene conditions led to greater ventilation of subsurface waters that deepened the Peruvian oxycline then revealing similar conditions as observed today in the northern part of the study area.
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-26
    Description: The transformation of the Arctic due to climate change has wide-ranging impacts on the region’s people and ecosystems, not least because of the increasing accessibility of a more and more open Arctic Ocean. This concerns specifically the wide Arctic continental shelves that are expected to contain thus far undiscovered oil and natural gas resources. Against this background, geosciences can provide policy makers and stakeholders with essential knowledge to better understand and consequently respond to the uncertainties inherent in Arctic change processes. To highlight current and potential geoscientific contributions for a better understanding of the Arctic System, the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), the German Arctic Office at the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, and the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies e.V. Potsdam organized a workshop at the BGR in Hannover on 31 January and 1 February 2018, generously funded by the German Science Foundation (DFG). Leading experts from various geoscientific backgrounds provided key note talks on the changing environment in the Arctic, geological and climatic history, natural resources and exploration activities, impacts of hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, and governance and the legal regime of the Arctic. On day two of the workshop the participants, including senior and early career researchers from geosciences, environmental assessment, economics, political science and law, and humanities from Germany and abroad, formed three breakout groups to develop input for geoscientific contributions for a better understanding of the Arctic system. The groups focused on “Past, Present and Future of the Arctic”, “Natural Resources: exploration and exploitation”, and “Economic, legal and social risks and impacts”. The results of the breakout groups will provide a roadmap for a white paper outlining concrete ideas how geosciences in interdisciplinary cooperation with other disciplines can contribute to cutting edge Arctic research efforts and science-policy-society interactions. Recipients of the white paper include among others the German Science Foundation and the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC).
    Language: English
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-03
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    In:  Advances in Science and Research
    Publication Date: 2018-05-03
    Keywords: peer-reviewed
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-03
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-03
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-02
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-02
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-02
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-02
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-02
    Keywords: not peer-reviewed
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-02
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    facet.materialart.
    Springer
    In:  Factor X: Eco-Efficiency in Industry and Science | Eco-Efficiency in Industry and Science
    Publication Date: 2018-01-22
    Description: This chapter explores aspects of the relationship between the financial system and resource industries, starting with general criteria for sound investment and an overview of the various materials and resources that need to be distinguished. To this end, the focus is first placed on fossil energy commodities that do not lend themselves to management in a circular economy, before the metals and mining sector and its regulation are presented. The global transformation of energy systems presents an opportunity to phase out a non-circular industry and replace it with one that is characterised less by commodities for consumption and more by commodities for the manufacture of energy conversion equipment and durable investment goods. Combining the energy and mineral resource industries, the impact of the decline of fossil energy industries is discussed, including the implications for international trade, economic activity, public finance and the financial sector. The chapter concludes with the general argument that the financial system is affected by changes in the resource industries and their shift to a circular economy, and that it can facilitate that shift if the political, legal and regulatory framework is right. Finally, a suite of criteria for investment in support of resource sector transformation and the circular economy is proposed.
    Language: English
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