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  • Publication Date: 2017-09-18
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • Publication Date: 2017-06-02
    Description: The diversity of fusaria in symptomatic Citrus trees in Greece, Italy and Spain was evaluated using morphological and molecular multi-locus analyses based on fragments of the calmodulin (CAM), intergenic spacer region of the rDNA (IGS), internal transcribed spacer region of the rDNA (ITS), large subunit of the rDNA (LSU), RNA polymerase largest subunit (RPB1), RNA polymerase second largest subunit (RPB2), translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1α) and beta-tubulin (TUB) genes. A total of 11 species (six Fusarium spp., and five Neocosmospora spp.) were isolated from dry root rot, crown, trunk or twig canker or twig dieback of citrus trees. The most commonly isolated species were Fusarium sarcochroum, F. oxysporum and Neocosmospora solani. Three new Fusarium species are described, i.e., F. citricola and F. salinense belonging to the newly described F. citricola species complex; and F. siculi belonging to the F. fujikuroi species complex. Results of pathogenicity tests showed this new complex to include prominent canker causing agents affecting several Citrus spp. In addition, two new species are described in Neocosmospora, named N. croci and N. macrospora, the latter species being clearly differentiated from most members of this genus by producing large, up to nine-septate sporodochial conidia.
    Keywords: Citrus canker ; citrus dieback ; morphology ; multigene phylogeny ; systematics
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • Publication Date: 2017-06-15
    Description: Spacecraft control algorithms must know the expected vehicle response to any command to the available control effectors, such as reaction thrusters or torque devices. Spacecraft control system design approaches have traditionally relied on the estimated vehicle mass properties to determine the desired force and moment, as well as knowledge of the effector performance to efficiently control the spacecraft. A pattern recognition approach was used to investigate the relationship between the control effector commands and spacecraft responses. Instead of supplying the approximated vehicle properties and the thruster performance characteristics, a database of information relating the thruster ring commands and the desired vehicle response was used for closed-loop control. A Monte Carlo simulation data set of the spacecraft dynamic response to effector commands was analyzed to establish the influence a command has on the behavior of the spacecraft. A tool developed at NASA Johnson Space Center to analyze flight dynamics Monte Carlo data sets through pattern recognition methods was used to perform this analysis. Once a comprehensive data set relating spacecraft responses with commands was established, it was used in place of traditional control methods and gains set. This pattern recognition approach was compared with traditional control algorithms to determine the potential benefits and uses.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: JSC-CN-39663-2 , AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference (GN&C); 8-12 Jan. 2018; Kissimmee, FL; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-06-20
    Description: Optical navigation of human spacecraft was proposed on Gemini and implemented successfully on Apollo as a means of autonomously operating the vehicle in the event of lost communication with controllers on Earth. It shares a history with the "method of lunar distances" that was used in the 18th century and gained some notoriety after its use by Captain James Cook during his 1768 Pacific voyage of the HMS Endeavor. The Orion emergency return system utilizing optical navigation has matured in design over the last several years, and is currently undergoing the final implementation and test phase in preparation for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in 2019. The software development is being worked as a Government Furnished Equipment (GFE) project delivered as an application within the Core Flight Software of the Orion camera controller module. The mathematical formulation behind the initial ellipse fit in the image processing is detailed in Christian. The non-linear least squares refinement then follows the technique of Mortari as an estimation process of the planetary limb using the sigmoid function. The Orion optical navigation system uses a body fixed camera, a decision that was driven by mass and mechanism constraints. The general concept of operations involves a 2-hour pass once every 24 hours, with passes specifically placed before all maneuvers to supply accurate navigation information to guidance and targeting. The pass lengths are limited by thermal constraints on the vehicle since the OpNav attitude generally deviates from the thermally stable tail-to-sun attitude maintained during the rest of the orbit coast phase. Calibration is scheduled prior to every pass due to the unknown nature of thermal effects on the lens distortion and the mounting platform deformations between the camera and star trackers. The calibration technique is described in detail by Christian, et al. and simultaneously estimates the Brown-Conrady coefficients and the Star Tracker/Camera interlock angles. Accurate attitude information is provided by the star trackers during each pass. Figure 1 shows the various phases of lunar return navigation when the vehicle is in autonomous operation with lost ground communication. The midcourse maneuvers are placed to control the entry interface conditions to the desired corridor for safe landing. The general form of optical navigation on Orion is where still images of the Moon or Earth are processed to find the apparent angular diameter and centroid in the camera focal plane. This raw data is transformed into range and bearing angle measurements using planetary data and precise star tracker inertial attitude. The measurements are then sent to the main flight computer's Kalman filter to update the onboard state vector. The images are, of course, collected over an arc to converge the state and estimate velocity. The same basic technique was used by Apollo to satisfy loss-of-comm, but Apollo used manual crew sightings with a vehicle-integral sextant instead of autonomously processing optical imagery. The software development is past its Critical Design Review, and is progressing through test and certification for human rating. In support of this, a hardware-in-the-loop test rig was developed in the Johnson Space Center Electro-Optics Lab to exercise the OpNav system prior to integrated testing on the Orion vehicle. Figure 2 shows the rig, which the test team has dubbed OCILOT (Orion Camera In the Loop Optical Testbed). Analysis performed to date shows a delivery that satisfies an allowable entry corridor as shown in Figure 3.
    Keywords: Space Communications, Spacecraft Communications, Command and Tracking
    Type: JSC-CN-39678 , AIAA/AAS Space Flight Mechanics Meeting 2018; 8-12 Jan. 2018; Kissimmee, FL; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-06-28
    Description: Early crewed Mars mission concepts developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) assumed a single, large habitat would house six crew members for a 500-day Mars surface stay. At the end of the first mission, all surface equipment, including the habitat, -would be abandoned and the process would be repeated at a different Martian landing site. This work was documented in a series of NASA publications culminating with the Mars Design Reference Mission 5.0 (NASA-SP-2009-566). The Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) explored whether re-using surface equipment at a single landing site could be more affordable than the Apollo-style explore-abandon-repeat mission cadence. Initial EMC assumptions preserved the single, monolithic habitat, the only difference being a new requirement to reuse the surface habitat for multiple expedition crews. A trade study comparing a single large habitat versus smaller, modular habitats leaned towards the monolithic approach as more mass-efficient. More recent work has focused on the operational aspects of building up Mars surface infrastructure over multiple missions, and has identified compelling advantages of the modular approach that should be considered before making a final decision. This paper explores Mars surface mission operational concepts and integrated system analysis, and presents an argument for the modular habitat approach.
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support ; Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: JSC-CN-39761 , IEEE Aerospace Conference; 3-10 Mar. 2018; Big Sky, MT; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-06-28
    Description: When we send humans to search for life on other planets, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. To ensure our crewed systems meet planetary protection requirements-and to protect our science from human contamination-we'll need to assess whether microorganisms may be leaking or venting from our spacecraft. Microbial sample collection outside of a pressurized spacecraft is complicated by temperature extremes, low pressures that preclude the use of laboratory standard (wetted) swabs, and operation either in bulky spacesuits or with robotic assistance. Engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently developed a swab kit for use in collecting microbial samples from the external surfaces of crewed spacecraft, including spacesuits. The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Swab Kit consists of a single swab tool handle and an eight-canister sample caddy. The design team minimized development cost by re-purposing a heritage Space Shuttle tile repair handle that was designed to quickly snap into different tool attachments by engaging a mating device in each attachment. This allowed the tool handle to snap onto a fresh swab attachment much like popular shaving razor handles can snap onto a disposable blade cartridge. To disengage the handle from a swab, the user performs two independent functions, which can be done with a single hand. This dual operation mitigates the risk that a swab will be inadvertently released and lost in microgravity. Each swab attachment is fitted with commercially available foam swab tips, vendor-certified to be sterile for Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). A microbial filter installed in the bottom of each sample container allows the container to outgas and repressurize without introducing microbial contaminants to internal void spaces. Extensive ground testing, post-test handling, and sample analysis confirmed the design is able to maintain sterile conditions as the canister moves between various pressure environments. To further minimize cost, the design team acquired extensive ground test experience in a relevant flight environment by piggy-backing onto suited crew training runs. These training runs allowed the project to validate tool interfaces with pressurized EVA gloves and collect user feedback on the tool design and function, as well as characterize baseline microbial data for different types of spacesuits. In general, test subjects found the EVA Swab Kit relatively straightforward to operate, but identified a number of design improvements that will be incorporated into the final design. Although originally intended to help characterize human forward contaminants, this tool has other potential applications, such as for collecting and preserving space-exposed materials to support astrobiology experiments.
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support ; Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: JSC-CN-39729 , IEEE Aerospace Conference; 3-10 Mar. 2018; Big Sky, MT; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-07-27
    Description: A key decision facing Mars mission designers is how to power a crewed surface field station. Unlike the solar-powered Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) that could retreat to a very low power state during a Martian dust storm, human Mars surface missions are estimated to need at least 15 kilowatts of electrical (kWe) power simply to maintain critical life support and spacecraft functions. 'Hotel' loads alone for a pressurized crew rover approach two kWe; driving requires another five kWe-well beyond what the Curiosity rovers Radioisotope Power System (RPS) was designed to deliver. Full operation of a four-crew Mars field station is estimated at about 40 kWe. Clearly, a crewed Mars field station will require a substantial and reliable power source, beyond the scale of robotic mission experience. This paper explores the applications for both fission and RPS nuclear options for Mars.
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support
    Type: JSC-CN-39818 , IEEE Aerospace Conference; 3-10 Mar. 2018; Big Sky, MT; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-07-12
    Description: The NASA Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships (NextSTEP) program is a public-private partnership model that seeks commercial development of deep space exploration capabilities to support extensive human spaceflight missions around and beyond cislunar space. NASA first issued the Phase 1 NextSTEP Broad Agency Announcement to U.S. industries in 2014, which called for innovative cislunar habitation concepts that leveraged commercialization plans for low Earth orbit. These habitats will be part of the Deep Space Gateway (DSG), the cislunar space station planned by NASA for construction in the 2020s. In 2016, Phase 2 of the NextSTEP program selected five commercial partners to develop ground prototypes. A team of NASA research engineers and subject matter experts have been tasked with developing the ground test protocol that will serve as the primary means by which these Phase 2 prototype habitats will be evaluated. Since 2008, this core test team has successfully conducted multiple spaceflight analog mission evaluations utilizing a consistent set of operational products, tools, methods, and metrics to enable the iterative development, testing, analysis, and validation of evolving exploration architectures, operations concepts, and vehicle designs. The purpose of implementing a similar evaluation process for the NextSTEP Phase 2 Habitation Concepts is to consistently evaluate the different commercial partner ground prototypes to provide data-driven, actionable recommendations for Phase 3.
    Keywords: Ground Support Systems and Facilities (Space) ; Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: JSC-CN-39874 , IEEE Aerospace Conference 2018; 3-10 Mar. 2018; Big Sky, MT; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-07-12
    Description: The Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains (BASALT) project is a four-year program dedicated to iteratively designing, implementing, and evaluating concepts of operations (ConOps) and supporting capabilities to enable and enhance scientific exploration for future human Mars missions. The BASALT project has incorporated three field deployments during which real (non-simulated) biological and geochemical field science have been conducted at two high-fidelity Mars analog locations under simulated Mars mission conditions, including communication delays and data transmission limitations. BASALT's primary Science objective has been to extract basaltic samples for the purpose of investigating how microbial communities and habitability correlate with the physical and geochemical characteristics of chemically altered basalt environments. Field sites include the active East Rift Zone on the Big Island of Hawai'i, reminiscent of early Mars when basaltic volcanism and interaction with water were widespread, and the dormant eastern Snake River Plain in Idaho, similar to present-day Mars where basaltic volcanism is rare and most evidence for volcano-driven hydrothermal activity is relict. BASALT's primary Science Operations objective has been to investigate exploration ConOps and capabilities that facilitate scientific return during human-robotic exploration under Mars mission constraints. Each field deployment has consisted of ten extravehicular activities (EVAs) on the volcanic flows in which crews of two extravehicular and two intravehicular crewmembers conducted the field science while communicating across time delay and under bandwidth constraints with an Earth-based Mission Support Center (MSC) comprised of expert scientists and operators. Communication latencies of 5 and 15 min one-way light time and low (0.512 Mb/s uplink, 1.54 Mb/s downlink) and high (5.0 Mb/s uplink, 10.0 Mb/s downlink) bandwidth conditions were evaluated. EVA crewmembers communicated with the MSC via voice and text messaging. They also provided scientific instrument data, still imagery, video streams from chest-mounted cameras, GPS location tracking information. The MSC monitored and reviewed incoming data from the field across delay and provided recommendations for pre-sampling and sampling tasks based on their collective expertise. The scientists used dynamic priority ranking lists, referred to as dynamic leaderboards, to track and rank candidate samples relative to one another and against the science objectives for the current EVA and the overall mission. Updates to the dynamic leaderboards throughout the EVA were relayed regularly to the IV crewmembers. The use of these leaderboards enabled the crew to track the dynamic nature of the MSC recommendations and helped minimize crew idle time (defined as time spent waiting for input from Earth during which no other productive tasks are being performed). EVA timelines were strategically designed to enable continuous (delayed) feedback from an Earth-based Science Team while simultaneously minimizing crew idle time. Such timelines are operationally advantageous, reducing transport costs by eliminating the need for crews to return to the same locations on multiple EVAs while still providing opportunities for recommendations from science experts on Earth, and scientifically advantageous by minimizing the potential for cross-contamination across sites. This paper will highlight the space-to-ground interaction results from the three BASALT field deployments, including planned versus actual EVA timeline data, ground assimilation times (defined as the amount of time available to the MSC to provide input to the crew), and idle time. Furthermore, we describe how these results vary under the different communication latency and bandwidth conditions. Together, these data will provide a basis for guiding and prioritizing capability development for future human exploration missions.
    Keywords: Space Sciences (General)
    Type: JSC-CN-39879 , IEEE Aerospace Conference 2018; 3-10 Mar. 2018; Big Sky, MT ; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-09-05
    Description: Seafloor elongated depressions are indicators of gas seepage or slope instability. Here we report a sequence of slope-parallel elongated depressions that link to headwalls of sediment slides on upper slope. The depressions of about 250 m in width and several kilometers in length are areas of focused gas discharge indicated by bubble-release into the water column and methane enriched pore waters. Sparker seismic profiles running perpendicular and parallel to the coast, show gas migration pathways and trapped gas underneath these depressions with bright spots and seismic blanking. The data indicate that upward gas migration is the initial reason for fracturing sedimentary layers. In the top sediment where two young stages of landslides can be detected, the slope-parallel sediment weakening lengthens and deepens the surficial fractures, creating the elongated depressions in the seafloor supported by sediment erosion due to slope-parallel water currents.
    Repository Name: Oceanrep Geomar
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
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  • facet.materialart.
    Springer
    In: Submarine geomorphology. , ed. by Micallef, A., Krastel, S. and Savini, A. Springer, Cham, pp. 481-502.
    Publication Date: 2017-09-11
    Description: Seafloor morphology plays a key role in submarine mineral exploration as precious minerals are associated with specific geomorphological settings. Mn-nodules occur in abyssal plains, seafloor massive sulphides are strongly connected to volcanic areas and sand, gravel and other marine minable aggregates are deposited in coastal environments. For resource assessments and exploitation, a detailed knowledge of the seafloor morphology is essential to evaluate areas of terrain that cannot be mined due to technical limitations, and to estimate abundance, extent and thickness of the deposits. The most important method used is multibeam mapping, from which bathymetric and backscatter data are derived. These are often linked to side scan sonar surveys and sub-bottom profiling. Optical video and photo data provide additional information about substrate type and ecology, and help improve and adapt exploration and exploitation plans and technology. For the three most important marine mineral types—sand and gravel, Mn-nodules and seafloor massive sulphides—exploration and exploitation methods are described and the environmental impacts associated with mining these resources are discussed.
    Repository Name: Oceanrep Geomar
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • Publication Date: 2017-09-27
    Description: NASA continues to advance plans to extend human presence beyond low-Earth orbit leading to human exploration of Mars. The plans being laid out follow an incremental path, beginning with initial flight tests followed by deployment of a Deep Space Gateway (DSG) in cislunar space. This Gateway, will serve as the initial transportation node for departing and returning Mars spacecraft. Human exploration of Mars represents the next leap for humankind because it will require leaving Earth on a long mission with very limited return, rescue, or resupply capabilities. Although Mars missions are long, approaches and technologies are desired which can reduce the time that the crew is away from Earth. This paper builds off past analyses of NASA's exploration strategy by providing more detail on the performance of alternative in-space transportation options with an emphasis on reducing total mission duration. Key options discussed include advanced chemical, nuclear thermal, nuclear electric, solar electric, as well as an emerging hybrid propulsion system which utilizes a combination of both solar electric and chemical propulsion.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration ; Spacecraft Propulsion and Power
    Type: JSC-CN-40290 , Annual IEEE Aerospace Conference 2018; 3 - 10 Mar. 2017; Big Sky, MT; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-09-27
    Description: Spaceflight impacts human physiology, including well documented immune system dysregulation. Diet, immune function, and the microbiome are interlinked, but diet is the only one of these factors that we have the ability to easily, and significantly, alter on Earth or during flight. As we understand dietary impacts on physiology more thoroughly, we may then improve the spaceflight diet to improve crew health and potentially reduce spaceflight-associated physiological alterations. It is expected that increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables and bioactive compounds (e.g., omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, flavonoids) and therefore enhancing overall nutritional intake from the nominal shelf-stable, fully-processed space food system could serve as a countermeasure to improve human immunological profiles, the taxonomic profile of the gut microbiota, and nutritional status, especially where currently dysregulated during spaceflight. This interdisciplinary study will determine the effect of the current shelf-stable spaceflight diet compared to an "enhanced" shelf-stable spaceflight diet (25% more foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, flavonoids, and more fruits, and vegetables in general). The NASA Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) 2017 missions, consisting of four 45-day missions with closed chamber confinement and realistic mission simulation in a high-fidelity mock space vehicle, will serve as a platform to replicate mission stressors and the effects on crew biochemistry, immunology, and the gut microbiome. Bio sampling of crewmembers is scheduled for selected intervals pre- and in-mission. Data collection also includes dietary intake recording. Outcome measures will include immune markers (e.g., peripheral leukocyte distribution, inflammatory cytokine profiles, T cell function), the taxonomic and metatranscriptomic profile of the gut microbiome, and nutritional status biomarkers and metabolites. Statistical evaluations will determine physiological and biochemical shifts in relation to nutrient intake and study phase. To date, sample collection has been completed for 2 crewmembers from the first mission, aka Campaign 4 Mission 1. Mission 2 was terminated after 22 days due to effects of Hurricane Harvey, and sample collection was not completed. Sample collection will continue for Campaign 4 Mission 3 and 4 prior to comprehensive sample analysis. Beneficial improvements will provide evidence of the impact of diet on crew health and adaptation to this spaceflight analog, and will aid in the design and development of more-efficient targeted dietary interventions for exploration missions.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine ; Life Sciences (General)
    Type: JSC-CN-40467 , 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop; 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Call number: IASS 17.90916
    Description / Table of Contents: Cover -- Half Title -- Title Page -- Copyright Page -- Contents -- List of figures and tables -- Contributors -- Acknowledgements -- List of abbreviations -- 1 Governance of offshore oil and gas in the Arctic: between diversity and coexistence -- PART I: Globalization and supra-nationalism in the Arctic -- 2 Framing the problem in Arctic offshore hydrocarbon exploitation -- 3 Sustainable development in Arctic international environmental cooperation and the governance of hydrocarbon-related activities -- 4 The EU's role as a facilitator in the development of maritime environmental law in the Arctic: with focus on offshore hydrocarbon activities -- 5 Indigenous rights in the marine Arctic -- PART II: National perspectives on offshore regulations -- 6 Alaska and offshore hydrocarbon extraction: a legal and socio-economic review -- 7 Governance of offshore hydrocarbon activities in the Arctic and energy policies: a comparative approach between Norway, Canada and Greenland/Denmark -- 8 The Russian offshore oil and gas regime: when tight control means less order -- 9 The Arctic offshore hydrocarbon hiatus of 2015: an opportunity to revisit regulation around the pole -- PART III: State-based approach, sub-states entities and indigenous peoples -- 10 Offshore development and Inuit rights in Inuit Nunangat -- 11 Securing the coastal Sámi culture and livelihood -- 12 Indigenous modes of ownership: reopening the case for communal rights in Greenland -- PART IV: Regulatory instruments and enforcement -- 13 Impact benefit agreements and economic and environmental risk management in the Arctic -- 14 Impact and benefit a greements in Greenland -- 15 The interplay between environmental research and environmental regulation of offshore oil activities in Greenland -- 16 Towards an integrated and participatory governance of the Arctic marine areas -- Index
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: xx, 299 Seiten , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9781472471505 (hbk) , 9781317125914 (ebk)
    Series Statement: Global Governance
    Language: English
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • Monograph available for loan
    New York : Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group
    Call number: IASS 17.90959
    Description / Table of Contents: Introduction -- The rise of regulatory governance -- Theories of regulation -- Regulatory space and regulatory regimes -- Policy processes and the regulatory policy cycle -- Bad, better and legitimate regulation -- Define: agenda-setting, issue diagnosis and objective setting -- Design: regime variables; option generation -- Decide: regime assessment and selection -- Implement: regime deployment, application and execution -- Evaluate: assessment of regulatory policy and regime -- The future of regulatory governance -- Conclusion
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: xi, 288 Seiten , Illustrationen , 24 cm
    ISBN: 9781138935587 (hbk) , 9781315677286 (ebk)
    Series Statement: Routledge critical studies in public management
    Language: English
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-11
    Description: Anne-Katrin Holfelder geht der Frage nach, welche impliziten Wissensbestände bei Jugendlichen in Diskussionen nachhaltigkeitsrelevanter Themen urteils- und handlungsleitend sind. Die Ergebnisse zeigen eine Diskrepanz zwischen den auf expliziter Ebene geäußerten Einstellungen und Werten einerseits und den aus den impliziten Wissensbeständen rekonstruierten urteils- und handlungsleitenden Aspekten andererseits. Durch die Anbindung an den didaktischen Ansatz „Alltagsphantasien“ erscheint es im Kontext einer Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung (BNE) notwendig, die rekonstruierten impliziten Wissensbestände sowohl in konzeptionelle als auch in didaktische Überlegungen einzubeziehen.
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Book
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    Springer
    Factor X: Eco-Efficiency in Industry and Science | Eco-Efficiency in Industry and Science
    Publication Date: 2017-10-11
    Description: This chapter explores aspects of the relationship between the financial system and resource industries, starting with general criteria for sound investment and an overview of the various materials and resources that need to be distinguished. To this end, the focus is first placed on fossil energy commodities that do not lend themselves to management in a circular economy, before the metals and mining sector and its regulation are presented. The global transformation of energy systems presents an opportunity to phase out a non-circular industry and replace it with one that is characterised less by commodities for consumption and more by commodities for the manufacture of energy conversion equipment and durable investment goods. Combining the energy and mineral resource industries, the impact of the decline of fossil energy industries is discussed, including the implications for international trade, economic activity, public finance and the financial sector. The chapter concludes with the general argument that the financial system is affected by changes in the resource industries and their shift to a circular economy, and that it can facilitate that shift if the political, legal and regulatory framework is right. Finally, a suite of criteria for investment in support of resource sector transformation and the circular economy is proposed.
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/BookItem
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Description: Die Helmholtz-Allianz ENERGY-TRANS1 wurde im Jahr 2011 kurz nach den Ereignissen in Fukushima und den darauf folgenden Entscheidungen über die deutsche Energiewende gegründet und endete fristgerecht in 2016. Die Allianz war von der Ausgangsdiagnose getragen, dass die Energiewende – der rasche Ausstieg aus der Kernenergie und der langfristige Ausstieg aus den fossilen Energieträgern – weit mehr ist als ein technisches Projekt. Vielmehr bedeutet die Energiewende eine soziotechnische Transformation, in der dem gesellschaftlichen Anteil eine erhebliche, vielleicht entscheidende Bedeutung zukommt (dazu Abschnitt 2).
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/BookItem
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Description: Die Energiewende ist eines der ambitioniertesten politischen Transformationsvorhaben in der bundesdeutschen Geschichte (Ethikkommission Sichere Energieversorgung 2011). Die Systemtransformation ist eng verknüpft mit dem zeitlich darauf abgestimmten Um- und Ausbau der Stromnetzarchitektur. Der Trassenausbau gilt als Flaschenhals der Energiewende, er schafft die Voraussetzung zur Marktintegration der Erneuerbaren Energien (bdew, 2012; Schlacke und Kröger 2013).
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/BookItem
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Description: New energies form new energy landscapes (Apostol, Palmer, Pasqualetti, Smardon, & Sullivan, 2016; Gailing & Leibenath, 2013). Energy carriers converge within space and open up leeway and scope for design. Different spaces are affected: offshore and onshore, plains and mountains, waters, volcanic areas, coastal regions, deserts, etc. Different energy sources and types of technology are used and integrated through grids. Grids are increasingly governed as smart energy systems equipped with smart meters and apps etc., linked with smart mobility.
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/BookItem
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Description: This handbook offers the first comprehensive, state-of-the-field guide to past weather and climate and their role in human societies. Bringing together dozens of international specialists from the sciences and humanities, this volume describes the methods, sources, and major findings of historical climate reconstruction and impact research. Its chapters take the reader through each key source of past climate and weather information and each technique of analysis; through each historical period and region of the world; through the major topics of climate and history and core case studies; and finally through the history of climate ideas and science. Using clear, non-technical language, The Palgrave Handbook of Climate History serves as a textbook for students, a reference guide for specialists and an introduction to climate history for scholars and interested readers.
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Book
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    Palgrave Macmillan
    The Palgrave Handbook of Climate History
    Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/BookItem
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    Climate and Culture
    Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Book
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    Brill
    Climate and Culture in Europe
    Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/BookItem
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    Palgrave Macmillan
    The Palgrave Handbook of Climate History
    Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Language: English
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Language: English
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Description: The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the collection, preparation, and analysis of tear biomarkers as a means of assessing ocular, neurological, and immunological health. At present, no published data exists on the cytokine profiles of tears from astronauts exposed to long periods of microgravity and space irradiations. In addition, no published data exist on cytokine (biomarker) profiles of tears that have been collected from irradiated non-human biological systems (primates and other animal models). A goal for the proposed pilot study is to discover novel tear biomarkers which can help inform researchers, clinicians, epidemiologist and healthcare providers about the health status of a living biological system, as well as informing them when a disease state is triggered. This would be done via analysis of the onset of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading up to the full progression of a disease (i.e. cancer, loss of vision, radiation-induced oxidative stress, cardiovascular disorders, fibrosis in major organs, bone loss). Another goal of this pilot study is to investigate the state of disease against proposed medical countermeasures, in order to determine whether the countermeasures are efficacious in preventing or mitigating these injuries. An example of an up and coming tear biomarker technology, Ascendant Dx, a clinical stage diagnostic company, is developing a screening test to detect breast cancer using proteins from tears. The team utilized Liquid Chromatography -Mass Spectrometry with Mass analysis (LC MS/MS) as a discovery platform followed by validation with ELISA to come up with a panel of protein biomarkers that can differentiate breast cancer samples from control ("cancer free") samples with results far surpassing the results of imaging techniques in use today. Continued research into additional proteins is underway to increase the sensitivity and specificity of the test and development efforts are on the way to transfer the test onto a fast, accurate and inexpensive point of care platform. In conclusion, the expected results from this proposed pilot study are to: a) establish an SOP for retrieving/storing/transporting tear fluid samples from multicentre sites b) establish a normal range for relevant biomarkers in tears; and c) establish a database (biobank) of tears of space nave versus veteran astronauts, to establish a personal baseline for long-term ocular health monitoring
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-40616 , 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS); 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Description: Retrospective research and medical data collected on astronauts can be a valuable resource for researchers. This data can be requested from two separate NASA Archives. The Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) holds astronaut medical data, and the Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA) holds research data. One condition of use of astronaut research and medical data is the requirement that all abstracts, publications and presentations using this data must be reviewed for attributability. All final versions of abstracts, presentations, posters, and manuscripts must be reviewed by LSDA/LSAH prior to submission to a conference, journal, or other entities outside the Principal Investigator (PI) laboratory [including the NASA Export Control Document Availability Authorization (DAA) system]. If material undergoes multiple revisions (e.g., journal editor comments), the new versions must also be reviewed by LSDA/LSAH prior to re-submission to the journal. The purpose of this review is to ensure that no personally identifiable information (PII) is included in materials that are presented in a public venue or posted to the public domain. The procedures for submitting materials for review will be outlined. The process that LSAH/LSDA follows for assessing attributability will be presented. Characteristics and parameter combinations that often prompt attributability concerns will be identified. A published case report for a National Football League (NFL) player will be used to demonstrate how, in a population of public interest, a combination of information can result in inadvertent release of private or sensitive information.
    Keywords: Administration and Management ; Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-40645 , 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS 2018); 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Description: The International Space Station Medical Projects (ISSMP) Element provides planning, integration, and implementation services for HRP research studies for both spaceflight and flight analog research. Through the implementation of these two efforts, ISSMP offers an innovative way of guiding research decisions to meet the unique challenges of understanding the human risks to space exploration. Flight services provided by ISSMP include leading informed consent briefings, developing and validating in-flight crew procedures, providing ISS crew and ground-controller training, real-time experiment monitoring, on-orbit experiment and hardware operations and facilitating data transfer to investigators. For analog studies at the NASA Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA), the ISSMP team provides subject recruitment and screening, science requirements integration, data collection schedules, data sharing agreements, mission scenarios and facilities to support investigators. The ISSMP also serves as the HRP interface to external analog providers including the :envihab bed rest facility (Cologne, Germany), NEK isolation chamber (Moscow, Russia) and the Antarctica research stations. Investigators working in either spaceflight or analog environments requires a coordinated effort between NASA and the investigators. The interdisciplinary nature of both flight and analog research requires investigators to be aware of concurrent research studies and take into account potential confounding factors that may impact their research objectives. Investigators must define clear research requirements, participate in Investigator Working Group meetings, obtain human use approvals, and provide study-specific training, sample and data collection and procedures all while adhering to schedule deadlines. These science requirements define the technical, functional and performance operations to meet the research objectives. The ISSMP maintains an expert team of professionals with the knowledge and experience to guide investigators science through all aspects of mission planning, crew operations, and research integration. During this session, the ISSMP team will discuss best-practices approaches for successfully preparing and conducting studies in both the flight and analog environments. Critical tips and tricks will be shown to greatly improve your chances of successfully completing your research aboard the International Space Station and in Spaceflight Analogs.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-40648 , 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS 2018); 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Description: The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element Systems Engineering (SE) goals include defining the technical system needed to support medical capabilities for a Mars exploration mission. A draft medical system architecture was developed based on stakeholder needs, system goals, and system behaviors, as captured in an ExMC concept of operations document and a system model. This talk will discuss a high-level view of the medical system, as part of a larger crew health and performance system, both of which will support crew during Deep Space Transport missions. Other mission components, such as the flight system, ground system, caregiver, and patient, will be discussed as aspects of the context because the medical system will have important interactions with each. Additionally, important interactions with other aspects of the crew health and performance system are anticipated, such as health & wellness, mission task performance support, and environmental protection. This talk will highlight areas in which we are working with other disciplines to understand these interactions.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine ; Space Transportation and Safety
    Type: JSC-CN-40554 , 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop; 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Description: The Portable Fan Assembly (PFA) is a variable speed fan that can be used to provide additional ventilation inside International Space Station (ISS) modules as needed for crew comfort or for enhanced mixing of the ISS atmosphere. This fan can also be configured with a Shuttle era lithium hydroxide (LiOH) canister for CO2 removal in confined areas partially of fully isolated from the primary Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) on ISS which is responsible for CO2 removal. This report documents noise emission levels of the PFA at various speed settings and configurations. It also documents the acoustic attenuation effects realized when circulating air through the PFA inlet and outlet mufflers and when operating in its CO2 removal configuration (CRK) with a LiOH canister (sorbent bed) installed over the fan outlet.
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support
    Type: JSC-CN-40592 , SEMI-THERM Annual Symposium & Exhibit; 19-23 Mar. 2018; San Jose, CA; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-12
    Description: Long duration missions will require astronauts to subsist on a closed food system for at least three years. Resupply will not be an option, and the food supply will be older at the time of consumption and more static in variety than previous missions. The space food variety requirements that will both supply nutrition and support continued interest in adequate consumption for a mission of this duration is unknown. Limited food variety of past space programs (Gemini, Apollo, International Space Station) as well as in military operations resulted in monotony, food aversion, and weight loss despite relatively short mission durations of a few days up to several months. In this study, food consumption data from 10 crew members on 3-6-month International Space Station missions was assessed to determine what percentage of the existing food variety was used by crew members, if the food choices correlated to the amount of time in orbit, and whether commonalities in food selections existed across crew members. Complete mission diet logs were recorded on ISS flights from 2008 - 2014, a period in which space food menu variety was consistent, but the food system underwent an extensive reformulation to reduce sodium content. Food consumption data was correlated to the Food on Orbit by Week logs, archived Data Usage Charts, and a food list categorization table using TRIFACTA software and queries in a SQL SERVER 2012 database.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: JSC-CN-40590 , 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop; 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-13
    Description: Vision changes identified in long duration spaceflight astronauts has led Space Medicine at NASA to adopt a more comprehensive clinical monitoring protocol. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was recently implemented at NASA, including on board the International Space Station in 2013. NASA is collaborating with Heidelberg Engineering to increase the fidelity of the current OCT data set by integrating the traditional circumpapillary OCT image with radial and horizontal block images at the optic nerve head. The retinal nerve fiber layer was segmented by two experienced individuals. Intra-rater (N=4 subjects and 70 images) and inter-rater (N=4 subjects and 221 images) agreement was performed. The results of this analysis and the potential benefits will be presented.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-40550 , NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS 2018) ; 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-14
    Description: The Heidelberg Spectralis "OCT2", which recently became commercially available, is going to be implemented at the Johnson Space Center Flight Medicine Clinic and on board the International Space Station. Due to the increased scan rate of the "OCT2", this upgrade will allow for significant reduction in valuable crew testing time and also allow for additional capabilities, like OCT Angiography and Multi-Color Fundus Imaging. Due to the custom scans used to monitor Space Flight-Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (SANS) in our crewmembers, an evaluation to assess the impacts of transitioning from "OCT1" to "OCT2" was performed. An engineering assessment (N=1) was performed to identify any potential impacts of maintaining an "OCT1" on board ISS while implementing an "OCT2" in the JSC Clinic. "OCT2" implementation will lag JSC FMC clinical implementation due to the flight certification/manifestation process. The clinical assessment was performed (n=12) to identify any impacts due to the replacement of the "OCT1" with the "OCT2" to the longitudinal OCT data across a crewmember's mission/lifetime. The qualitative results from the engineering and clinical evaluation will be reported, as well as the quantitative assessment of the clinical variables
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine ; Optics
    Type: JSC-CN-40591 , Annual NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS) 2018; 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2017-10-14
    Description: The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a virtual exercise training software system (VETSS) capable of providing real-time instruction and exercise feedback during exploration missions. A resistive exercise instructional system was developed using a Microsoft Kinect depth-camera device, which provides markerless 3-D whole-body motion capture at a small form factor and minimal setup effort. It was hypothesized that subjects using the newly developed instructional software tool would perform the deadlift exercise with more optimal kinematics and consistent technique than those without the instructional software. Following a comprehensive evaluation in the laboratory, the system was deployed for testing and refinement in the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) analog.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine ; Computer Programming and Software
    Type: JSC-CN-40675 , Annual NASA Human Research Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS) 2018; 22-25 Jan. 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • facet.materialart.
    Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi (1878-9080) vol.38 (2017) p.20
    Publication Date: 2016-08-25
    Description: Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a serious disease of more than 30 plant genera. Several Colletotrichum species have been reported to infect chili in different countries. Although China is the largest chiliproducing country, little is known about the species that have been infecting chili locally. Therefore, we collected samples of diseased chili from 29 provinces of China, from which 1285 strains were isolated. The morphological characters of all strains were observed and compared, and multi-locus phylogenetic analyses (ITS, ACT, CAL, CHS-1, GAPDH, TUB2, and HIS3) were performed on selected representative strains. Fifteen Colletotrichum species were identified, with C. fioriniae, C. fructicola, C. gloeosporioides, C. scovillei, and C. truncatum being prevalent. Three new species, C. conoides, C. grossum, and C. liaoningense, were recognised and described in this paper. Colletotrichum aenigma, C. cliviae, C. endophytica, C. hymenocallidis, C. incanum, C. karstii, and C. viniferum were reported for the first time from chili. Pathogenicity of all species isolated from chili was confirmed, except for C. endophytica. The current study improves the understanding of species causing anthracnose on chili and provides useful information for the effective control of the disease in China.
    Keywords: DNA phylogeny ; multi-gene analysis ; plant pathogen ; systematics
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • Publication Date: 2016-08-25
    Description: Phialophora as defined by its type species P. verrucosa is a genus of Chaetothyriales, and a member of the group known as ‘black yeasts and relatives’. Phialophora verrucosa has been reported from mutilating human infections such as chromoblastomycosis, disseminated phaeohyphomycosis and mycetoma, while morphologically similar fungi are rather commonly isolated from the environment. Phenotypes are insufficient for correct species identification, and molecular data have revealed significant genetic variation within the complex of species currently identified as P. verrucosa or P. americana. Multilocus analysis of 118 strains revealed the existence of five reproductively isolated species apparently having different infectious potentials. Strains of the sexual morph Capronia semiimmersa cluster within P. americana. The newly defined taxa differ markedly in their predilection for the human host.
    Keywords: Chaetothyriales ; chromoblastomycosis ; phaeohyphomycosis ; Phialophora ; phylogeny ; taxonomy
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: Providing adequate washout of carbon dioxide (CO2) from within a space suit helmet is essential to maintaining a safe operating environment for astronauts using space suits. A valid and reliable method for quantification of inspired CO2 inside space suits is required to ensure the health and performance of suited crewmembers. With this objective, several different methods for measuring the concentration of CO2 in a space suit helmet were evaluated. A nasal cannula was compared with respirator style masks worn by suited test subjects, with air drawn into gas analyzers to measure the concentration of CO2 in the immediate vicinity of the mouth and nose. The respirator style masks, some being commercially available products and some novel designs, did not provide repeatable results based on initial pilot testing in three subjects. Based on the analysis of those studies, the decision was made to down-select to a commercially available nasal cannula as the primary sampling device to be used in follow-on testing in the MKIII (n = 8) and Z2 (n = 6) prototype space suits, with five subjects performing tests in both suits allowing for repeated measures comparisons. Subjects were tasked with achieving target metabolic rates of 293, 586, and 879 Watts (1000, 2000, and 3000 BTU/h) and at air supply flow rates of 3.4, 6.8, and 10.2 Am(sup 3)/hr. (2, 4, and 6 ACFM). Each test condition was performed twice; once with subjects instructed to breathe however they felt comfortable, and once with subjects instructed to breathe only through their nose. Inspired CO2 values were determined by the lowest points, or troughs, within each breath of the respiratory trace. This method provides multiple inspired CO2 samples at known metabolic rates for each test condition and provides a larger data set for analysis than possible through gross averaging of the minimum inspired CO2. Results indicate that reliable measures are achievable under both breathing conditions but that restricting subjects to breathing only through their nose provides for less variable CO2 measurements breath to breath, within +/- 66.7 Pa CO2 (+/- 0.5 mmHg) at a 95% confidence level than when breathing unrestricted, which resulted in +/- 173.3 Pa CO2 (+/- 1.3 mmHg) variability with 95% confidence. However, during normal operation of a space suit it is not realistic to enforce or monitor the breathing style of the crewmember and, although restricted breathing is reliable, it is not known whether measurement of inspired CO2 during nose-only breathing is valid for evaluation of a space suit washout. To verify that one or both of the breathing style nasal cannula sampling methods provide a valid inspired CO2 measurement, testing is planned in an environmental chamber during which the ambient CO2 concentration will be controlled. A nasal cannula will be worn by unsuited subjects and measurements will be taken under both restricted and unrestricted breathing conditions across a range of metabolic rates during which nasal cannula CO2 concentration measures will be compared against the ambient value.
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support
    Type: JSC-CN-36598 , IEEE Aerospace Conference; 4-11 Mar. 2017; Big Sky, MT; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2016-07-01
    Description: NASA's human space program has developed considerable experience with near Earth space operations. Although NASA has experience with deep space robotic missions, NASA has little substantive experience with human deep space operations. Even in the Apollo program, the missions lasted only a few weeks and the communication latencies were on the order of seconds. Human missions beyond the relatively close confines of the Earth-Moon system will involve missions with durations measured in months and communications latencies measured in minutes. To minimize crew risk and to maximize mission success, NASA needs to develop a better understanding of the implications of these types of mission durations and communication latencies on vehicle design, mission design and flight controller interaction with the crew. To begin to address these needs, NASA performed a study using a physics-based subsystem simulation to investigate the interactions between spacecraft crew and a ground-based mission control center for vehicle subsystem operations across long communication delays. The simulation, built with a subsystem modeling tool developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center, models the life support system of a Mars transit vehicle. The simulation contains models of the cabin atmosphere and pressure control system, electrical power system, drinking and waste water systems, internal and external thermal control systems, and crew metabolic functions. The simulation has three interfaces: 1) a real-time crew interface that can be use to monitor and control the vehicle subsystems; 2) a mission control center interface with data transport delays up to 15 minutes each way; 3) a real-time simulation test conductor interface that can be use to insert subsystem malfunctions and observe the interactions between the crew, ground, and simulated vehicle. The study was conducted at the 21st NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) mission between July 18th and Aug 3rd of year 2016. The NEEMO mission provides ideal conditions for this study with crew in the loop, an active control center, and real-time flow of high latency communications and data. NEEMO crew and ground support will work through procedures including activation of the transit vehicle power system, opening the hatch between the transit vehicle and a Mars ascent vehicle, transferring simulated crewmembers between vehicles, overcoming subsystem malfunctions, sending simulated crewmember on extra-vehicular activities, and other housekeeping activities. This study is enhancing the understanding of high latency operations and the advantages and disadvantages of different communication methods. It is also providing results that will help improve the design of simulation interfaces and inform the design of Mars transit vehicles.
    Keywords: Ground Support Systems and Facilities (Space) ; Space Communications, Spacecraft Communications, Command and Tracking
    Type: JSC-CN-36600 , IEEE Aerospace Conference; 4-11 Mar. 2017; Big Sky, MT; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2016-07-01
    Description: An over-arching goal of the multi-year Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains (BASALT) project is to iteratively develop, implement, and evaluate concepts of operations (ConOps) and supporting capabilities intended to enable and enhance human exploration of Mars. Geological and biological scientific fieldwork is being conducted during four total deployments at two high-fidelity Mars analogs, all within simulated Mars mission conditions that are based on current architectural assumptions for Mars exploration missions. Specific capabilities being evaluated include the use of mobile science platforms, extravehicular informatics, communication and navigation packages, advanced science mission planning tools, and scientifically-relevant instrument packages to achieve the project goals. This paper describes the planning, execution, and results of the first field deployment, referred to as BASALT 1, which consisted of a series of 12 simulated extravehicular activities (EVAs) on the lava terrains of Craters of the Moon, Idaho. Scientific objectives of the EVAs related to determination of how microbial communities and habitability correlate with the physical and geochemical characteristics of chemically-altered basalt environments. The concept of operations (ConOps) and capabilities deployed and tested during BASALT 1 were based on extensive data from previous NASA trade studies and analog testing, and the primary research question was whether those ConOps and capabilities would work acceptably when performing real (non-simulated) biological and geological scientific exploration under four different communication scenarios. Specifically, communication latencies of 5 and 15 minutes one-way light time (OWLT) were tested; these delays fall within the range of 4 to 22 minute OWLT delays that would be experienced during a Mars mission. Science operations were also conducted under low bandwidth conditions (0.512 Mb/s uplink, 1.54 Mb/s downlink), representing a conservative and affordable flight data rate, and a higher bandwidth case (5.0 Mb/s uplink, 10.0 Mb/s downlink), representing an upgraded human mission capability that would require additional infrastructure and technology development. In all conditions, two EVA crewmembers communicated with two intravehicular (IV) crewmembers with high bandwidth and near-zero communication latency, simulating communication among crewmembers on Mars. EVA crewmembers wore simulated EVA informatics backpacks including communication systems, position tracking, hand-held field spectrometers, cameras, and sample collection tools. Bidirectional communication between crewmembers ("Mars") and a Mission Support Center ("Earth"), staffed by a team of science and operations experts, was subject to the aforementioned latency and bandwidth constraints. This paper presents the synthesized results of the BASALT 1 deployment with respect to ConOps and capabilities assessment. Evaluation of the ConOps and capabilities was accomplished through a combination of network analytical data, completion of scientific objectives, ethnographic observations, planned versus actual timeline data, and collection of subjective ratings and comments using the same methodology employed during multiple previous NASA analog tests. In addition to assessing the acceptability of the ConOps and capabilities from scientific and operational perspectives, the extent to which specific capabilities enabled or enhanced the science operations was also evaluated. These data will provide a basis for prioritization of capability development for future BASALT deployments and, ultimately, future human exploration missions.
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support ; Space Transportation and Safety
    Type: JSC-CN-36610 , IEEE Aerospace Conference 2017; 4-11 Mar. 2017; Big Sky, MT; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2016-06-15
    Description: In the proposed paper, the optimal design of reference strain structures (RSS) will be performed targeting for the accurate observation of the dynamic bending and torsion deformation of a flexible rocket. It will provide the detailed description of the finite-element (FE) model of a notional flexible rocket created in MSC.Patran. The RSS will be attached longitudinally along the side of the rocket and to track the deformation of the thin-walled structure under external loads. An integrated surrogate-based multi-objective optimization approach will be developed to find the optimal design of the RSS using the FE model. The Kriging method will be used to construct the surrogate model. For the data sampling and the performance evaluation, static/transient analyses will be performed with MSC.Natran/Patran. The multi-objective optimization will be solved with NSGA-II to minimize the difference between the strains of the launch vehicle and RSS. Finally, the performance of the optimal RSS will be evaluated by checking its strain-tracking capability in different numerical simulations of the flexible rocket.
    Keywords: Structural Mechanics ; Launch Vehicles and Launch Operations
    Type: KSC-E-DAA-TN32305 , AIAA SciTech Conference; 9-13 Jan. 2017; Grapevine, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2016-08-18
    Description: One of the biggest challenges facing NASA's deep space exploration goals is structural mass. A long duration transit vehicle on a journey to Mars, for example, requires a large internal volume for cargo, supplies and crew support. As with all space structures, a large pressure vessel is not enough. The vehicle also requires thermal, micro-meteoroid, and radiation protection, a navigation and control system, a propulsion system, and a power system, etc. As vehicles get larger, their associated systems also get larger and more complex. These vehicles require larger lift capacities and force the mission to become extremely costly. In order to build large volume habitable vehicles, with only minimal increases in launch volume and mass, NASA is developing lightweight structures. Lightweight structures are made from non-metallic materials including graphite composites and high strength fabrics and could provide similar or better structural capability than metals, but with significant launch volume and mass savings. Fabric structures specifically, have been worked by NASA off and on since its inception, but most notably in the 1990's with the TransHAB program. These TransHAB developed structures use a layered material approach to form a pressure vessel with integrated thermal and micro-meteoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) protection. The flexible fabrics allow the vessel to be packed in a small volume during launch and expand into a much larger volume once in orbit. NASA and Bigelow Aerospace recently installed the first human-rated inflatable module on the International Space Station (ISS), known as the Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) in May of 2016. The module provides a similar internal volume to that of an Orbital ATK Cygnus cargo vehicle, but with a 77% launch volume savings. As lightweight structures are developed, testing methods are vital to understanding their behavior and validating analytical models. Common techniques can be applied to fabric materials, such as tensile testing, fatigue testing, and shear testing, but common measurement techniques cannot be used on fabric. Measuring strain in a material and during a test is a critical parameter for an engineer to monitor the structure during the test and correlate to an analytical model. The ability to measure strain in fabric structures is a challenge for NASA. Foil strain gauges, for example, are commonplace on metallic structures testing, but are extremely difficult to interface with a fabric substrate. New strain measuring techniques need to be developed for use with fabric structures. This paper investigates options for measuring strain in fabric structures for both ground testing and in-space structural health monitoring. It evaluates current commercially available options and outlines development work underway to build custom measurement solutions for NASA's fabric structures.
    Keywords: Instrumentation and Photography
    Type: JSC-CN-36506 , AIAA SciTech; 9-13 Jan. 2017; Grapevine, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2016-07-13
    Description: Human exploration of Mars will involve both crewed and robotic systems. Many mission concepts involve the deployment and assembly of mission support assets prior to crew arrival on the surface. Some of these deployment and assembly activities will be performed autonomously while others will be performed using teleoperations. However, significant communications latencies between the Earth and Mars make teleoperations challenging. Alternatively, low latency teleoperations are possible from locations in Mars orbit like Mars' moons Phobos and Deimos. To explore these latency opportunities, NASA is conducting a series of studies to investigate the effects of latency on telerobotic deployment and assembly activities. These studies are being conducted in laboratory environments at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) at JSC and the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) underwater habitat off the coast of Florida. The studies involve two human-in-the-loop interactive simulations developed by the NASA Exploration Systems Simulations (NExSyS) team at JSC. The first simulation investigates manipulation related activities while the second simulation investigates mobility related activities. The first simulation provides a simple real-time operator interface with displays and controls for a simulated 6 degree of freedom end effector. The initial version of the simulation uses a simple control mode to decouple the robotic kinematic constraints and a communications delay to model latency effects. This provides the basis for early testing with more detailed manipulation simulations planned for the future. Subjects are tested using five operating latencies that represent teleoperation conditions from local surface operations to orbital operations at Phobos, Deimos and ultimately high Martian orbit. Subject performance is measured and correlated with three distance-to-target zones of interest. Each zone represents a target distance ranging from beyond 10m in Zone 1, through 1 cm to contact in Zone 5 with a step size factor of 10. Collected data consists of both objective simulation data (time, distance, hand controller inputs, velocity) and subjective questionnaire data. The second simulation provides a simple real-time operator interface with displays and control of a simulated surface rover. The rover traverses a synthetic Mars-like terrain and must be maneuvered to avoid obstacles while progressing to its destination. Like the manipulator simulation, subjects are tested using five operating latencies that represent teleoperation conditions from local surface operations to orbital operations at Phobos, Deimos and ultimately high Martian orbit. The rover is also operated at three different traverse speeds to assess the correlation between latency and speed. Collected data consisted of both objective simulation data (time, distance, hand controller inputs, braking) and subjective questionnaire data. These studies are exploring relationships between task complexity, operating speeds, operator efficiencies, and communications latencies for low latency teleoperations in support of human planetary exploration. This paper presents early results from these studies along with the current observations and conclusions. These and planned future studies will help to inform NASA on the potential for low latency teleoperations to support human exploration of Mars and inform the design of robotic systems and exploration missions.
    Keywords: Ground Support Systems and Facilities (Space) ; Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: JSC-CN-36630 , IEEE Aerospace Conference 2017; 4-11 Mar. 2017; Big Sky, MT; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2016-06-09
    Description: Flying a mission in space requires a massive commitment of resources, and without the talent and commitment of the people involved in this effort we would never leave the atmosphere of Earth. When we use the phrase "humans in the loop", it could apply to almost any endeavor since everything starts with humans developing a concept, completing the design process, building or implementing a product and using the product to achieve a goal or purpose. Narrowing the focus to spaceflights, there are a variety of individuals involved throughout the preparations for flight and the flight itself. All of the humans involved add value and support for program success. The purpose of this paper focuses on how a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) accounts for the human in the loop for potential missions using a technique called Human Reliability Analysis (HRA). Human actions can increase or decrease the overall risk via initiating events or mitigating them, thus removing the human from the loop doesn't always lower the risk.
    Keywords: Quality Assurance and Reliability
    Type: JSC-CN-36503 , AIAA Science & Technology Forum & Exposition (SciTech 2017); 9-13 Jan. 2017; Grapevine, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2016-07-15
    Description: NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) is an underwater spaceflight analog that allows a true mission-like operational environment and uses buoyancy effects and added weight to simulate different gravity levels. A mission was undertaken in 2016, NEEMO 21. The mission was performed at the Aquarius undersea research habitat. During the mission, the effects of varying operations concepts on representative communication latencies associated with Mars missions were studied. Six subjects were weighed out to simulate near-zero or partial gravity and evaluated different operations concepts for integration and management of a simulated Earth-based science team (ST) to provide input and direction during exploration activities. Exploration traverses were planned in advance based on precursor data collected. Subjects completed science-related tasks including pre-sampling surveys and marine science-based sampling as a portion of their tasks on saturation dives up to 4 hours in duration that were to simulate extravehicular activity (EVA) on Mars. A one-way communication latency of 15 minutes between space and mission control was simulated throughout the missions. Objective data included task completion times, total EVA times, crew idle time, translation time, SBT assimilation time (defined as time available for ST to discuss data/imagery after it has been collected, in addition to the time taken to watch imagery and listen to audio streaming over latency). Subjective data included acceptability, simulation quality, capability assessment ratings, and comments. Results were collected and will be presented on the acceptability of the operations concepts studied and which capabilities are the most enabling/enhancing in the operations concept. Discussion is presented on the importance of designing EVA timelines to account for the length of the task, level of interaction with the ground that is required/desired, and communication latency.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: JSC-CN-36634 , IEEE Aerospace Conference; 4-11 Mar. 2017; Big Sky, MT ; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2016-04-19
    Description: NASA uses two HRA assessment methodologies. The first is a simplified method which is based on how much time is available to complete the action, with consideration included for environmental and personal factors that could influence the human's reliability. This method is expected to provide a conservative value or placeholder as a preliminary estimate. This preliminary estimate is used to determine which placeholder needs a more detailed assessment. The second methodology is used to develop a more detailed human reliability assessment on the performance of critical human actions. This assessment needs to consider more than the time available, this would include factors such as: the importance of the action, the context, environmental factors, potential human stresses, previous experience, training, physical design interfaces, available procedures/checklists and internal human stresses. The more detailed assessment is still expected to be more realistic than that based primarily on time available. When performing an HRA on a system or process that has an operational history, we have information specific to the task based on this history and experience. In the case of a PRA model that is based on a new design and has no operational history, providing a "reasonable" assessment of potential crew actions becomes more problematic. In order to determine what is expected of future operational parameters, the experience from individuals who had relevant experience and were familiar with the system and process previously implemented by NASA was used to provide the "best" available data. Personnel from Flight Operations, Flight Directors, Launch Test Directors, Control Room Console Operators and Astronauts were all interviewed to provide a comprehensive picture of previous NASA operations. Verification of the assumptions and expectations expressed in the assessments will be needed when the procedures, flight rules and operational requirements are developed and then finalized.
    Keywords: Quality Assurance and Reliability
    Type: JSC-CN-36101 , Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium; 23-26 Jan. 2017; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2016-07-26
    Description: Unstructured grid solvers have well-known issues predicting surface heat fluxes when strong shocks are present. Various efforts have been made to address the underlying numerical issues that cause the erroneous predictions. The present work addresses some of the shortcomings of unstructured grid solvers, not by addressing the numerics, but by applying structured grid best practices to unstructured grids. A methodology for robust shock detection and shock fitting is outlined and applied to production relevant cases. Results achieved by using the Loci-CHEM Computational Fluid Dynamics solver are provided.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
    Type: JSC-CN-36483 , AIAA SciTech 2017; 9-13 Jan. 2017; Grapevine, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2016-09-16
    Description: Based on molecular and morphological data we investigated the taxonomy and phylogeny of the ectomycorrhizal genus Tricholoma in northern Europe. Our phylogenetic tree confirmed the presence of at least 72 well circumscribed species within the region. Of these, three species, viz. T. boreosulphurescens, T. bryogenum and T. ilkkae are described as new to science, based on morphological, distributional, ecological and molecular data. Several other terminal branches represent putative cryptic taxa nested within classical species or species groups. Molecular type studies and/or designation of sequenced neotypes are needed in these groups, before the taxonomy can be settled. In general our phylogenetic analysis supported previous suprageneric classification systems, but with some substantial changes. Most notably, T. virgatum and allies were found to belong to sect. Tricholoma rather than sect. Atrosquamosa, while T. focale was found to be clearly nested in sect. Genuina rather than in sect. Caligata. In total, ten sections are accepted, with five species remaining unassigned. The combination of morphological and molecular data showed pileus colour, pileipellis structure, presence of clamp connections and spore size to be rather conservative characters within accepted sections, while the presence of a distinct ring, and especially host selection were highly variable within these.
    Keywords: Agarics ; biogeography ; cryptic species ; ectomycorrhizal fungi ; host selection ; morphological traits ; phylogeny ; Tricholomataceae
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • Publication Date: 2016-09-16
    Description: Infrageneric relations of the genetically diverse milkcap genus Lactifluus (Russulales, Basidiomycota) are poorly known. Currently used classification systems still largely reflect the traditional, mainly morphological, characters used for infrageneric delimitations of milkcaps. Increased sampling, combined with small-scale molecular studies, show that this genus is underexplored and in need of revision. For this study, we assembled an extensive dataset of the genus Lactifluus, comprising 80 % of all known species and 30 % of the type collections. To unravel the infrageneric relationships within this genus, we combined a multi-gene molecular phylogeny, based on nuclear ITS, LSU, RPB2 and RPB1, with a morphological study, focussing on five important characteristics (fruit body type, presence of a secondary velum, colour reaction of the latex/context, pileipellis type and presence of true cystidia). Lactifluus comprises four supported subgenera, each containing several supported clades. With extensive sampling, ten new clades and at least 17 new species were discovered, which highlight the high diversity in this genus. The traditional infrageneric classification is only partly maintained and nomenclatural changes are proposed. Our morphological study shows that the five featured characteristics are important at different evolutionary levels, but further characteristics need to be studied to find morphological support for each clade. This study paves the way for a more detailed investigation of biogeographical history and character evolution within Lactifluus.
    Keywords: milkcaps ; molecular evolution ; morphology ; taxonomy
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: This paper presents the design and development of a friction-based coupling device for a fiber-optic monitoring system that can be deployed on existing subsea structures. This paper provides a summary of the design concept, prototype development, prototype performance testing, and design refinements of the device. The results of the laboratory testing of the first prototype performed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) are included in this paper. Limitations of the initial design were identified and future design improvements were proposed. These new features will enhance the coupling of the device and improve the monitoring system measurement capabilities. A major challenge of a post-installed instrumentation monitoring system is to ensure adequate coupling between the instruments and the structure of interest for reliable measurements. Friction-based coupling devices have the potential to overcome coupling limitations caused by marine growth and soil contamination on subsea structures, flowlines or risers. The work described in this paper investigates the design of a friction-based coupling device (friction clamp), which is applicable for pipelines and structures that are suspended in the water column and those that are resting on the seabed. The monitoring elements consist of fiber-optic sensors that are bonded to a metal clamshell with a high-friction coating. The friction clamp has a single hinge design to facilitate the operation of the clamp and dual rows of opposing fasteners to distribute the clamping force on the structure. The friction clamp can be installed by divers in shallow depths or by remotely operated vehicles in deep-water applications. NASA-JSC was involved in the selection and testing of the friction coating, and in the design and testing of the prototype clamp device. Four-inch diameter and eight-inch diameter sub-scale friction clamp prototypes were built and tested to evaluate the strain measuring capabilities of the design under different loading scenarios. The testing revealed some limitations of the initial design concept, and subsequent refinements were explored to improve the measurement performance of the system. This study was part of a collaboration between NASA-JSC and Astro Technology, Inc. within a study called Clear Gulf. The primary objective of the Clear Gulf study is to develop advanced instrumentation technologies that will improve operational safety and reduce the risk of hydrocarbon spillage. NASA provided unique insights, expansive test facilities, and technical expertise to advance these technologies that would benefit the environment, the public, and commercial industries.
    Keywords: Mechanical Engineering
    Type: JSC-CN-37503 , International Conference on Ocean Offshore & Artic Engineering (OMAE); 25-30 Jun. 2017; Trondheim; Norway
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  • Publication Date: 2016-09-17
    Description: The astronaut community is unique, and may be disproportionately exposed to occupational hazards not commonly seen in other communities. The extent to which the demands of the astronaut occupation and exposure to spaceflight-related hazards affect the health of the astronaut population over the life course is not completely known. A better understanding of the individual, population, and mission impacts of astronaut occupational exposures is critical to providing clinical care, targeting occupational surveillance efforts, and planning for future space exploration. The ability to characterize the risk of latent health conditions is a significant component of this understanding. Provision of health screening services to active and former astronauts ensures individual, mission, and community health and safety. Currently, the NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC) Flight Medicine Clinic (FMC) provides extensive medical monitoring to active astronauts throughout their careers. Upon retirement, astronauts may voluntarily return to the JSC FMC for an annual preventive exam. However, current retiree monitoring includes only selected screening tests, representing an opportunity for augmentation. The potential long-term health effects of spaceflight demand an expanded framework of testing for former astronauts. The need is two-fold: screening tests widely recommended for other aging populations are necessary to rule out conditions resulting from the natural aging process (e.g., colonoscopy, mammography); and expanded monitoring will increase NASA's ability to better characterize conditions resulting from astronaut occupational exposures. To meet this need, NASA has begun an extensive exploration of the overall approach, cost, and policy implications of e an Astronaut Occupational Health program to include expanded medical monitoring of former NASA astronauts. Increasing the breadth of monitoring services will ultimately enrich the existing evidence base of occupational health risks to astronauts. Such an expansion would therefore improve the understanding of the health of the astronaut population as a whole, and the ability to identify, mitigate, and manage such risks in preparation for deep space exploration missions.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine ; Life Sciences (General)
    Type: JSC-CN-37271 , International Conference on Occupational Health and Safety (ICOHS 2017); 9-10 Mar. 2017; Miami, FL; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2016-09-28
    Description: INTRODUCTION: The increase in the alveolar-arterial oxygen (O2) partial pressure gradient during increasing hypoxia may further increase in microgravity (microG). METHODS: Four male astronauts on STS-69 (1995) and 4 on STS-72 (1996) submitted to an acute sequential hypoxic challenge by breathing for 4 minutes at 18.0%, 14.9%, 13.5%, 12.9%, and 12.2% O2 - balance nitrogen at sea level. The 18.0% O2 mixture was equivalent to an inspired O2 partial pressure (PIO2) of 127 mm Hg when exposed to 527 mm Hg while breathing 26.5% O2 for several days in G. A Novametrix CO2SMO Model 7100 recorded heart rate (HR, beats min-1) and hemoglobin (Hb) O2 saturation through finger pulse oximetry (SpO2, %), end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PETCO2, mm Hg), and respiration rate (RR, breaths/min) through an infrared capnograph positioned in a mouthpiece. Measurements were also taken the day of return to Earth (R+0) and at R+2. Linear mixed effects models assessed changes in SpO2 after exposure to microG. Interactions between measurement condition and available physiologic measurements were also explored. RESULTS: Astronaut SpO2 levels at baseline, R+0, and R+2 were not significantly different from in flight, about 97% given a PIO2 of 127 mm Hg. There was no difference in astronaut SpO2 levels between baseline and R+0 or R+2 over the hypoxic challenge. Additionally, no significant interactions were identified. CONCLUSIONS: While microG did not affect astronaut Hb O2 saturation in this study, large within- and between-subject variability in SpO2 at increasingly hypoxic doses require a deeper understanding of subject-specific factors that influence O2 transfer onto Hb.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-37563 , AsMA Annual Scientific Meeting ; 29 Apr. - 4 May 2017; Denver, CO; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2016-10-05
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Quality Assurance and Reliability
    Type: JSC-CN-37493-2 , RAMS 2014: The Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium ; 23-27 Jan 2017; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2016-10-05
    Description: Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The true risk for renal stone formation in astronauts due to the space flight environment is unknown. Proper management of this condition is crucial to mitigate health and mission risks. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic electronic medical record and the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health databases were reviewed. An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was also done. This work was used to develop a screening and management protocol for renal stones in astronauts that is relevant to the spaceflight operational environment. In the proposed guidelines all astronauts receive a yearly screening and post-flight renal ultrasound using a novel ultrasound protocol. The ultrasound protocol uses a combination of factors, including: size, position, shadow, twinkle and dispersion properties to confirm the presence of a renal calcification. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by a low-dose renal computed tomography scan and urologic consult. Other specific guidelines were also created. A small asymptomatic renal stone within the renal collecting system may become symptomatic at any time, and therefore affect launch and flight schedules, or cause incapacitation during a mission. Astronauts in need of definitive care can be evacuated from the International Space Station, but for deep space missions evacuation is impossible. The new screening and management algorithm has been implemented and the initial round of screening ultrasounds is under way. Data from these exams will better define the incidence of renal stones in U.S. astronauts, and will be used to inform risk mitigation for both short and long duration spaceflights.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-37560 , Aerospace Medical Association Scientific Meeting (AsMA); 29 Apr. - 4 May 2017; Denver, CO; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2016-10-05
    Description: NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Johnson Space Center (JSC) Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) uses two human reliability analysis (HRA) methodologies. The first is a simplified method which is based on how much time is available to complete the action, with consideration included for environmental and personal factors that could influence the human's reliability. This method is expected to provide a conservative value or placeholder as a preliminary estimate. This preliminary estimate or screening value is used to determine which placeholder needs a more detailed assessment. The second methodology is used to develop a more detailed human reliability assessment on the performance of critical human actions. This assessment needs to consider more than the time available, this would include factors such as: the importance of the action, the context, environmental factors, potential human stresses, previous experience, training, physical design interfaces, available procedures/checklists and internal human stresses. The more detailed assessment is expected to be more realistic than that based primarily on time available. When performing an HRA on a system or process that has an operational history, we have information specific to the task based on this history and experience. In the case of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) that is based on a new design and has no operational history, providing a "reasonable" assessment of potential crew actions becomes more challenging. To determine what is expected of future operational parameters, the experience from individuals who had relevant experience and were familiar with the system and process previously implemented by NASA was used to provide the "best" available data. Personnel from Flight Operations, Flight Directors, Launch Test Directors, Control Room Console Operators, and Astronauts were all interviewed to provide a comprehensive picture of previous NASA operations. Verification of the assumptions and expectations expressed in the assessments will be needed when the procedures, flight rules, and operational requirements are developed and then finalized.
    Keywords: Quality Assurance and Reliability
    Type: JSC-CN-37493-1 , RAMS 2017: The Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium; 23-26 Jan. 2017; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • facet.materialart.
    Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi (1878-9080) vol.38 (2017) p.81
    Publication Date: 2016-10-07
    Description: Isolates of Teratosphaeriaceae have frequently been found in the integument of attine ants, proving to be common and diverse in this microenvironment. The LSU phylogeny of the ant-isolated strains studied revealed that they cluster in two main lineages. The first was associated with the genus Xenopenidiella whereas the other represented two ant-isolated lineages sister to the taxa Penidiella aggregata and P. drakensbergensis, which are allocated to the new genus Penidiellomyces. The genus Penidiella is limited to the lineage containing P. columbiana, which is not congeneric with Penidiellomyces or Penidiellopsis, nor with Simplicidiella, a novel genus introduced here to accommodate a strain isolated from ants. For species level analysis, the final 26 aligned sequences of the ITS (498 characters), cmdA (389 characters), tef1 (342 characters) and tub2 (446 characters) gene regions lead to the introduction of six new species in Xenopenidiella, and one in respectively Penidiellopsis and Simplicidiella. The species described in this study were distinguished by the combination of morphological and phylogenetic data. Novelties on the integument of leaf-cutting ants from Brazil include: Penidiellopsis ramosus, Xenopenidiella clavata, X. formica, X. inflata, X. laevigata, X. nigrescens, X. tarda spp. nov., and Simplicidiella nigra gen. & sp. nov. Beta-tubulin is recommended as primary barcode for the distinction of species in Penidiellopsis, whereas ITS was sufficient to distinguish species of Xenopenidiella.
    Keywords: Attini tribe ; leaf-cutting ants ; multi-gene analyses ; systematics ; Xenopenidiella
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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    Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation
    Publication Date: 2016-10-06
    Description: We study synchronization properties of three nonlinearly coupled chaotic maps. Coupling is introduced in such a way, that it cannot be reduced to pairwise terms, but includes combined action of all interacting units. For two models of nonlinear coupling we characterize the transition to complete synchrony, as well as partially synchronized states. Relation to hypernetworks of chaotic units is also discussed.
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • Publication Date: 2016-10-11
    Description: Erosion can be observed in many arable soil landscapes such as those of the hummocky ground moraine. The topsoil removal by water erosion in combination with tillage operations (e.g., ploughing) is leading to truncated soil profiles along slopes with reduced solum thickness and modified properties of soil horizons. The objectives were to identify and quantify effects of erosion-induced soil modifications on the water balance and the leaching of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (DOC, DIC), considering complex soil-crop interactions. The idea was to compare lysimeter-based water and solute balances of eroded Luvisols that differed in solum depth. The six high precision weighing lysimeters (1.0 m2 surface, 1.5 m high; UMS Science-Lysimeter) had a resolution of 10 g (=0.01 mm). The cylindrical steel rings of the lysimeters were filled with undisturbed soil monoliths from two fields. Lysimeter soils were cultivated with maize, winter rye, Sudangrass, triticale, alfalfa, and Persian clover during the observation period April 2011 to March 2014. Cumulative drainage of the six lysimeter soils ranged from 57 for the least to 104 mm y−1 for the most eroded Luvisols; the differences of about 83% indicated that the erosional profile modifications in combination with differences in crop development affected the water balance components. Soil-crop interactions depending on properties of differently-truncated soil profiles caused varying amounts of precipitation and evapotranspiration for the 3-years. Since lysimeter effluent concentrations of DOC (5 ± 0.5 mg L−1) and DIC (62 ± 5 mg L−1) were relatively constant in time, the DOC and DIC leaching was mainly controlled by the water fluxes. Thus, the leaching rates ranged from 0.3 (Luvisol) to 0.5 g m−2 yr−1 (eroded Luvisol) for DOC and 3.3 (Luvisol) to 7.1 g m−2 yr−1 (eroded Luvisol) for DIC. Because of the complex soil crop interactions, a clear relation between erosion-induced soil profile modification and the water balance and DOC and DIC leaching could not be identified. Nevertheless, when transferring lysimeter results to the arable soil landscape the erosion-induced modifications even within the same pedogenetic soil type should be considered.
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • Publication Date: 2016-10-15
    Description: Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) will be the first mission to send an uncrewed Orion vehicle to cislunar space in 2018, targeted to a Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO). Analysis of EM-1 DRO mission opportunities in 2018 help characterize mission parameters that are of interest to other subsystems (e.g., power, thermal, communications, flight operations, etc). Subsystems request mission design trades which include: landing lighting, addition of an Orion main engine checkout burn, and use of auxiliary thruster only cases. This paper examines the evolving trade studies that incorporate subsystem feedback and demonstrate the feasibility of these constrained mission trajectory designs and contingencies.
    Keywords: Astrodynamics
    Type: JSC-CN-37610 , AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting; 5-9 Feb. 2017; San Antonio, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2016-10-15
    Description: While Ocular Coherence Tomography (OCT) is not a first-line modality to evaluate anterior eye structures terrestrially, it is a resource already available on the International Space Station (ISS) that can be used in medical contingencies that involve the anterior eye. With remote guidance and subject matter expert (SME) support from the ground, a minimally trained crewmember can now use OCT to evaluate anterior eye pathologies on orbit. OCT utilizes low-coherence interferometry to produce detailed cross-sectional and 3D images of the eye in real time. Terrestrially, it has been used to evaluate macular pathologies and glaucoma. Since 2013, OCT has been used onboard the ISS as one part of a suite of hardware to evaluate the Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure risk faced by astronauts, specifically assessing changes in the retina and choroid during space flight. The Anterior Segment Module (ASM), an add-on lens, was also flown for research studies, providing an opportunity to evaluate the anterior eye in real time if clinically indicated. Anterior eye pathologies that could be evaluated using OCT were identified. These included corneal abrasions and ulcers, scleritis, and acute angle closure glaucoma. A remote guider script was written to provide ground specialists with step-by-step instructions to guide ISS crewmembers, who do not get trained on the ASM, to evaluate the anterior eye. The instructions were tested on novice subjects and/or operators, whose feedback was incorporated iteratively. The final remote guider script was reviewed by SME optometrists and NASA flight surgeons. The novel application of OCT technology to space flight allows for the acquisition of objective data to diagnose anterior eye pathologies when other modalities are not available. This demonstrates the versatility of OCT and highlights the advantages of using existing hardware and remote guidance skills to expand clinical capabilities in space flight.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-37608 , Aerospace Medical Association Scientific Meeting (AsMA); 29 Apr. - 4 May 2017; Denver, CO; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2016-10-24
    Description: During a survey of Phytophthora diversity in natural ecosystems in Taiwan six new species were detected. Multigene phylogeny based on the nuclear ITS, ß-tubulin and HSP90 and the mitochondrial cox1 and NADH1 gene sequences demonstrated that they belong to ITS Clade 7a with P. europaea, P. uniformis, P. rubi and P. cambivora being their closest relatives. All six new species differed from each other and from related species by a unique combination of morphological characters, the breeding system, cardinal temperatures and growth rates. Four homothallic species, P. attenuata, P. flexuosa, P. formosa and P. intricata, were isolated from rhizosphere soil of healthy forests of Fagus hayatae, Quercus glandulifera, Q. tarokoensis, Castanopsis carlesii, Chamaecyparis formosensis and Araucaria cunninghamii. Two heterothallic species, P. xheterohybrida and P. xincrassata, were exclusively detected in three forest streams. All P. xincrassata isolates belonged to the A2 mating type while isolates of P. xheterohybrida represented both mating types with oospore abortion rates according to Mendelian ratios (4–33 %). Multiple heterozygous positions in their ITS, ß-tubulin and HSP90 gene sequences indicate that P. xheterohybrida, P. xincrassata and P. cambivora are interspecific hybrids. Consequently, P. cambivora is redescribed as P. xcambivora without nomenclatural act. Pathogenicity trials on seedlings of Castanea sativa, Fagus sylvatica and Q. suber indicate that all six new species might pose a potential threat to European forests.
    Keywords: biosecurity ; breeding systems ; evolution ; flow cytometry ; phylogeny ; Phytophthora cambivora ; radiation
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • Publication Date: 2016-10-25
    Description: To provide multi-centennial, annually-resolved records of climate for arid and semi-arid areas of Australia it is necessary to investigate the potential climate signals in tree species in this large region. Using a stable isotope and x-ray fluorescence approach to dendrochronology in Acacia cambagei, this study demonstrates short (10 years) proxies of temperature and precipitation are possible. Because rings in A. cambagei are difficult to see, precluding traditional dendrochronology, we used elemental abundances of Ca and Sr as an annual chronometer back to 1962. Radiocarbon analysis confirmed that our dating of wood from two trees. We compared δ13C and δ18O from the α-cellulose of the dated wood over the most recent 10 years (n = 10) to local climate records demonstrating significant relationships between δ18O and precipitation (r = −0.85, p < 0.002); mean monthly maximum temperature (r = 0.69, p < 0.03); and drought indexes (CRU scPDSI 0.5°, r = −0.89, p < 0.001) for February and March. Acacia cambagei may be useful in developing regional networks of climate proxies for drought. Using modern trees, in combination with architectural timbers, it may be possible to construct a multi-century, annually-resolved proxy-record of rainfall and temperature for semi-arid north-eastern Australia.
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • Publication Date: 2016-10-31
    Description: Numerical ice sheet models constrained by theory and refined by comparisons with observational data are a central component of work to address the interactions between the cryosphere and changing climate, at a wide range of scales. Although there continue to be significant advances in modelling, major challenges still exist, in particular in terms of downscaling global climate model output to estimate regional and local climate patterns that are critical controls for the dynamics of glaciers and ice sheets. Ice sheet models are tested and refined by comparing model predictions of past ice geometries with field-based reconstructions from geological, geomorphological, and ice core data. However, on the East Antarctic Ice sheet, there is a critical gap in the empirical data required to reconstruct changes in ice sheet geometry in the Dronning Maud Land (DML) region. In addition, there is poor control on the regional climate history of the ice sheet margin, because ice core locations, where detailed reconstructions of climate history exist, are located on high inland domes. This leaves numerical models of regional glaciation history in this near-coastal area largely unconstrained. MAGIC-DML is an ongoing Swedish-US-Norwegian-German-UK collaboration with a focus on improving ice sheet models by combining advances in modeling with filling critical data gaps that exist in our knowledge of the timing and pattern of ice surface changes on the western Dronning Maud Land margin. A combination of geomorphological mapping using remote sensing data, field investigations, cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating, and numerical ice-sheet modelling are being used in an iterative manner to produce a comprehensive reconstruction of the glacial history of western Dronning Maud Land. We present an overview of the project, as well as results of the initial mapping and modelling that has been used to identify high potential sites for field sampling in 2016/17 and 2017/18.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • Publication Date: 2016-11-02
    Description: Congestion is commonly reported during spaceflight, and most crewmembers have reported using medications for congestion during International Space Station (ISS) missions. Although congestion has been attributed to fluid shifts during spaceflight, fluid status reaches equilibrium during the first week after launch while congestion continues to be reported throughout long duration missions. Congestion complaints have anecdotally been reported in relation to ISS CO2 levels; this evaluation was undertaken to determine whether or not an association exists. METHODS: Reported headaches, congestion symptoms, and CO2 levels were obtained for ISS expeditions 2-31, and time-weighted means and single-point maxima were determined for 24-hour (24hr) and 7-day (7d) periods prior to each weekly private medical conference. Multiple imputation addressed missing data, and logistic regression modeled the relationship between probability of reported event of congestion or headache and CO2 levels, adjusted for possible confounding covariates. The first seven days of spaceflight were not included to control for fluid shifts. Data were evaluated to determine the concentration of CO2 required to maintain the risk of congestion below 1% to allow for direct comparison with a previously published evaluation of CO2 concentrations and headache. RESULTS: This study confirmed a previously identified significant association between CO2 and headache and also found a significant association between CO2 and congestion. For each 1-mm Hg increase in CO2, the odds of a crew member reporting congestion doubled. The average 7-day CO2 would need to be maintained below 1.5 mmHg to keep the risk of congestion below 1%. The predicted probability curves of ISS headache and congestion curves appear parallel when plotted against ppCO2 levels with congestion occurring at approximately 1mmHg lower than a headache would be reported. DISCUSSION: While the cause of congestion is multifactorial, this study showed congestion is associated with CO2 levels on ISS. Data from additional expeditions could be incorporated to further assess this finding. CO2 levels are also associated with reports of headaches on ISS. While it may be expected for astronauts with congestion to also complain of headaches, these two symptoms are commonly mutually exclusive. Furthermore, it is unknown if a temporal CO2 relationship exists between congestion and headache on ISS. CO2 levels were time-weighted for 24hr and 7d, and thus the time course of congestion leading to headache was not assessed; however, congestion could be an early CO2-related symptom when compared to headache. Future studies evaluating the association of CO2-related congestion leading to headache would be difficult due to the relatively stable daily CO2 levels on ISS currently, but a systematic study could be implemented on-orbit if desired.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-37736 , Aerospace Medical Association Meeting; 29 Apr. - 4 May 2017; Denver, CO; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2016-11-01
    Description: The surface of Mars once had abundant water flowing on its surface, but now there is a general perception that this surface is completely dry. Several lines of research have shown that there are sources of potentially large quantities of water at many locations on the surface, including regions considered as candidates for future human missions. Traditionally, system designs for these human missions are constrained to tightly recycle water and oxygen, and current resource utilization strategies involve ascent vehicle oxidizer production only. But the assumption of relatively abundant extant water may change this. Several scenarios were constructed to evaluate water requirements for human Mars expeditions to assess the impact to system design if locally produced water is available. Specifically, we have assessed water resources needed for 1) ascent vehicle oxidizer and fuel production, 2) open-loop water and oxygen life support requirements along with more robust usage scenarios, and 3) crew radiation protection augmentation. In this assessment, production techniques and the associated chemistry to transform Martian water and atmosphere into these useful commodities are identified, but production mass and power requirements are left to future analyses. The figure below illustrates the type of water need assessment performed and that will be discussed. There have been several sources of feedstock material discussed in recent literature that could be used to produce these quantities of water. This paper will focus on Mars surface features that resemble glacier-like forms on Earth. Several lines of evidence indicate that some of these features are in fact buried ice, likely remnants from an earlier ice age on Mars. This paper examines techniques and hardware systems used in the polar regions of Earth to access this buried ice and withdraw water from it. These techniques and systems will be described to illustrate options available. A technique known as a Rodriguez Well is assessed as a likely method for extracting water from these bodies of ice. The figure below is a sample of results from this assessment that will be discussed.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: JSC-CN-36635-1 , IEEE Aerospace Conference; 4-11 Mar. 2017; Big Sky, MT; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2016-11-01
    Description: In the last few years, radio technologies for unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV) have advanced very rapidly. The increasing need to fly unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the national airspace system (NAS) to perform missions of vital importance to national security, defense, and science has pushed ahead the design and implementation of new radio platforms. However, a lot still has to be done to improve those radios in terms of performance and capabilities. In addition, an important aspect to account for is hardware cost and the feasibility to implement these radios using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components. UAV radios come with numerous technical challenges and their development involves contributions at different levels of the design. Cognitive algorithms need to be developed in order to perform agile communications using appropriate frequency allocation while maintaining safe and efficient operations in the NAS and, digital reconfigurable architectures have to be designed in order to ensure a prompt response to environmental changes. Command and control (C2) communications have to be preserved during "standard" operations while crew operations have to be minimized. It is clear that UAV radios have to be software-defined systems, where size, weight and power consumption (SWaP) are critical parameters. This paper provides preliminary results of the efforts performed to design a fully digital radio architecture as part of a NASA Phase I STTR. In this paper, we will explain the basic idea and technical principles behind our dynamic/adaptive frequency hopping radio for UAVs. We will present our Simulink model of the dynamic FH radio transmitter design for UAV communications and show simulation results and FPGA system analysis.
    Keywords: Air Transportation and Safety ; Space Sciences (General) ; Communications and Radar
    Type: GRC-E-DAA-TN30791 , Integrated Communication Navigation Systems (ICNS 2016); 19-21 Apr. 2017; Herndon, VA; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2016-11-04
    Description: Enhanced screening for the Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome has been implemented to better characterize the ocular and vision changes observed in some long-duration crewmembers. This includes implementation of in-flight ultrasound in 2010 and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in 2013. Potential risk factors for VIIP include cardiovascular health, diet, anatomical and genetic factors, and environmental conditions. Carbon dioxide (CO2), a potent vasodilator, is chronically elevated on the International Space Station (ISS) relative to ambient levels on Earth, and is a plausible risk factor for VIIP. In an effort to understand the possible associations between CO2 and VIIP, this study explores the relationship of ambient CO2 levels on ISS compared to inflight ultrasound and OCT measures of the eye obtained from ISS crewmembers. CO2 measurements were aggregated from Operational Data Reduction Complex and Node 3 major constituent analyzers (MCAs) on ISS or from sensors located in the European Columbus module, as available. CO2 levels in the periods between each ultrasound and OCT session are summarized using timeseries metrics, including time-weighted means and variances. Partial least squares regression analyses are used to quantify the complex relationship between specific ultrasound and OCT measures and the CO2 metrics simulataneously. These analyses will enhance our understanding of the possible associations between CO2 levels and structural changes to the eye which will in turn inform future analysis of inflight VIIP data.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General) ; Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-37739 , Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop (2017 HRP IWS); 23-27 Jan. 2017; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2016-11-03
    Description: NASA, in planning for long-duration missions, has an imperative to provide a food system with the necessary nutrition, acceptability, and safety to ensure sustainment of crew health and performance. The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and future exploration missions are mass constrained; therefore the team is challenged to reduce the mass of the food system by 10% while maintaining product safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Commercially available products do not meet the nutritional requirements for a full meal replacement in the spaceflight food system, and it is currently unknown if daily meal replacements will impact crew food intake and psychosocial health over time. The purpose of this study was to develop a variety of nutritionally balanced breakfast replacement bars that meet spaceflight nutritional, microbiological, sensorial, and shelf-life requirements, while enabling a 10% savings in food mass. To date, six nutrient-dense meal replacement bars (approximately 700 calories per bar) have been developed, using traditional methods of compression as well as novel ultrasonic compression technologies developed by Creative Resonance Inc. (Phoenix, AZ). The four highest rated bars were evaluated in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) to assess the frequency with which actual meal replacement options may be implemented. Specifically, overall impact of bars on mood, satiety, digestive discomfort, and satisfaction with food. These factors are currently being analyzed to inform successful implementation strategies where crew maintain adequate food intake. In addition, these bars are currently undergoing shelf-life testing to determine long-term sensory acceptability, nutritional stability, qualitative stability of analytical measurements (i.e. water activity and texture), and microbiological compliance over two years of storage at room temperature and potential temperature abuse conditions to predict long-term acceptability. It is expected that this work will enable a successful meal replacement strategy to be implemented that will maintain crew food consumption and health, while informing exploration missions with appropriate mass savings expectations.
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support
    Type: JSC-CN-37796 , 2017 Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop (HRP IWS 2017); 23-26 Jan. 2017; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2016-11-03
    Description: As spaceflight durations have increased over the last four decades, the effects of microgravity on the human body have become far better understood, as have the exercise countermeasures. Through use of a combination of aerobic and resistive exercise devices, today's astronauts and cosmonauts are able to partially counter the losses in muscle strength, aerobic fitness, and bone strength that otherwise might occur during their missions on the International Space Station (ISS). Since 2000, the ISS has employed a variety of exercise equipment used as countermeasures to these risks. Providing reliable and available exercise systems has presented significant challenges due to the unique environment. In solving these, lessons have been learned that can inform development of future systems.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-37633 , JETS-JE11-15-SAIP-DOC-0084 , 2017 IEEE Aerospace Conference; 4-11 Mar. 2017; Big Sky, MT; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2016-11-03
    Description: This panel presents recent updates to and a comprehensive overview of the operational medical support provided to ISS crewmembers in Star City, Russia and Kazakhstan as part of UTMB/KBRwyle's Human Health & Performance contract. With the current Soyuz training flow, physician support is required for nominal training evolutions involving pressure changes or other potential physical risks detailed in this presentation. In addition, full-time physician presence in Star City helps to address the disparity in access to health care in these relatively remote practice areas, while also developing and maintaining relationships with host nation resources. A unique part of standard training in Russia also involves survival training in both winter and water environments; logistic details and medical impacts of each of these training scenarios will be discussed. Following support of a successful training flow, UTMB/KBRwyle's Star City Medical Support Group (SCMSG) is also responsible for configuring medical packs in support of Soyuz launches and landings; we will present the rationale for current pack contents within the context of specific operational needs. With respect to contingency events, the group will describe their preparedness to respond appropriately by activating both local and global resources as necessary, detailing a specialized subset of the group who continually work and update these assets, given changes in international infrastructure and other impacts.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-37623 , AsMA Annual Scientific Meeting; 29 Apr. - 4 May 2017 ; Denvor, CO; United States
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  • Publication Date: 2016-11-05
    Description: Cross-system studies on the response of different ecosystems to global change will support our understanding of ecological changes. Synoptic views on the planet's two main realms, the marine and terrestrial, however, are rare, owing to the development of rather disparate research communities.We combined questionnaires and a literature review to investigate howthe importance of anthropogenic drivers of biodiversity change differs amongmarine and terrestrial systems and whether differences perceived by marine vs. terrestrial researchers are reflected by the scientific literature. This included asking marine and terrestrial researchers to rate the relevance of different drivers of global change for either marine or terrestrial biodiversity. Land use and the associated loss of natural habitatswere rated as most important in the terrestrial realm,while the exploitation of the sea by fishing was rated as most important in the marine realm. The relevance of chemicals, climate change and the increasing atmospheric concentration of CO2 were rated differently for marine and terrestrial biodiversity respectively. Yet, our literature review provided less evidence for such differences leading to the conclusion that while the history of the use of land and sea differs, impacts of global change are likely to become increasingly similar.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Language: en
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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