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  • facet.materialart.
    Nederlandse Faunistische Mededelingen (0169-2453) vol.45 (2105) p.1
    Publication Date: 2017-12-07
    Description: Goudwespen zijn fraaie insecten, met felle metaalkleuren in de tinten rood, groen en blauw. Ze parasiteren vaak bij bijen en angeldragende wespen. In dit artikel wordt de eerste vondst van Chrysis equestris voor Nederland beschreven, waarmee het aantal in Nederland gevonden soorten nu op 57 komt. Deze goudwesp parasiteert bij de plooivleugelwesp Discoelius zonalis. Ze wordt in haar hele areaal weinig gevangen.
    Keywords: Hymenoptera ; Chrysididae ; Chrysis equestris ; verspreiding ; biologie ; herkenning ; Nederland ; 42.75
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • Publication Date: 2017-06-02
    Description: The diversity of fusaria in symptomatic Citrus trees in Greece, Italy and Spain was evaluated using morphological and molecular multi-locus analyses based on fragments of the calmodulin (CAM), intergenic spacer region of the rDNA (IGS), internal transcribed spacer region of the rDNA (ITS), large subunit of the rDNA (LSU), RNA polymerase largest subunit (RPB1), RNA polymerase second largest subunit (RPB2), translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1α) and beta-tubulin (TUB) genes. A total of 11 species (six Fusarium spp., and five Neocosmospora spp.) were isolated from dry root rot, crown, trunk or twig canker or twig dieback of citrus trees. The most commonly isolated species were Fusarium sarcochroum, F. oxysporum and Neocosmospora solani. Three new Fusarium species are described, i.e., F. citricola and F. salinense belonging to the newly described F. citricola species complex; and F. siculi belonging to the F. fujikuroi species complex. Results of pathogenicity tests showed this new complex to include prominent canker causing agents affecting several Citrus spp. In addition, two new species are described in Neocosmospora, named N. croci and N. macrospora, the latter species being clearly differentiated from most members of this genus by producing large, up to nine-septate sporodochial conidia.
    Keywords: Citrus canker ; citrus dieback ; morphology ; multigene phylogeny ; systematics
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • Publication Date: 2017-06-15
    Description: Spacecraft control algorithms must know the expected vehicle response to any command to the available control effectors, such as reaction thrusters or torque devices. Spacecraft control system design approaches have traditionally relied on the estimated vehicle mass properties to determine the desired force and moment, as well as knowledge of the effector performance to efficiently control the spacecraft. A pattern recognition approach was used to investigate the relationship between the control effector commands and spacecraft responses. Instead of supplying the approximated vehicle properties and the thruster performance characteristics, a database of information relating the thruster ring commands and the desired vehicle response was used for closed-loop control. A Monte Carlo simulation data set of the spacecraft dynamic response to effector commands was analyzed to establish the influence a command has on the behavior of the spacecraft. A tool developed at NASA Johnson Space Center to analyze flight dynamics Monte Carlo data sets through pattern recognition methods was used to perform this analysis. Once a comprehensive data set relating spacecraft responses with commands was established, it was used in place of traditional control methods and gains set. This pattern recognition approach was compared with traditional control algorithms to determine the potential benefits and uses.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: JSC-CN-39663-2 , AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference (GN&C); 8-12 Jan. 2018; Kissimmee, FL; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-06-20
    Description: Optical navigation of human spacecraft was proposed on Gemini and implemented successfully on Apollo as a means of autonomously operating the vehicle in the event of lost communication with controllers on Earth. It shares a history with the "method of lunar distances" that was used in the 18th century and gained some notoriety after its use by Captain James Cook during his 1768 Pacific voyage of the HMS Endeavor. The Orion emergency return system utilizing optical navigation has matured in design over the last several years, and is currently undergoing the final implementation and test phase in preparation for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in 2019. The software development is being worked as a Government Furnished Equipment (GFE) project delivered as an application within the Core Flight Software of the Orion camera controller module. The mathematical formulation behind the initial ellipse fit in the image processing is detailed in Christian. The non-linear least squares refinement then follows the technique of Mortari as an estimation process of the planetary limb using the sigmoid function. The Orion optical navigation system uses a body fixed camera, a decision that was driven by mass and mechanism constraints. The general concept of operations involves a 2-hour pass once every 24 hours, with passes specifically placed before all maneuvers to supply accurate navigation information to guidance and targeting. The pass lengths are limited by thermal constraints on the vehicle since the OpNav attitude generally deviates from the thermally stable tail-to-sun attitude maintained during the rest of the orbit coast phase. Calibration is scheduled prior to every pass due to the unknown nature of thermal effects on the lens distortion and the mounting platform deformations between the camera and star trackers. The calibration technique is described in detail by Christian, et al. and simultaneously estimates the Brown-Conrady coefficients and the Star Tracker/Camera interlock angles. Accurate attitude information is provided by the star trackers during each pass. Figure 1 shows the various phases of lunar return navigation when the vehicle is in autonomous operation with lost ground communication. The midcourse maneuvers are placed to control the entry interface conditions to the desired corridor for safe landing. The general form of optical navigation on Orion is where still images of the Moon or Earth are processed to find the apparent angular diameter and centroid in the camera focal plane. This raw data is transformed into range and bearing angle measurements using planetary data and precise star tracker inertial attitude. The measurements are then sent to the main flight computer's Kalman filter to update the onboard state vector. The images are, of course, collected over an arc to converge the state and estimate velocity. The same basic technique was used by Apollo to satisfy loss-of-comm, but Apollo used manual crew sightings with a vehicle-integral sextant instead of autonomously processing optical imagery. The software development is past its Critical Design Review, and is progressing through test and certification for human rating. In support of this, a hardware-in-the-loop test rig was developed in the Johnson Space Center Electro-Optics Lab to exercise the OpNav system prior to integrated testing on the Orion vehicle. Figure 2 shows the rig, which the test team has dubbed OCILOT (Orion Camera In the Loop Optical Testbed). Analysis performed to date shows a delivery that satisfies an allowable entry corridor as shown in Figure 3.
    Keywords: Space Communications, Spacecraft Communications, Command and Tracking
    Type: JSC-CN-39678 , AIAA/AAS Space Flight Mechanics Meeting 2018; 8-12 Jan. 2018; Kissimmee, FL; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-06-28
    Description: Early crewed Mars mission concepts developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) assumed a single, large habitat would house six crew members for a 500-day Mars surface stay. At the end of the first mission, all surface equipment, including the habitat, -would be abandoned and the process would be repeated at a different Martian landing site. This work was documented in a series of NASA publications culminating with the Mars Design Reference Mission 5.0 (NASA-SP-2009-566). The Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) explored whether re-using surface equipment at a single landing site could be more affordable than the Apollo-style explore-abandon-repeat mission cadence. Initial EMC assumptions preserved the single, monolithic habitat, the only difference being a new requirement to reuse the surface habitat for multiple expedition crews. A trade study comparing a single large habitat versus smaller, modular habitats leaned towards the monolithic approach as more mass-efficient. More recent work has focused on the operational aspects of building up Mars surface infrastructure over multiple missions, and has identified compelling advantages of the modular approach that should be considered before making a final decision. This paper explores Mars surface mission operational concepts and integrated system analysis, and presents an argument for the modular habitat approach.
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support ; Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: JSC-CN-39761 , IEEE Aerospace Conference; 3-10 Mar. 2018; Big Sky, MT; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-06-28
    Description: When we send humans to search for life on other planets, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. To ensure our crewed systems meet planetary protection requirements-and to protect our science from human contamination-we'll need to assess whether microorganisms may be leaking or venting from our spacecraft. Microbial sample collection outside of a pressurized spacecraft is complicated by temperature extremes, low pressures that preclude the use of laboratory standard (wetted) swabs, and operation either in bulky spacesuits or with robotic assistance. Engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently developed a swab kit for use in collecting microbial samples from the external surfaces of crewed spacecraft, including spacesuits. The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Swab Kit consists of a single swab tool handle and an eight-canister sample caddy. The design team minimized development cost by re-purposing a heritage Space Shuttle tile repair handle that was designed to quickly snap into different tool attachments by engaging a mating device in each attachment. This allowed the tool handle to snap onto a fresh swab attachment much like popular shaving razor handles can snap onto a disposable blade cartridge. To disengage the handle from a swab, the user performs two independent functions, which can be done with a single hand. This dual operation mitigates the risk that a swab will be inadvertently released and lost in microgravity. Each swab attachment is fitted with commercially available foam swab tips, vendor-certified to be sterile for Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). A microbial filter installed in the bottom of each sample container allows the container to outgas and repressurize without introducing microbial contaminants to internal void spaces. Extensive ground testing, post-test handling, and sample analysis confirmed the design is able to maintain sterile conditions as the canister moves between various pressure environments. To further minimize cost, the design team acquired extensive ground test experience in a relevant flight environment by piggy-backing onto suited crew training runs. These training runs allowed the project to validate tool interfaces with pressurized EVA gloves and collect user feedback on the tool design and function, as well as characterize baseline microbial data for different types of spacesuits. In general, test subjects found the EVA Swab Kit relatively straightforward to operate, but identified a number of design improvements that will be incorporated into the final design. Although originally intended to help characterize human forward contaminants, this tool has other potential applications, such as for collecting and preserving space-exposed materials to support astrobiology experiments.
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support ; Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: JSC-CN-39729 , IEEE Aerospace Conference; 3-10 Mar. 2018; Big Sky, MT; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-07-27
    Description: A key decision facing Mars mission designers is how to power a crewed surface field station. Unlike the solar-powered Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) that could retreat to a very low power state during a Martian dust storm, human Mars surface missions are estimated to need at least 15 kilowatts of electrical (kWe) power simply to maintain critical life support and spacecraft functions. 'Hotel' loads alone for a pressurized crew rover approach two kWe; driving requires another five kWe-well beyond what the Curiosity rovers Radioisotope Power System (RPS) was designed to deliver. Full operation of a four-crew Mars field station is estimated at about 40 kWe. Clearly, a crewed Mars field station will require a substantial and reliable power source, beyond the scale of robotic mission experience. This paper explores the applications for both fission and RPS nuclear options for Mars.
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support
    Type: JSC-CN-39818 , IEEE Aerospace Conference; 3-10 Mar. 2018; Big Sky, MT; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-07-12
    Description: The NASA Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships (NextSTEP) program is a public-private partnership model that seeks commercial development of deep space exploration capabilities to support extensive human spaceflight missions around and beyond cislunar space. NASA first issued the Phase 1 NextSTEP Broad Agency Announcement to U.S. industries in 2014, which called for innovative cislunar habitation concepts that leveraged commercialization plans for low Earth orbit. These habitats will be part of the Deep Space Gateway (DSG), the cislunar space station planned by NASA for construction in the 2020s. In 2016, Phase 2 of the NextSTEP program selected five commercial partners to develop ground prototypes. A team of NASA research engineers and subject matter experts have been tasked with developing the ground test protocol that will serve as the primary means by which these Phase 2 prototype habitats will be evaluated. Since 2008, this core test team has successfully conducted multiple spaceflight analog mission evaluations utilizing a consistent set of operational products, tools, methods, and metrics to enable the iterative development, testing, analysis, and validation of evolving exploration architectures, operations concepts, and vehicle designs. The purpose of implementing a similar evaluation process for the NextSTEP Phase 2 Habitation Concepts is to consistently evaluate the different commercial partner ground prototypes to provide data-driven, actionable recommendations for Phase 3.
    Keywords: Ground Support Systems and Facilities (Space) ; Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: JSC-CN-39874 , IEEE Aerospace Conference 2018; 3-10 Mar. 2018; Big Sky, MT; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-07-12
    Description: The Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains (BASALT) project is a four-year program dedicated to iteratively designing, implementing, and evaluating concepts of operations (ConOps) and supporting capabilities to enable and enhance scientific exploration for future human Mars missions. The BASALT project has incorporated three field deployments during which real (non-simulated) biological and geochemical field science have been conducted at two high-fidelity Mars analog locations under simulated Mars mission conditions, including communication delays and data transmission limitations. BASALT's primary Science objective has been to extract basaltic samples for the purpose of investigating how microbial communities and habitability correlate with the physical and geochemical characteristics of chemically altered basalt environments. Field sites include the active East Rift Zone on the Big Island of Hawai'i, reminiscent of early Mars when basaltic volcanism and interaction with water were widespread, and the dormant eastern Snake River Plain in Idaho, similar to present-day Mars where basaltic volcanism is rare and most evidence for volcano-driven hydrothermal activity is relict. BASALT's primary Science Operations objective has been to investigate exploration ConOps and capabilities that facilitate scientific return during human-robotic exploration under Mars mission constraints. Each field deployment has consisted of ten extravehicular activities (EVAs) on the volcanic flows in which crews of two extravehicular and two intravehicular crewmembers conducted the field science while communicating across time delay and under bandwidth constraints with an Earth-based Mission Support Center (MSC) comprised of expert scientists and operators. Communication latencies of 5 and 15 min one-way light time and low (0.512 Mb/s uplink, 1.54 Mb/s downlink) and high (5.0 Mb/s uplink, 10.0 Mb/s downlink) bandwidth conditions were evaluated. EVA crewmembers communicated with the MSC via voice and text messaging. They also provided scientific instrument data, still imagery, video streams from chest-mounted cameras, GPS location tracking information. The MSC monitored and reviewed incoming data from the field across delay and provided recommendations for pre-sampling and sampling tasks based on their collective expertise. The scientists used dynamic priority ranking lists, referred to as dynamic leaderboards, to track and rank candidate samples relative to one another and against the science objectives for the current EVA and the overall mission. Updates to the dynamic leaderboards throughout the EVA were relayed regularly to the IV crewmembers. The use of these leaderboards enabled the crew to track the dynamic nature of the MSC recommendations and helped minimize crew idle time (defined as time spent waiting for input from Earth during which no other productive tasks are being performed). EVA timelines were strategically designed to enable continuous (delayed) feedback from an Earth-based Science Team while simultaneously minimizing crew idle time. Such timelines are operationally advantageous, reducing transport costs by eliminating the need for crews to return to the same locations on multiple EVAs while still providing opportunities for recommendations from science experts on Earth, and scientifically advantageous by minimizing the potential for cross-contamination across sites. This paper will highlight the space-to-ground interaction results from the three BASALT field deployments, including planned versus actual EVA timeline data, ground assimilation times (defined as the amount of time available to the MSC to provide input to the crew), and idle time. Furthermore, we describe how these results vary under the different communication latency and bandwidth conditions. Together, these data will provide a basis for guiding and prioritizing capability development for future human exploration missions.
    Keywords: Space Sciences (General)
    Type: JSC-CN-39879 , IEEE Aerospace Conference 2018; 3-10 Mar. 2018; Big Sky, MT ; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-09-05
    Description: Seafloor elongated depressions are indicators of gas seepage or slope instability. Here we report a sequence of slope-parallel elongated depressions that link to headwalls of sediment slides on upper slope. The depressions of about 250 m in width and several kilometers in length are areas of focused gas discharge indicated by bubble-release into the water column and methane enriched pore waters. Sparker seismic profiles running perpendicular and parallel to the coast, show gas migration pathways and trapped gas underneath these depressions with bright spots and seismic blanking. The data indicate that upward gas migration is the initial reason for fracturing sedimentary layers. In the top sediment where two young stages of landslides can be detected, the slope-parallel sediment weakening lengthens and deepens the surficial fractures, creating the elongated depressions in the seafloor supported by sediment erosion due to slope-parallel water currents.
    Repository Name: Oceanrep Geomar
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • Publication Date: 2017-09-27
    Description: NASA continues to advance plans to extend human presence beyond low-Earth orbit leading to human exploration of Mars. The plans being laid out follow an incremental path, beginning with initial flight tests followed by deployment of a Deep Space Gateway (DSG) in cislunar space. This Gateway, will serve as the initial transportation node for departing and returning Mars spacecraft. Human exploration of Mars represents the next leap for humankind because it will require leaving Earth on a long mission with very limited return, rescue, or resupply capabilities. Although Mars missions are long, approaches and technologies are desired which can reduce the time that the crew is away from Earth. This paper builds off past analyses of NASA's exploration strategy by providing more detail on the performance of alternative in-space transportation options with an emphasis on reducing total mission duration. Key options discussed include advanced chemical, nuclear thermal, nuclear electric, solar electric, as well as an emerging hybrid propulsion system which utilizes a combination of both solar electric and chemical propulsion.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration ; Spacecraft Propulsion and Power
    Type: JSC-CN-40290 , Annual IEEE Aerospace Conference 2018; 3 - 10 Mar. 2017; Big Sky, MT; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-09-27
    Description: Spaceflight impacts human physiology, including well documented immune system dysregulation. Diet, immune function, and the microbiome are interlinked, but diet is the only one of these factors that we have the ability to easily, and significantly, alter on Earth or during flight. As we understand dietary impacts on physiology more thoroughly, we may then improve the spaceflight diet to improve crew health and potentially reduce spaceflight-associated physiological alterations. It is expected that increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables and bioactive compounds (e.g., omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, flavonoids) and therefore enhancing overall nutritional intake from the nominal shelf-stable, fully-processed space food system could serve as a countermeasure to improve human immunological profiles, the taxonomic profile of the gut microbiota, and nutritional status, especially where currently dysregulated during spaceflight. This interdisciplinary study will determine the effect of the current shelf-stable spaceflight diet compared to an "enhanced" shelf-stable spaceflight diet (25% more foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, flavonoids, and more fruits, and vegetables in general). The NASA Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) 2017 missions, consisting of four 45-day missions with closed chamber confinement and realistic mission simulation in a high-fidelity mock space vehicle, will serve as a platform to replicate mission stressors and the effects on crew biochemistry, immunology, and the gut microbiome. Bio sampling of crewmembers is scheduled for selected intervals pre- and in-mission. Data collection also includes dietary intake recording. Outcome measures will include immune markers (e.g., peripheral leukocyte distribution, inflammatory cytokine profiles, T cell function), the taxonomic and metatranscriptomic profile of the gut microbiome, and nutritional status biomarkers and metabolites. Statistical evaluations will determine physiological and biochemical shifts in relation to nutrient intake and study phase. To date, sample collection has been completed for 2 crewmembers from the first mission, aka Campaign 4 Mission 1. Mission 2 was terminated after 22 days due to effects of Hurricane Harvey, and sample collection was not completed. Sample collection will continue for Campaign 4 Mission 3 and 4 prior to comprehensive sample analysis. Beneficial improvements will provide evidence of the impact of diet on crew health and adaptation to this spaceflight analog, and will aid in the design and development of more-efficient targeted dietary interventions for exploration missions.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine ; Life Sciences (General)
    Type: JSC-CN-40467 , 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop; 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • facet.materialart.
    Springer
    Factor X: Eco-Efficiency in Industry and Science | Eco-Efficiency in Industry and Science
    Publication Date: 2017-10-11
    Description: This chapter explores aspects of the relationship between the financial system and resource industries, starting with general criteria for sound investment and an overview of the various materials and resources that need to be distinguished. To this end, the focus is first placed on fossil energy commodities that do not lend themselves to management in a circular economy, before the metals and mining sector and its regulation are presented. The global transformation of energy systems presents an opportunity to phase out a non-circular industry and replace it with one that is characterised less by commodities for consumption and more by commodities for the manufacture of energy conversion equipment and durable investment goods. Combining the energy and mineral resource industries, the impact of the decline of fossil energy industries is discussed, including the implications for international trade, economic activity, public finance and the financial sector. The chapter concludes with the general argument that the financial system is affected by changes in the resource industries and their shift to a circular economy, and that it can facilitate that shift if the political, legal and regulatory framework is right. Finally, a suite of criteria for investment in support of resource sector transformation and the circular economy is proposed.
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/BookItem
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Description: Die Helmholtz-Allianz ENERGY-TRANS1 wurde im Jahr 2011 kurz nach den Ereignissen in Fukushima und den darauf folgenden Entscheidungen über die deutsche Energiewende gegründet und endete fristgerecht in 2016. Die Allianz war von der Ausgangsdiagnose getragen, dass die Energiewende – der rasche Ausstieg aus der Kernenergie und der langfristige Ausstieg aus den fossilen Energieträgern – weit mehr ist als ein technisches Projekt. Vielmehr bedeutet die Energiewende eine soziotechnische Transformation, in der dem gesellschaftlichen Anteil eine erhebliche, vielleicht entscheidende Bedeutung zukommt (dazu Abschnitt 2).
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/BookItem
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Description: Die Energiewende ist eines der ambitioniertesten politischen Transformationsvorhaben in der bundesdeutschen Geschichte (Ethikkommission Sichere Energieversorgung 2011). Die Systemtransformation ist eng verknüpft mit dem zeitlich darauf abgestimmten Um- und Ausbau der Stromnetzarchitektur. Der Trassenausbau gilt als Flaschenhals der Energiewende, er schafft die Voraussetzung zur Marktintegration der Erneuerbaren Energien (bdew, 2012; Schlacke und Kröger 2013).
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/BookItem
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Description: New energies form new energy landscapes (Apostol, Palmer, Pasqualetti, Smardon, & Sullivan, 2016; Gailing & Leibenath, 2013). Energy carriers converge within space and open up leeway and scope for design. Different spaces are affected: offshore and onshore, plains and mountains, waters, volcanic areas, coastal regions, deserts, etc. Different energy sources and types of technology are used and integrated through grids. Grids are increasingly governed as smart energy systems equipped with smart meters and apps etc., linked with smart mobility.
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/BookItem
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Description: This handbook offers the first comprehensive, state-of-the-field guide to past weather and climate and their role in human societies. Bringing together dozens of international specialists from the sciences and humanities, this volume describes the methods, sources, and major findings of historical climate reconstruction and impact research. Its chapters take the reader through each key source of past climate and weather information and each technique of analysis; through each historical period and region of the world; through the major topics of climate and history and core case studies; and finally through the history of climate ideas and science. Using clear, non-technical language, The Palgrave Handbook of Climate History serves as a textbook for students, a reference guide for specialists and an introduction to climate history for scholars and interested readers.
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Book
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    Palgrave Macmillan
    The Palgrave Handbook of Climate History
    Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/BookItem
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  • facet.materialart.
    Climate and Culture
    Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Book
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  • facet.materialart.
    Brill
    Climate and Culture in Europe
    Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Language: English
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    Palgrave Macmillan
    The Palgrave Handbook of Climate History
    Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Language: English
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Language: English
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Description: The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the collection, preparation, and analysis of tear biomarkers as a means of assessing ocular, neurological, and immunological health. At present, no published data exists on the cytokine profiles of tears from astronauts exposed to long periods of microgravity and space irradiations. In addition, no published data exist on cytokine (biomarker) profiles of tears that have been collected from irradiated non-human biological systems (primates and other animal models). A goal for the proposed pilot study is to discover novel tear biomarkers which can help inform researchers, clinicians, epidemiologist and healthcare providers about the health status of a living biological system, as well as informing them when a disease state is triggered. This would be done via analysis of the onset of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading up to the full progression of a disease (i.e. cancer, loss of vision, radiation-induced oxidative stress, cardiovascular disorders, fibrosis in major organs, bone loss). Another goal of this pilot study is to investigate the state of disease against proposed medical countermeasures, in order to determine whether the countermeasures are efficacious in preventing or mitigating these injuries. An example of an up and coming tear biomarker technology, Ascendant Dx, a clinical stage diagnostic company, is developing a screening test to detect breast cancer using proteins from tears. The team utilized Liquid Chromatography -Mass Spectrometry with Mass analysis (LC MS/MS) as a discovery platform followed by validation with ELISA to come up with a panel of protein biomarkers that can differentiate breast cancer samples from control ("cancer free") samples with results far surpassing the results of imaging techniques in use today. Continued research into additional proteins is underway to increase the sensitivity and specificity of the test and development efforts are on the way to transfer the test onto a fast, accurate and inexpensive point of care platform. In conclusion, the expected results from this proposed pilot study are to: a) establish an SOP for retrieving/storing/transporting tear fluid samples from multicentre sites b) establish a normal range for relevant biomarkers in tears; and c) establish a database (biobank) of tears of space nave versus veteran astronauts, to establish a personal baseline for long-term ocular health monitoring
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-40616 , 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS); 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Description: Retrospective research and medical data collected on astronauts can be a valuable resource for researchers. This data can be requested from two separate NASA Archives. The Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) holds astronaut medical data, and the Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA) holds research data. One condition of use of astronaut research and medical data is the requirement that all abstracts, publications and presentations using this data must be reviewed for attributability. All final versions of abstracts, presentations, posters, and manuscripts must be reviewed by LSDA/LSAH prior to submission to a conference, journal, or other entities outside the Principal Investigator (PI) laboratory [including the NASA Export Control Document Availability Authorization (DAA) system]. If material undergoes multiple revisions (e.g., journal editor comments), the new versions must also be reviewed by LSDA/LSAH prior to re-submission to the journal. The purpose of this review is to ensure that no personally identifiable information (PII) is included in materials that are presented in a public venue or posted to the public domain. The procedures for submitting materials for review will be outlined. The process that LSAH/LSDA follows for assessing attributability will be presented. Characteristics and parameter combinations that often prompt attributability concerns will be identified. A published case report for a National Football League (NFL) player will be used to demonstrate how, in a population of public interest, a combination of information can result in inadvertent release of private or sensitive information.
    Keywords: Administration and Management ; Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-40645 , 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS 2018); 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Description: The International Space Station Medical Projects (ISSMP) Element provides planning, integration, and implementation services for HRP research studies for both spaceflight and flight analog research. Through the implementation of these two efforts, ISSMP offers an innovative way of guiding research decisions to meet the unique challenges of understanding the human risks to space exploration. Flight services provided by ISSMP include leading informed consent briefings, developing and validating in-flight crew procedures, providing ISS crew and ground-controller training, real-time experiment monitoring, on-orbit experiment and hardware operations and facilitating data transfer to investigators. For analog studies at the NASA Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA), the ISSMP team provides subject recruitment and screening, science requirements integration, data collection schedules, data sharing agreements, mission scenarios and facilities to support investigators. The ISSMP also serves as the HRP interface to external analog providers including the :envihab bed rest facility (Cologne, Germany), NEK isolation chamber (Moscow, Russia) and the Antarctica research stations. Investigators working in either spaceflight or analog environments requires a coordinated effort between NASA and the investigators. The interdisciplinary nature of both flight and analog research requires investigators to be aware of concurrent research studies and take into account potential confounding factors that may impact their research objectives. Investigators must define clear research requirements, participate in Investigator Working Group meetings, obtain human use approvals, and provide study-specific training, sample and data collection and procedures all while adhering to schedule deadlines. These science requirements define the technical, functional and performance operations to meet the research objectives. The ISSMP maintains an expert team of professionals with the knowledge and experience to guide investigators science through all aspects of mission planning, crew operations, and research integration. During this session, the ISSMP team will discuss best-practices approaches for successfully preparing and conducting studies in both the flight and analog environments. Critical tips and tricks will be shown to greatly improve your chances of successfully completing your research aboard the International Space Station and in Spaceflight Analogs.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-40648 , 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS 2018); 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Description: The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element Systems Engineering (SE) goals include defining the technical system needed to support medical capabilities for a Mars exploration mission. A draft medical system architecture was developed based on stakeholder needs, system goals, and system behaviors, as captured in an ExMC concept of operations document and a system model. This talk will discuss a high-level view of the medical system, as part of a larger crew health and performance system, both of which will support crew during Deep Space Transport missions. Other mission components, such as the flight system, ground system, caregiver, and patient, will be discussed as aspects of the context because the medical system will have important interactions with each. Additionally, important interactions with other aspects of the crew health and performance system are anticipated, such as health & wellness, mission task performance support, and environmental protection. This talk will highlight areas in which we are working with other disciplines to understand these interactions.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine ; Space Transportation and Safety
    Type: JSC-CN-40554 , 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop; 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Description: The Portable Fan Assembly (PFA) is a variable speed fan that can be used to provide additional ventilation inside International Space Station (ISS) modules as needed for crew comfort or for enhanced mixing of the ISS atmosphere. This fan can also be configured with a Shuttle era lithium hydroxide (LiOH) canister for CO2 removal in confined areas partially of fully isolated from the primary Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) on ISS which is responsible for CO2 removal. This report documents noise emission levels of the PFA at various speed settings and configurations. It also documents the acoustic attenuation effects realized when circulating air through the PFA inlet and outlet mufflers and when operating in its CO2 removal configuration (CRK) with a LiOH canister (sorbent bed) installed over the fan outlet.
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support
    Type: JSC-CN-40592 , SEMI-THERM Annual Symposium & Exhibit; 19-23 Mar. 2018; San Jose, CA; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Description: Long duration missions will require astronauts to subsist on a closed food system for at least three years. Resupply will not be an option, and the food supply will be older at the time of consumption and more static in variety than previous missions. The space food variety requirements that will both supply nutrition and support continued interest in adequate consumption for a mission of this duration is unknown. Limited food variety of past space programs (Gemini, Apollo, International Space Station) as well as in military operations resulted in monotony, food aversion, and weight loss despite relatively short mission durations of a few days up to several months. In this study, food consumption data from 10 crew members on 3-6-month International Space Station missions was assessed to determine what percentage of the existing food variety was used by crew members, if the food choices correlated to the amount of time in orbit, and whether commonalities in food selections existed across crew members. Complete mission diet logs were recorded on ISS flights from 2008 - 2014, a period in which space food menu variety was consistent, but the food system underwent an extensive reformulation to reduce sodium content. Food consumption data was correlated to the Food on Orbit by Week logs, archived Data Usage Charts, and a food list categorization table using TRIFACTA software and queries in a SQL SERVER 2012 database.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: JSC-CN-40590 , 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop; 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-13
    Description: Vision changes identified in long duration spaceflight astronauts has led Space Medicine at NASA to adopt a more comprehensive clinical monitoring protocol. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was recently implemented at NASA, including on board the International Space Station in 2013. NASA is collaborating with Heidelberg Engineering to increase the fidelity of the current OCT data set by integrating the traditional circumpapillary OCT image with radial and horizontal block images at the optic nerve head. The retinal nerve fiber layer was segmented by two experienced individuals. Intra-rater (N=4 subjects and 70 images) and inter-rater (N=4 subjects and 221 images) agreement was performed. The results of this analysis and the potential benefits will be presented.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-40550 , NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS 2018) ; 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-14
    Description: The Heidelberg Spectralis "OCT2", which recently became commercially available, is going to be implemented at the Johnson Space Center Flight Medicine Clinic and on board the International Space Station. Due to the increased scan rate of the "OCT2", this upgrade will allow for significant reduction in valuable crew testing time and also allow for additional capabilities, like OCT Angiography and Multi-Color Fundus Imaging. Due to the custom scans used to monitor Space Flight-Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (SANS) in our crewmembers, an evaluation to assess the impacts of transitioning from "OCT1" to "OCT2" was performed. An engineering assessment (N=1) was performed to identify any potential impacts of maintaining an "OCT1" on board ISS while implementing an "OCT2" in the JSC Clinic. "OCT2" implementation will lag JSC FMC clinical implementation due to the flight certification/manifestation process. The clinical assessment was performed (n=12) to identify any impacts due to the replacement of the "OCT1" with the "OCT2" to the longitudinal OCT data across a crewmember's mission/lifetime. The qualitative results from the engineering and clinical evaluation will be reported, as well as the quantitative assessment of the clinical variables
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine ; Optics
    Type: JSC-CN-40591 , Annual NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS) 2018; 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-14
    Description: The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a virtual exercise training software system (VETSS) capable of providing real-time instruction and exercise feedback during exploration missions. A resistive exercise instructional system was developed using a Microsoft Kinect depth-camera device, which provides markerless 3-D whole-body motion capture at a small form factor and minimal setup effort. It was hypothesized that subjects using the newly developed instructional software tool would perform the deadlift exercise with more optimal kinematics and consistent technique than those without the instructional software. Following a comprehensive evaluation in the laboratory, the system was deployed for testing and refinement in the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) analog.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine ; Computer Programming and Software
    Type: JSC-CN-40675 , Annual NASA Human Research Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS) 2018; 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-21
    Description: The processed and prepackaged space food system is the main source of crew nutrition, and hence central to astronaut health and performance. Unfortunately, space food quality and nutrition degrade to unacceptable levels in two to three years with current food stabilization technologies. Future exploration missions will require a food system that remains safe, acceptable and nutritious through five years of storage within vehicle resource constraints. The potential of stabilization technologies (alternative storage temperatures, processing, formulation, ingredient source, packaging, and preparation procedures), when combined in hurdle approach, to mitigate quality and nutritional degradation is being assessed. Sixteen representative foods from the International Space Station food system were chosen for production and analysis and will be evaluated initially and at one, three, and five years with potential for analysis at seven years if necessary. Analysis includes changes in color, texture, nutrition, sensory quality, and rehydration ratio when applicable. The food samples will be stored at -20 C, 4 C, and 21 C. Select food samples will also be evaluated at -80 C to determine the impacts of ultra-cold storage after one and five years. Packaging film barrier properties and mechanical integrity will be assessed before and after processing and storage. At the study conclusion, if tested hurdles are adequate, formulation, processing, and storage combinations will be uniquely identified for processed food matrices to achieve a five-year shelf life. This study will provide one of the most comprehensive investigations of long duration food stability ever completed, and the achievement of extended food system stability will have profound impacts to health and performance for spaceflight crews and for relief efforts and military applications on Earth.
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support
    Type: JSC-CN-40588 , NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS 2018); 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-21
    Description: Historical solar particle events (SPEs) provide context for some understanding of acute radiation exposure risk to astronauts traveling outside of low Earth orbit. Modeling of potential doses delivered to exploration crewmembers anticipates limited radiation-induced health impacts, including prodromal symptoms of nausea, emesis, and fatigue, but suggests that more severe clinical manifestations are unlikely. Recent large animal-model research in space-analogs closely mimicking SPEs has identified coagulopathic events independent of the hematopoietic sequelae of higher radiation doses, similar in manifestation to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). We explored the challenges of clinical management of radiation-related clinical manifestations, using currently accepted modeling techniques and anticipated physiological sequelae, to identify medical capabilities needed to successfully manage SPE-induced radiation illnesses during exploration spaceflight.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-40647 , NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS 2018) ; 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-21
    Description: Deep Space Gateway and Transport missions will change the way NASA currently practices medicine. The missions will require more autonomous capability compared to current low Earth orbit operations. For the medical system, lack of consumable resupply, evacuation opportunities, and real-time ground support are key drivers toward greater autonomy. Recognition of the limited mission and vehicle resources available to carry out exploration missions motivates the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element's approach to enabling the necessary autonomy. The ExMC Systems Engineering team's mission is to "Define, develop, validate, and manage the technical system design needed to implement exploration medical capabilities for Mars and test the design in a progression of proving grounds." The Element's work must integrate with the overall exploration mission and vehicle design efforts to successfully provide exploration medical capabilities. ExMC is using Model-Based System Engineering (MBSE) to accomplish its integrative goals. The MBSE approach to medical system design offers a paradigm shift toward greater integration between vehicle and the medical system, and directly supports the transition of Earth-reliant ISS operations to the Earth-independent operations envisioned for Mars. This talk will discuss how ExMC is using MBSE to define operational needs, decompose requirements and architecture, and identify medical capabilities needed to support human exploration. How MBSE is being used to integrate across disciplines and NASA Centers will also be described. The medical system being discussed in this talk is one system within larger habitat systems. Data generated within the medical system will be inputs to other systems and vice versa. This talk will also describe the next steps in model development that include: modeling the different systems that comprise the larger system and interact with the medical system, understanding how the various systems work together, and developing tools to support trade studies.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine ; Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: JSC-CN-40594 , NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS 2018) ; 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-21
    Description: The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and future exploration missions are mass constrained; therefore we are challenged to reduce the mass of the food system by 10% while maintaining safety, nutrition, and acceptability to support crew health and performance for exploration missions. Meal replacement with nutritionally balanced, 700-900 calorie bars was identified as a method to reduce mass. However, commercially available products do not meet the requirements for a meal replacement in the spaceflight food system. The purpose of this task was to develop a variety of nutritionally balanced, high quality, breakfast replacement bars, which enable a 10% food mass savings. To date, six nutrient-dense meal replacement bars have been developed, all of which meet spaceflight nutritional, microbiological, sensory, and shelf-life requirements. The four highest scoring bars were evaluated based on final product sensory acceptability, nutritional stability, qualitative stability of analytical measurements (i.e. color and texture), and microbiological compliance over a period of two years to predict long-term acceptability. All bars maintained overall acceptability throughout the first year of storage, despite minor changes in color and texture. However, added vitamins C, B1, and B9 degraded rapidly in fortified samples of Banana Nut bars, indicating the need for additional development. In addition to shelf-life testing, four bar varieties were evaluated in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA), campaign 3, to assess the frequency with which actual meal replacement options may be implemented, based on impact to satiety and psychosocial measurements. Crewmembers (n=16) were asked to consume meal replacement bars every day for the first fifteen days of the mission and every three days for the second half of the mission. Daily surveys assessed the crew's responses to bar acceptability, mood, food fatigue and perceived stress. Preliminary results indicate that the majority of crew members were noncompliant with daily meal replacement during the first half of the mission. Several crew members chose to forgo the meal, resulting in caloric deficits that were higher on skipped-bar days. Body mass loss was significant throughout the mission. Although there was no significant difference in body mass loss overall between the first half and second half of the mission, a higher number of individual crew members lost more body mass in the first half of the mission. Analysis is still ongoing, but current trends suggest that daily involuntary meal replacement can lead to greater individual impacts on body mass and psychological factors, while meal replacement on a more limited basis may be acceptable to most crew for missions up to 30 days. This data should be considered in Orion mass trades with health and human performance.
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support ; Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-40656 , Human Research Program Investigator's Workshop (HRP IWS); 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-21
    Description: The yield of chromosomal aberrations has been shown to increase in the lymphocytes of astronauts after long-duration missions of several months in space. Chromosome exchanges, especially translocations, are positively correlated with many cancers and are therefore a potential biomarker of cancer risk associated with radiation exposure. Although extensive studies have been carried out on the induction of chromosomal aberrations by low- and high-LET radiation in human lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and epithelial cells exposed in vitro, there is a lack of data on chromosome aberrations induced by low dose-rate chronic exposure and mixed field beams such as those expected in space. Chromosome aberration studies at NSRL will provide the biological validation needed to extend the computational models over a broader range of experimental conditions (more complicated mixed fields leading up to the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) simulator), helping to reduce uncertainties in radiation quality effects and dose-rate dependence in cancer risk models. These models can then be used to answer some of the open questions regarding requirements for a full GCR reference field, including particle type and number, energy, dose rate, and delivery order. In this study, we designed a simplified mixed field beam with a combination of proton, helium, oxygen, and iron ions with shielding or proton, helium, oxygen, and titanium without shielding. Human fibroblasts cells were irradiated with these mixed field beam as well as each single beam with acute and chronic dose rate, and chromosome aberrations (CA) were measured with 3-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting methods. Frequency and type of CA induced with acute dose rate and chronic dose rates with single and mixed field beam will be discussed. A computational chromosome and radiation-induced DNA damage model, BDSTRACKS (Biological Damage by Stochastic Tracks), was updated to simulate various types of CA induced by acute exposures of the mixed field beams used for the experiments. The chromosomes were simulated by a polymer random walk algorithm with restrictions to their respective domains in the nucleus [1]. The stochastic dose to the nucleus was calculated with the code RITRACKS [2]. Irradiation of a target volume by a mixed field of ions was implemented within RITRACKs, and the fields of ions can be delivered over specific periods of time, allowing the simulation of dose-rate effects. Similarly, particles of various types and energies extracted from a pre-calculated spectra of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) can be used in RITRACKS. The number and spatial location of DSBs (DNA double-strand breaks) were calculated in BDSTRACKS using the simulated chromosomes and local (voxel) dose. Assuming that DSBs led to chromosome breaks, and simulating the rejoining of damaged chromosomes occurring during repair, BDSTRACKS produces the yield of various types of chromosome aberrations as a function of time (only final yields are presented). A comparison between experimental and simulation results will be shown.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-40693 , NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS 2018); 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-21
    Description: The suite of exercise hardware aboard the International Space Station (ISS) generates an immense amount of data. The data collected from the treadmill, cycle ergometer, and resistance strength training hardware are basic exercise parameters (time, heart rate, speed, load, etc.). The raw data are post processed in the laboratory and more detailed parameters are calculated from each exercise data file. Updates have recently been made to how this valuable data are stored, adding an additional level of data security, increasing data accessibility, and resulting in overall increased efficiency of medical report delivery. Questions regarding exercise performance or how exercise may influence other variables of crew health frequently arise within the crew health care community. Inquiries over the health of the exercise hardware often need quick analysis and response to ensure the exercise system is operable on a continuous basis. Consolidating all of the exercise system data in a single repository enables a quick response to both the medical and engineering communities. A SQL server database is currently in use, and provides a secure location for all of the exercise data starting at ISS Expedition 1 - current day. The database has been structured to update derived metrics automatically, making analysis and reporting available within minutes of dropping the inflight data it into the database. Commercial tools were evaluated to help aggregate and visualize data from the SQL database. The Tableau software provides manageable interface, which has improved the laboratory's output time of crew reports by 67%. Expansion of the SQL database to be inclusive of additional medical requirement metrics, addition of 'app-like' tools for mobile visualization, and collaborative use (e.g. operational support teams, research groups, and International Partners) of the data system is currently being explored.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-40679 , Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS); 22-25 Jan. 2018 ; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-21
    Description: Medical simulation is a useful tool that can be used to train personnel, develop medical processes, and assist cross-disciplinary communication. Medical simulations have been used in the past at NASA for these purposes, however they are usually created ad hoc. A stepwise approach to scenario development has not previously been used. The NASA Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) created a medical scenario development tool to test medical procedures, technologies, concepts of operation and for use in systems engineering (SE) processes.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-40664 , NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS 2018); 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-21
    Description: Exploration-class missions to the moon, Mars and beyond will require a significant change in medical capability from today's low earth orbit centric paradigm. Significant increases in autonomy will be required due to differences in duration, distance and orbital mechanics. Aerospace medicine and systems engineering teams are working together within ExMC to meet these challenges. Identifying exploration medical system needs requires accounting for planned and unplanned medical care as defined in the concept of operations. In 2017, the ExMC Clinicians group identified medical capabilities to feed into the Systems Engineering process, including: determining what and how to address planned and preventive medical care; defining an Accepted Medical Condition List (AMCL) of conditions that may occur and a subset of those that can be treated effectively within the exploration environment; and listing the medical capabilities needed to treat those conditions in the AMCL. This presentation will discuss the team's approach to addressing these issues, as well as how the outputs of the clinical process impact the systems engineering effort.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration ; Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-40551 , Annual NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS) 2018; 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-22
    Description: Sea ice is a critical component in the Arctic and global climate system, yet little is known about its extent and variability during past warm intervals, such as the Pliocene (5.33–2.58Ma). Here, we present the first multi-proxy (IP25, sterols, alkenones, palynology) sea ice reconstructions for the Late Pliocene Iceland Sea (ODP Site 907). Our interpretation of a seasonal sea ice cover with occasional ice-free intervals between 3.50–3.00Ma is supported by reconstructed alkenone-based summer sea surface temperatures. As evidenced from brassicasterol and dinosterol, primary productivity was low between 3.50 and 3.00Ma and the site experienced generally oligotrophic conditions. The East Greenland Current (and East Icelandic Current) may have transported sea ice into the Iceland Sea and/or brought cooler and fresher waters favoring local sea ice formation. Between 3.00 and 2.40Ma, the Iceland Sea is mainly sea ice-free, but seasonal sea ice occurred between 2.81 and 2.74Ma. Sea ice extending into the Iceland Sea at this time may have acted as a positive feedback for the build-up of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), which underwent a major expansion ∼2.75Ma. Thereafter, most likely a stable sea ice edge developed close to Greenland, possibly changing together with the expansion and retreat of the GIS and affecting the productivity in the Iceland Sea.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-23
    Description: The potential of crustose coralline algae as high-resolution archives of past ocean variability in mid- to high-latitudes has only recently been recognized. Few comparisons of coralline algal proxies, such as temperature-dependent algal magnesium to calcium (Mg/Ca) ratios, with in situ-measured surface ocean data exist, even rarer are well replicated records from individual sites. We present Mg/Ca records from nine coralline algal specimens (Clathromorphum compactum) from a single site in the Gulf of Maine, North Atlantic. Sections from algal mounds were analyzed using Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) yielding individual Mg/Ca records of up to 30 years in length. We first test intra- and intersample signal replication and show that algal Mg/Ca ratios are reproducible along several transects within individual sample specimens and between different samples from the same study site. In addition, LA-ICP-MS-derived Mg/Ca ratios are compared to electron microprobe (EMP) analyzed data on the longest-lived specimens and were found to be statistically commensurable. Second, we evaluate whether relationships between algal-based SST reconstructions and in situ temperature data can be improved by averaging Mg/Ca records from multiple algal specimens (intersample averages). We found that intersample averages yield stronger relationships to sea surface temperature (SST) data than Mg/Ca records derived from individual samples alone. Thus, Mg/Ca-based paleotemperature reconstructions from coralline algae can benefit from using multiple samples per site, and can expand temperature proxy precision from seasonal to monthly.
    Repository Name: Oceanrep Geomar
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-26
    Description: Accelerated research by NASA [1] has investigated the significant risks for visual and ocular impairments Spaceflight Associated Neuro-Ocular Syndrome /Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (SANS/VIIP) incurred by microgravity spaceflight, especially long-duration missions. Our study investigates the role of blood vessels in the incidence and etiology of SANS/VIIP within the retinas of Astronaut crewmembers pre-and post-flight to the International Space Station (ISS) by NASA's VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN). The response of retinal vessels in crewmembers to microgravity was compared to that of retinal vessels to Head-Down Tilt (HDT) in subjects undergoing 70-Day Bed Rest. The study tests the proposed hypothesis that cephalad fluid shifts missions, resulting in ocular and visual impairments, are necessarily mediated in part by retinal blood vessels, and are therefore accompanied by significant remodeling of retinal vasculature.Vascular patterns in the retinas of crew members and HDTBR subjects extracted from 30 infrared (IR) Heidelberg Spectralis images collected pre/postflight and pre/post HDTBR, respectively, were analyzed by VESGEN (patent pending). a mature, automated software developed as a research discovery tool for progressive vascular diseases in the retina and other tissues [2]. The weighted, multi-parametric VESGEN analysis generates maps of branching arterial and venous trees and quantification by parameters such as the fractal dimension (Df, a modern measure of vascular space-filling capacity), vessel diameters, and densities of vessel length and number classified into specific branching generations by vascular physiological branching rules [2,3]. The retrospective study approved by NASAs Institutional Review Board included six HDT subjects (NASA Flight Analogs Research Unit [FARU] Campaign 11; for example, [4]) and eight ISS crewmembers monitored by routine occupational surveillance who provided their study consents to NASAs Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH). For the initial blinded VESGEN phase, ophthalmic retinal images were masked as to subject identity and pre- and post-status. In the second unblinded phase, VESGEN results were analyzed according to the pre- and post-status of left and right retinas matched to each subject. To complete our study, vascular results will be subjected to NASA biostatistical analysis and correlated with other ophthalmic and medical findings. Preliminary results for changes in the pre- to post-status of vascular patterning in the retinas of crewmembers and HDT subjects are strikingly opposite. By Df and other vascular branching measures, the space-filling capacity of arterial and venous trees decreased in a substantial subset of crewmembers (11/16 retinas). In contrast, vascular densities increased in a substantial subset of HDT subjects by the same parameters (6/10 retinas, currently excluding one anomalous subject). To conclude the study, biostatistical and medical analyses will be of critical importance for investigating the validity of these vascular findings. Vascular densities appeared to decrease in the retinas of crewmembers following ISS Missions, and increase in subjects after HDT. The vascular increases and decreases most likely derive primarily from limits of resolution to the ophthalmic imaging that does not capture the smallest vessels, rather than from vessel growth or atrophy. Differences in arterial and venous response to cephalad fluid shifts induced by ISS and HDT may have resulted from a long-duration conditioning phenomenon (for example, 6-month ISS missions compared to 70-day HDT), or the presence of gravity in HDT compared to microgravity onboard the ISS. To conclude our study, the biostatistical and medical analyses will be of critical importance for investigating the validity and significance of the VESGEN findings.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-40700 , NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS 2018); 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-26
    Description: Exploration spaceflight poses several challenges to the provision of a comprehensive medication formulary. This formulary must accommodate the size and space limitations of the spacecraft, while addressing individual medication needs and preferences of the crew, consequences of a degrading inventory over time, the inability to resupply used or expired medications, and the need to forecast the best possible medication candidates to treat conditions that may occur. The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element's Pharmacy Project Team has developed a research plan (RP) that is focused on evidence-based models and theories as well as new diagnostic tools, treatments, or preventive measures aimed to ensure an available, safe, and effective pharmacy sufficient to manage potential medical threats during exploration spaceflight. Here, we will discuss the ways in which the ExMC Pharmacy Project Team pursued expert evaluation and guidance, and incorporated acquired insight into an achievable research pathway, reflected in the revised RP.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-40552 , NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS 2018); 22-25 Jan. 2017; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-26
    Description: Of the many possible health challenges posed during extended exploratory missions to space, the effects of space radiation on cardiovascular disease and cancer are of particular concern. There are unique challenges to estimating those radiation risks; care and appropriate and rigorous methodology should be applied when considering small cohorts such as the NASA astronaut population. The objective of this work was to establish whether there is evidence for excess cardiovascular disease or cancer mortality in an early NASA astronaut cohort and determine if a correlation exists between space radiation exposure and mortality.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-40709 , 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop; 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-28
    Description: ExMC is creating an ecosystem of tools to enable well-informed medical system trade studies. The suite of tools address important system implementation aspects of the space medical capabilities trade space and are being built using knowledge from the medical community regarding the unique aspects of space flight. Two integrating models, a systems engineering model and a medical risk analysis model, tie the tools together to produce an integrated assessment of the medical system and its ability to achieve medical system target requirements. This presentation will provide an overview of the various tools that are a part of the tool ecosystem. Initially, the presentation's focus will address the tools that supply the foundational information to the ecosystem. Specifically, the talk will describe how information that describes how medicine will be practiced is captured and categorized for efficient utilization in the tool suite. For example, the talk will include capturing what conditions will be planned for in-mission treatment, planned medical activities (e.g., periodic physical exam), required medical capabilities (e.g., provide imaging), and options to implement the capabilities (e.g., an ultrasound device). Database storage and configuration management will also be discussed. The presentation will include an overview of how these information tools will be tied to parameters in a Systems Modeling Language (SysML) model, allowing traceability to system behavioral, structural, and requirements content. The discussion will also describe an HRP-led enhanced risk assessment model developed to provide quantitative insight into each capability's contribution to mission success. Key outputs from these various tools, to be shared with the space medical and exploration mission development communities, will be assessments of medical system implementation option satisfaction of requirements and per-capability contributions toward achieving requirements.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-40593 , NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS) 2018; 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-28
    Description: Deep Space Gateway and Transport missions will change the way NASA currently practices medicine. The missions will require more autonomous capability compared to current low Earth orbit operations. For the medical system, lack of consumable resupply, evacuation opportunities, and real-time ground support are key drivers toward greater autonomy. Recognition of the limited mission and vehicle resources available to carry out exploration missions motivates the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element's approach to enabling the necessary autonomy. The ExMC Systems Engineering team's mission is to "Define, develop, validate, and manage the technical system design needed to implement exploration medical capabilities for Mars and test the design in a progression of proving grounds." The Element's work must integrate with the overall exploration mission and vehicle design efforts to successfully provide exploration medical capabilities. ExMC is using Model-Based System Engineering (MBSE) to accomplish its integrative goals. The MBSE approach to medical system design offers a paradigm shift toward greater integration between vehicle and the medical system, and directly supports the transition of Earth-reliant ISS operations to the Earth-independent operations envisioned for Mars. This talk will discuss how ExMC is using MBSE to define operational needs, decompose requirements and architecture, and identify medical capabilities needed to support human exploration. How MBSE is being used to integrate across disciplines and NASA Centers will also be described. The medical system being discussed in this talk is one system within larger habitat systems. Data generated within the medical system will be inputs to other systems and vice versa. This talk will also describe the next steps in model development that include: modeling the different systems that comprise the larger system and interact with the medical system, understanding how the various systems work together, and developing tools to support trade studies.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-40545 , NASA Human Research Program Investigator's Workshop (HRP IWS) 2018; 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-28
    Description: The code RITRACKS (Relativistic Ion Tracks) was developed to simulate detailed stochastic radiation track structures of ions of different types and energies. Many new capabilities were added to the code during the recent years. Several options were added to specify the times at which the tracks appear in the irradiated volume, allowing the simulation of dose-rate effects. The code has been used to simulate energy deposition in several targets: spherical, ellipsoidal and cylindrical. More recently, density changes as well as a spherical shell were implemented for spherical targets, in order to simulate energy deposition in walled tissue equivalent proportional counters. RITRACKS is used as a part of the new program BDSTracks (Biological Damage by Stochastic Tracks) to simulate several types of chromosome aberrations in various irradiation conditions. The simulation of damage to various DNA structures (linear and chromatin fiber) by direct and indirect effects has been improved and is ongoing. Many improvements were also made to the graphic user interface (GUI), including the addition of several labels allowing changes of units. A new GUI has been added to display the electron ejection vectors. The parallel calculation capabilities, notably the pre- and post-simulation processing on Windows and Linux machines have been reviewed to make them more portable between different systems. The calculation part is currently maintained in an Atlassian Stash repository for code tracking and possibly future collaboration.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine ; Space Radiation
    Type: JSC-CN-40692 , 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS 2018),; 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-28
    Description: A primary challenge NASA faces is communication between the disparate entities of engineers and human system experts in life sciences. Clear communication is critical for exploration mission success from the perspective of both risk analysis and data handling. The engineering community uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) models to inform their own risk analysis and has extensive experience managing mission data, but does not always fully consider human systems integration (HSI). The medical community, as a part of HSI, has been working 1) to develop a suite of tools to express medical risk in quantitative terms that are relatable to the engineering approaches commonly in use, and 2) to manage and integrate HSI data with engineering data. This talk will review the development of the Integrated Medical Model as an early attempt to bridge the communication gap between the medical and engineering communities in the language of PRA. This will also address data communication between the two entities in the context of data management considerations of the Medical Data Architecture. Lessons learned from these processes will help identify important elements to consider in future communication and integration of these two groups.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General) ; Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-40713 , NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS 2018); 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-28
    Description: Each exercise device on the International Space Station (ISS) has a unique, customized software system interface with unique layouts / hierarchy, and operational principles that require significant crew training. Furthermore, the software programs are not adaptable and provide no real-time feedback or motivation to enhance the exercise experience and/or prevent injuries. Additionally, the graphical user interfaces (GUI) of these systems present information through multiple layers resulting in difficulty navigating to the desired screens and functions. These limitations of current exercise device GUI's lead to increased crew time spent on initiating, loading, performing exercises, logging data and exiting the system. To address these limitations a Next Generation One Portal (NextGen One Portal) Crew Countermeasure System (CMS) was developed, which utilizes the latest industry guidelines in GUI designs to provide an intuitive ease of use approach (i.e., 80% of the functionality gained within 5-10 minutes of initial use without/limited formal training required). This is accomplished by providing a consistent interface using common software to reduce crew training, increase efficiency & user satisfaction while also reducing development & maintenance costs. Results from the usability evaluations showed the NextGen One Portal UI having greater efficiency, learnability, memorability, usability and overall user experience than the current Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) UI used by astronauts on ISS. Specifically, the design of the One-Portal UI as an app interface similar to those found on the Apple and Google's App Store, assisted many of the participants in grasping the concepts of the interface with minimum training. Although the NextGen One-Portal UI was shown to be an overall better interface, observations by the test facilitators noted specific exercise tasks appeared to have a significant impact on the NextGen One-Portal UI efficiency. Future updates to the NextGen One Portal UI will address these inefficiencies.
    Keywords: Computer Programming and Software ; Man/System Technology and Life Support
    Type: JSC-CN-40683 , NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS) 2018; 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-28
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support ; Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-40620 , NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS 2018); 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-30
    Description: Documenting the early tectonic and magmatic evolution of the Izu–Bonin–Mariana (IBM) arc system in the Western Pacific is critical for understanding the process and cause of subduction initiation along the current convergent margin between the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates. Forearc igneous sections provide firm evidence for seafloor spreading at the time of subduction initiation (52 Ma) and production of “forearc basalt”. Ocean floor drilling (International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 351) recovered basement-forming, low-Ti tholeiitic basalt crust formed shortly after subduction initiation but distal from the convergent margin (nominally reararc) of the future IBM arc (Amami Sankaku Basin: ASB). Radiometric dating of this basement gives an age range (49.3–46.8 Ma with a weighted average of 48.7 Ma) that overlaps that of basalt in the present-day IBM forearc, but up to 3.3 m.y. younger than the onset of forearc basalt activity. Similarity in age range and geochemical character between the reararc and forearc basalts implies that the ocean crust newly formed by seafloor spreading during subduction initiation extends from fore- to reararc of the present-day IBM arc. Given the age difference between the oldest forearc basalt and the ASB crust, asymmetric spreading caused by ridge migration might have taken place. This scenario for the formation of the ASB implies that the Mesozoic remnant arc terrane of the Daito Ridges comprised the overriding plate at subduction initiation. The juxtaposition of a relatively buoyant remnant arc terrane adjacent to an oceanic plate was more favourable for subduction initiation than would have been the case if both downgoing and overriding plates had been oceanic.
    Repository Name: Oceanrep Geomar
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • Publication Date: 2017-11-02
    Description: Anne-Katrin Holfelder geht der Frage nach, welche impliziten Wissensbestände bei Jugendlichen in Diskussionen nachhaltigkeitsrelevanter Themen urteils- und handlungsleitend sind. Die Ergebnisse zeigen eine Diskrepanz zwischen den auf expliziter Ebene geäußerten Einstellungen und Werten einerseits und den aus den impliziten Wissensbeständen rekonstruierten urteils- und handlungsleitenden Aspekten andererseits. Durch die Anbindung an den didaktischen Ansatz „Alltagsphantasien“ erscheint es im Kontext einer Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung (BNE) notwendig, die rekonstruierten impliziten Wissensbestände sowohl in konzeptionelle als auch in didaktische Überlegungen einzubeziehen.
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Book
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  • Publication Date: 2017-11-06
    Description: Estimating the efficiency and sustainability of geological subsurface utilization, i.e., Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) requires an integrated risk assessment approach, considering the occurring coupled processes, beside others, the potential reactivation of existing faults. In this context, hydraulic and mechanical parameter uncertainties as well as different injection rates have to be considered and quantified to elaborate reliable environmental impact assessments. Consequently, the required sensitivity analyses consume significant computational time due to the high number of realizations that have to be carried out. Due to the high computational costs of two-way coupled simulations in large-scale 3D multiphase fluid flow systems, these are not applicable for the purpose of uncertainty and risk assessments. Hence, an innovative semi-analytical hydromechanical coupling approach for hydraulic fault reactivation will be introduced. This approach determines the void ratio evolution in representative fault elements using one preliminary base simulation, considering one model geometry and one set of hydromechanical parameters. The void ratio development is then approximated and related to one reference pressure at the base of the fault. The parametrization of the resulting functions is then directly implemented into a multiphase fluid flow simulator to carry out the semi-analytical coupling for the simulation of hydromechanical processes. Hereby, the iterative parameter exchange between the multiphase and mechanical simulators is omitted, since the update of porosity and permeability is controlled by one reference pore pressure at the fault base. The suggested procedure is capable to reduce the computational time required by coupled hydromechanical simulations of a multitude of injection rates by a factor of up to 15.
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • facet.materialart.
    Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi (1878-9080) vol.40 (2018) p.26
    Publication Date: 2017-11-07
    Description: Nineteen Phaeoacremonium species are currently known in South Africa. These have been reported from grapevines, fruit trees, fynbos twig litter and arthropods. In other countries some of these Phaeoacremonium species are also known from hosts such as European olive, quince and willow that commonly occur in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, where most South African records of Phaeoacremonium have been made. The aim of this study was to investigate the species diversity and host-range of Phaeoacremonium in the Western Cape Province of South Africa by characterising 156 isolates collected from 29 woody hosts. Phylogenetic analyses of combined actin and beta-tubulin datasets allowed for the identification of 31 species among the 156 isolates, including 13 new species and 3 known species that had not been recorded in South Africa previously. The new Phaeoacremonium species include P. album, P. aureum, P. bibendum, P. gamsii, P. geminum, P. junior, P. longicollarum, P. meliae, P. oleae, P. paululum, P. proliferatum, P. rosicola and P. spadicum. All previous records of P. alvesii in South Africa were re-identified as P. italicum, but both species were recovered during this survey. A total of 35 described Phaeoacremonium species are now known from South Africa, more than double the number reported from any other country. This high diversity reflects the high diversity of indigenous flora of the Cape Floral Region, a biodiversity hotspot mainly situated in the Western Cape Province. Paraphyly and incongruence between individual phylogenies of the actin and beta-tubulin regions complicated species delimitation in some cases indicating that additional phylogenetic markers should be investigated for use in Phaeoacremonium phylogenies to prevent misidentifications and the introduction of vague species boundaries.
    Keywords: brown wood streaking ; decline disease ; phylogeny ; systematics ; Togninia
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • Publication Date: 2017-11-08
    Description: The NASA has determined that a multi-functional exercise device will be developed for use as an exercise device during exploration missions. The device will allow for full body resistance and metabolic exercise necessary to minimize physiological losses during space flight and to maintain fitness necessary to perform critical mission tasks. Prior to implementation as an exercise device on an Exploration vehicle, there will be verification and validation testing completed to determine device efficacy at providing the necessary training stimuli to achieve desired goals. Because the exploration device will be new device that has yet be specified, specific Verification and Validation (V&V) protocols have yet to be developed. Upon delivery of an exploration exercise device training unit, stakeholders throughout NASA will develop V&V plans that include ground-based testing and testing on the International Space Station (ISS). Stakeholders will develop test protocols that include success criterion for the device. Ground tests will occur at NASA Johnson Space Station prior to flight testing. The intents of the ground tests are to allow crew, spaceflight medicine, science, engineering, Astronaut Strength, Conditioning, and Reconditioning staff, and others to gain experience in the best utilization of the device. The goal is to obtain an evidence base for recommending use of the device on the ISS. The developed protocol will be created to achieve multiple objectives, including determining if the device provides an adequate training stimulus for 5th - 95th percentile males and females, allows for exercise modalities that protect functional capability, and is robust and can withstand extensive human use. Although protocols are yet to be determined, current expectations include use of the device by test subjects and current crew in order to obtain quantitative and qualitative feedback. Information obtained during the ground tests may be used to influence device modifications during design iterations. Assuming successful ground tests, the device will be installed on the ISS for testing during space flight. Spaceflight testing is envisioned to include an activation and checkout (ACO) phase and a V&V phase. During the ACO phase, 1-2 crewmembers will exercise with the device to ensure proper function. ACO is expected to last multiple months because of the many modes and methods of exercise that need to be assessed. However, the goal is to complete the ACO as quickly as possible. Once successful ACO occurs, the crew will be free to use the device for normal exercise pending concurrence from stakeholders. V&V tests on the ISS will ideally consist of crew using the device for all of their exercise for an entire mission. Exercise prescriptions will be supplied that replicate expected prescriptions during exploration missions. Crew that are not enrolled in the V&V studies would be also free to use the device as their schedule permits. As experience is gained by users, exercise protocols could change. The intent of all V&V testing is to ensure that all have thorough understanding of experience at optimizing device capability
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-40542 , Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS 2018); 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-11-10
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • Publication Date: 2017-11-09
    Description: Four stages of deposition regime have been detected on high-resolution seismic reflection profiles. First, in strata of Paleocene-Eocene age small vertical faults indicate differential compaction of probably anoxic sediments deposited in the still isolated Eurasian Basin. Than, a high-amplitude-reflector sequence indicates a time of widespread changes in deposition realm associated with the gradual opening of the Fram Strait and ongoing subsidence of the Lomonosov Ridge (LR) in Eocene and Oligocene. Episodical incursions of water masses from the North Atlantic were the consequences and led to the deposition of sediments of strongly different lithology. The third stage marks widespread and pelagic sedimentation since earliest Miocene. Sediment waves are evidence for paleo-bottom current activity and the onset of an ocean circulation system. The slope of the LR is structured into terraces, indicating fault-controlled sediment drifts arisen due to the onset and intensification of current circulation. Advanced deepening of the Fram Strait likely enabled an effective exchange of water masses between the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean. Continuous sagging of the LR, reactivation of former faults and bottom currents passing along the ridge may shape the steep sediment free flanks of the terraces in addition. At least, a continuous regional drape of reflectors marks the transition to glaciation of the northern hemisphere in early Pliocene.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Language: en
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • Publication Date: 2017-11-09
    Description: BACKGROUND: Acute effects of spaceflight on the cardiovascular system have been studied extensively, but the combined chronic effects of spaceflight and aging are not well understood. Preparation for and participation in spaceflight activities are associated with changes in the cardiovascular system such as decreased carotid artery distensibility and decreased ventricular mass which may lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Additionally, astronauts who travel into space multiple times or for longer durations may be at an increased risk across their lifespan. To that end, the purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of common cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes among the NASA astronaut corps during their active career and through retirement. METHODS: Cardiovascular disease outcomes were defined as reports of any of the following: myocardial infarction (MI), revascularization procedures (coronary artery bypass graft surgery [CABG] or percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]), hypertension, stroke or transient ischemic attack [TIA], heart failure, or total CVD (as defined by the AHA - combined outcome of MI, Angina Pectoris, heart failure, stroke, and hypertension). Each outcome was identified individually from review of NASA's Electronic Medical Record (EMR), EKG reports, and death certificates using ICD-9 codes as well as string searches of physician notes of astronaut exams that occurred between 1959 and 2016. RESULTS: Of 338 NASA astronauts selected as of 2016, 9 reported an MI, 12 reported a revascularization procedure, (7 PCI and 5 CABG), 4 reported Angina (without MI), 5 reported heart failure, 9 reported stroke/TIA, and 96 reported hypertension. Total CVD was reported in 105 astronauts. No astronaut who had an MI or revascularization procedure flew a spaceflight mission following the event. All MI, revascularization, and stroke events occurred in male astronauts. When reviewing astronaut ECG reports, abnormal ECG reports were found in only 8% of records (n=430) and mainly among retired astronauts (82%), with marked sinus bradycardia being the reason for the abnormal classification.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-40701 , 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS 2018); 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-11-13
    Description: Continental hyperextension during magma-poor rifting at the Deep Galicia Margin is characterised by a complex pattern of faulting, thin continental fault blocks, and the serpentinisation, with local exhumation, of mantle peridotites along the S-reflector, interpreted as a detachment surface. In order to understand fully the evolution of these features, it is important to image seismically the structure and to model the velocity structure to the greatest resolution possible. Travel-time tomography models have revealed the long-wavelength velocity structure of this hyperextended domain, but are often insufficient to match accurately the short-wavelength structure observed in reflection seismic imaging. Here we demonstrate the application of two-dimensional (2D) time-domain acoustic full-waveform inversion to deep water seismic data collected at the Deep Galicia Margin, in order to attain a high resolution velocity model of continental hyperextension. We have used several quality assurance procedures to assess the velocity model, including comparison of the observed and modelled waveforms, checkerboard tests, testing of parameter and inversion strategy, and comparison with the migrated reflection image. Our final model exhibits an increase in the resolution of subsurface velocities, with particular improvement observed in the westernmost continental fault blocks, with a clear rotation of the velocity field to match steeply dipping reflectors. Across the S-reflector there is a sharpening in the velocity contrast, with lower velocities beneath S indicative of preferential mantle serpentinisation. This study supports the hypothesis that normal faulting acts to hydrate the upper mantle peridotite, observed as a systematic decrease in seismic velocities, consistent with increased serpentinisation. Our results confirm the feasibility of applying the full-waveform inversion method to sparse, deep water crustal datasets.
    Repository Name: Oceanrep Geomar
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • facet.materialart.
    Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi (1878-9080) vol.40 (2018) p.63
    Publication Date: 2017-11-13
    Description: The Botryosphaeriaceae is a species-rich family that includes pathogens of a wide variety of plants, including species of Eucalyptus. Recently, during disease surveys in China, diseased samples associated with species of Botryosphaeriaceae were collected from plantation Eucalyptus and other plants, including Cunninghamina lanceolata, Dimocarpus longan, Melastoma sanguineum and Phoenix hanceana, which were growing adjacent to Eucalyptus. In addition, few samples from Araucaria cunninghamii and Cedrus deodara in two gardens were also included in this study. Disease symptoms observed mainly included stem canker, shoot and twig blight. In this study, 105 isolates of Botryosphaeriaceae were collected from six provinces, of which 81 isolates were from Eucalyptus trees. These isolates were identified based on comparisons of the DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions and intervening 5.8S nrRNA gene (ITS), and partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1), β-tubulin (tub), DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit (rpb2) and calmodulin (cmdA) genes, the nuclear ribosomal large subunit (LSU) and the nuclear ribosomal small subunit (SSU), and combined with their morphological characteristics. Results showed that these isolates represent 12 species of Botryosphaeriaceae, including Botryosphaeria fusispora, Cophinforma atrovirens, Lasiodiplodia brasiliense, L. pseudotheobromae, L. theobromae and Neofusicoccum parvum, and six previously undescribed species of Botryosphaeria and Neofusicoccum, namely B. pseudoramosa sp. nov., B. qingyuanensis sp. nov., B. wangensis sp. nov., N. hongkongense sp. nov., N. microconidium sp. nov. and N. sinoeucalypti sp. nov. Aside from B. wangensis, C. atrovirens and N. hongkongense, the other nine Botryosphaeriaceae species were isolated from Eucalyptus trees in South China. Botryosphaeria fusispora (26 % of the isolates from Eucalyptus) is the dominant species, followed by L. pseudotheobromae (23 % of the isolates from Eucalyptus). In addition to species found on Eucalyptus trees, we also found B. pseudoramosa on M. sanguineum; B. wangensis on C. deodara; C. atrovirens on D. longan; L. theobromae on C. lanceolata, D. longan and P. hanceana; and N. hongkongense on A. cunninghamii. Pathogenicity tests showed that the 12 species of Botryosphaeriaceae are pathogenic to three Eucalyptus clones and that Lasiodiplodia species are the most aggressive. The results of our study suggest that many more species of the Botryosphaeriaceae remain to be discovered in China. This study also provides confirmation for the wide host range of Botryosphaeriaceae species on different plants.
    Keywords: Botryosphaeria ; Cophinforma ; Lasiodiplodia ; Neofusicoccum ; pathogenicity ; plant pathogen
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • Publication Date: 2017-11-13
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  • Publication Date: 2017-11-14
    Description: The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle program was performing a proof pressure test on an engineering development unit (EDU) of the Orion Crew Module Side Hatch (CMSH) assembly. The purpose of the proof test was to demonstrate structural capability, with margin, at 1.5 times the maximum design pressure, before integrating the CMSH to the Orion Crew Module structural test article for subsequent pressure testing. The pressure test was performed at lower pressures of 3 psig, 10 psig and 15.75 psig with no apparent abnormal behavior or leaking. During pressurization to proof pressure of 23.32 psig, a loud 'pop' was heard at ~21.3 psig. Upon review into the test cell, it was noted that the hatch had prematurely separated from the proof test fixture, thus immediately ending the test. The proof pressure test was expected be a simple verification but has since evolved into a significant joint failure investigation from both Lockheed Martin and NASA.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: JSC-CN-40662 , Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium; 16-18 May 2018; Cleveland, OH; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-11-15
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  • Publication Date: 2017-11-17
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  • Publication Date: 2017-11-19
    Description: Integrating geophysics with geology, and specifically geochronology, reveals the complex tectonic history of Dronning Maud Land, an important part of East Antarctica and for Rodinia and Gondwana reconstructions. We recognise three major tectonic provinces: a westernmost part with Kalahari, Africa, affinities and an easternmost part from about 35°E with Indo-Antarctic affinities; sandwiched in between these two blocks, is an extensive region with juvenile Neoproterozoic crust (ca. 990-900 Ma), the Tonian Oceanic Arc Super Terrane (TOAST) that shows very limited signs of a pre-Neoproterozoic history. We have tested the spatial extent of the TOAST by a regional moraine study that confirm the lack of older material inland, though latest Mesoproterozoic juvenile rocks frequently do occur in the glacial drift and probably record a slightly earlier precursor of the TOAST inland. The TOAST records 150 Ma of almost continuous tectono-metamorphic reworking at medium- to high-grade metamorphic conditions between ca. 650 to 500 Ma. This long-lasting overprinting history is thought to record protracted accretion of ocean island arc terranes and the final amalgamation of East Antarctica along the major East African-Antarctic Orogen. There is no sign of significant metamorphic overprint immediately after the formation of TOAST. Therefore, these island arcs may have formed independent or peripheral to Rodinia and may reveal major accretionary tectonics outboard of Rodinia.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • Publication Date: 2017-11-20
    Description: Changes in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) strength exert a major influence on global atmospheric circulation patterns. However, the pacing and mechanisms of low-latitude responses to high-latitude forcing are insufficiently constrained so far. To elucidate the interaction of atmospheric and oceanic forcing in tropical South America during periods of major AMOC reductions (Heinrich Stadial 1 and the Younger Dryas) we generated a high-resolution foraminiferal multi-proxy record from off the Orinoco River based on Ba/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios, as well as stable isotope measurements. The data clearly indicate a three-phased structure of HS1 based on the reconfiguration of ocean currents in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The initial phase (HS1a) is characterized by a diminished North Brazil Current, a southward displacement of the ITCZ, and moist conditions dominating northeastern Brazil. During subsequent HS1b, the NBC was even more diminished or yet reversed and the ITCZ shifted to its southernmost position. Hence, dryer conditions prevailed in northern South America, while eastern Brazil experienced maximally wet conditions. During the final stage, HS1c, conditions are similar to HS1a. The YD represents a smaller amplitude version of HS1 with a southward-shifted ITCZ. Our findings imply that the low-latitude continental climate response to high-latitude forcing is mediated by reconfigurations of surface ocean currents in low latitudes. Our new records demonstrate the extreme sensitivity of the terrestrial realm in tropical South America to abrupt perturbations in oceanic circulation during periods of unstable climate conditions.
    Repository Name: Oceanrep Geomar
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • Publication Date: 2017-11-20
    Description: The stoichiometric dissociation constants of carbonic acid ( and ) were determined by measurement of all four measurable parameters of the carbonate system (total alkalinity, total dissolved inorganic carbon, pH on the total proton scale, and CO2 fugacity) in natural seawater and seawater-derived brines, with a major ion composition equivalent to that Reference Seawater, to practical salinity (SP) 100 and from 25 °C to the freezing point of these solutions and –6 °C temperature minimum. These values, reported in the total proton scale, provide the first such determinations at below-zero temperatures and for SP > 50. The temperature (T, in Kelvin) and SP dependence of the current and (as negative common logarithms) within the salinity and temperature ranges of this study (33 ≤ SP ≤ 100, –6 °C ≤ t ≤ 25 °C) is described by the following best-fit equations: = –176.48 + 6.14528 – 0.127714 SP + 7.396×10–5 + (9914.37 – 622.886 + 29.714 SP) T–1 + (26.05129 – 0.666812 ) lnT (σ = 0.011, n = 62), and = –323.52692 + 27.557655 + 0.154922 SP – 2.48396×10–4 + (14763.287 – 1014.819 – 14.35223 SP) T–1 + (50.385807 – 4.4630415 ) lnT (σ = 0.020, n = 62). These functions are suitable for application to investigations of the carbonate system of internal sea ice brines with a conservative major ion composition relative to that of Reference Seawater and within the temperature and salinity ranges of this study.
    Repository Name: Oceanrep Geomar
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • Publication Date: 2017-11-20
    Description: In the present study, various MD methods including Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics (EMD) and two different Non- Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD) methods are studied and compared for evaluation of the thermal conductivity and total and partial phonon density of states spectra in silicon nanowires, as a case study. The thermal conductivity of nanowires was determined as a function of length, cross section width and temperature. According to the results obtained via various MD methods, the thermal conductivity increases by increasing the length and cross section or decreasing the MD temperature. However, it was observed that despite the same initial conditions, different MD methods could predict considerably different values for the thermal conductivity which was found to be due to the different equilibrium temperature achieved in different methods. The total phonon density of states spectra was then employed to analyze the phonon transport properties of a 45 nm SiNW simulated using various MD techniques. Two major peaks were observed at around 16.5 and 5 THz which are attributed to Si-Si bond modes. Finally partial phonon density of states was calculated to differentiate the contributions to the phonon DOS from surface atoms compared to central atoms.
    Repository Name: Oceanrep Geomar
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • Publication Date: 2017-11-22
    Description: Alphaproteobacterium strain MOLA1416, related to Mycoplana ramosa DSM 7292 and Chelativorans intermedius CC-MHSW-5 (93.6% 16S rRNA sequence identity) was isolated from the marine lichen, Lichina pygmaea and its chemical composition was characterized by a metabolomic network analysis using LC-MS/MS data. Twenty-five putative different compounds were revealed using a dereplication workflow based on MS/MS signatures available through GNPS (https://gnps.ucsd.edu/). In total, ten chemical families were highlighted including isocoumarins, macrolactones, erythrinan alkaloids, prodiginines, isoflavones, cyclohexane-diones, sterols, diketopiperazines, amino-acids and most likely glucocorticoids. Among those compounds, two known metabolites (13 and 26) were isolated and structurally identified and metabolite 26 showed a high cytotoxic activity against B16 melanoma cell lines with an IC50 0.6 ± 0.07 μg/mL.
    Repository Name: Oceanrep Geomar
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • Publication Date: 2017-11-22
    Description: Late glacial and Holocene environmental history of Lake Łukie and its catchment is reconstructed from the lake sediments. This shallow lake is situated in the marshy Polesie region in eastern Poland. Sediments began to accumulate in the lake in the Older Dryas. On the basis of macrofossils, pollen, and Oribatida remains, and with the use of Kohonen's artificial neural network (self-organising map, SOM), six stages (corresponding to subclusters X1, X2, X3 in cluster X, and Y1, Y2, Y3 in cluster Y) of the lake history were distinguished, and indicator taxa of each stage were identified from the indicator value (IndVal) index. During the transition period corresponding to the border between X and Y, the ecosystem transformed in the broad sense from the protocratic to mesocratic phase in a 5-point scale transformation of the landscape in the glacial–interglacial cycle. All the steps involved in post-glacial history succession during interglacial cycles include changes in climate, soil, and biotic interactions. Indicator taxa for the subsequent SOM subclusters X1, X2, and X3 are associated with the first phase of the protocratic glacial–interglacial cycle. The transformation that occurs on the level of cluster Y (subcluster Y1) is the mesocratic phase (ca. 9000–5000 14C age BP), which is characterised by high temperatures and development of closed forest (climax forest). Subcluster Y2 corresponds to the transformation of forest cover during the oligocratic phase (ca. 5000–3000 14C age BP), which is associated with decreasing forest share and deteriorating soils. Finally, subcluster Y3 can be associated with the telocratic phase, characterised by the influence of a more oceanic climate (from ca. 2500 14C age BP) with declining temperatures, higher humidity, and milder seasonal contrasts, which contributed to the development of more open vegetation and infertile soils. This stage also corresponds to an increased human activity and landscape transformation, such as from forests to cornfields and from wetlands to meadows. Interestingly, the currently strictly protected brittle naiad (Najas minor) was present in the lake during the Atlantic, Subboreal, and Subatlantic periods; however, this species is not listed as being part of the present vegetation and may have become extinct relatively recently.
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • Publication Date: 2017-11-22
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  • Publication Date: 2017-11-21
    Description: The threat from micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts on space vehicles is often quantified in terms of the probability of no penetration (PNP). However, for large spacecraft, especially those with multiple compartments, a penetration may have a number of possible outcomes. The extent of the damage (diameter of hole, crack length or penetration depth), the location of the damage relative to critical equipment or crew, crew response, and even the time of day of the penetration are among the many factors that can affect the outcome. For the International Space Station (ISS), a Monte-Carlo style software code called Manned Spacecraft Crew Survivability (MSCSurv) is used to predict the probability of several outcomes of an MMOD penetration-broadly classified as loss of crew (LOC), crew evacuation (Evac), loss of escape vehicle (LEV), and nominal end of mission (NEOM). By generating large numbers of MMOD impacts (typically in the billions) and tracking the consequences, MSCSurv allows for the inclusion of a large number of parameters and models as well as enabling the consideration of uncertainties in the models and parameters. MSCSurv builds upon the results from NASA's Bumper software (which provides the probability of penetration and critical input data to MSCSurv) to allow analysts to estimate the probability of LOC, Evac, LEV, and NEOM. This paper briefly describes the overall methodology used by NASA to quantify LOC, Evac, LEV, and NEOM with particular emphasis on describing in broad terms how MSCSurv works and its capabilities and most significant models.
    Keywords: Space Transportation and Safety ; Statistics and Probability ; Computer Programming and Software
    Type: JSC-CN-39954 , IEEE Aerospace Conference 2018; 3-10 Mar. 2018; Big Sky, MT; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-11-24
    Description: The study reports on the differences between theoretically expected and effectively obtained volume fractions of THF hydrate depending on the THF-H2O ratio in the initial solution against the background of using it as a substitute for natural hydrate in laboratory simulations. Besides the stoichiometric solution, initial solutions with either H2O or THF as excess phase were prepared to define the wanted volume of hydrate in advance. In order to achieve a chemical equilibrium a complete conversion of H2O and THF into THF hydrate and the presence of a pure excess phase is impossible. Based on the specific enthalpy of hydrate- and ice melting gained from calorimetric measurements, considerably lower than expected hydrate volumes are concluded. For the stoichiometric solution, containing 19.1 Wt% THF, enthalpy recalculations and the occurrence of an ice melting endotherm indicate incomplete conversion with a residual of 4.3 Vol% unconverted THF-H2O solution. The deviations from expectations increase with decreasing amount of aspired THF hydrate saturation and are stronger when formed from H2O excess solutions with up to 25 Vol% less hydrate than projected for full conversion. THF-rich solutions form hydrate with melting enthalpies that recalculate for up to 15 Vol% hydrate less than theoretical assumptions. In samples with initial THF concentrations below 5 Wt% and above 82.7 Wt% no hydrate formation was evident. Based on the results we propose corrections to the initial solutions when defined THF hydrate volumes are required. Furthermore, THF excess and temperatures below zero assure stable conditions for hydrate-liquid setting at atmospheric pressure.
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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