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  • Journal cover
    Springer
    Online: 1.1993 –
    Publisher: Springer
    Print ISSN: 0968-5243
    Electronic ISSN: 1352-8661
    Topics: Medicine , Physics
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  • Publication Date: 2012-05-22
    Description: Object   Electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) coregistration and high-density EEG (hdEEG) can be combined to map noninvasively abnormal brain activation elicited by epileptic processes. By combining noninvasive imaging techniques in a multimodal approach, we sought to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms underlying epileptic activity in seven patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Materials and methods   Standard EEG and fMRI data were acquired during a single scanning session. The EEG-fMRI data were analyzed using the general linear model and independent component analysis. Source localization of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) was performed using 256-channel hdEEG. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) localizations were then compared to EEG source reconstruction. Results   On hdEEG, focal source localization was detected in all seven patients; in six out of seven it was concordant with the expected epileptic activity as defined by EEG data and clinical evaluation; and in four out of seven in whom IEDs were recorded, BOLD signal changes were observed. These activities were partially concordant with the source localization. Conclusion   Multimodal integration of EEG-fMRI and hdEEG combining two different methods to localize the same epileptic foci appears to be a promising tool to noninvasively map abnormal brain activation in patients with post-traumatic brain injury. Content Type Journal Article Category Research Article Pages 1-16 DOI 10.1007/s10334-012-0316-9 Authors Silvia F. Storti, Department of Neurological, Neuropsychological, Morphological and Movement Sciences, Section of Clinical Neurology, University of Verona, Policlinico G.B. Rossi, P.le L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 Verona, Italy Emanuela Formaggio, Department of Neurophysiology, IRCCS San Camillo, Venice, Italy Enrica Franchini, Department of Neurological, Neuropsychological, Morphological and Movement Sciences, Section of Clinical Neurology, University of Verona, Policlinico G.B. Rossi, P.le L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 Verona, Italy Luigi G. Bongiovanni, Department of Neurological, Neuropsychological, Morphological and Movement Sciences, Section of Clinical Neurology, University of Verona, Policlinico G.B. Rossi, P.le L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 Verona, Italy Roberto Cerini, Department of Pathology and Diagnostics, University of Verona, Verona, Italy Antonio Fiaschi, Department of Neurological, Neuropsychological, Morphological and Movement Sciences, Section of Clinical Neurology, University of Verona, Policlinico G.B. Rossi, P.le L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 Verona, Italy Christoph M. Michel, Functional Brain Mapping Laboratory, Department of Fundamental Neurosciences, University Medical School, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland Paolo Manganotti, Department of Neurological, Neuropsychological, Morphological and Movement Sciences, Section of Clinical Neurology, University of Verona, Policlinico G.B. Rossi, P.le L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 Verona, Italy Journal Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine Online ISSN 1352-8661 Print ISSN 0968-5243
    Print ISSN: 0968-5243
    Electronic ISSN: 1352-8661
    Topics: Medicine , Physics
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  • Publication Date: 2012-08-27
    Description: Object   Eddy current compensation by dynamic reference phase modulation (eDREAM) is a compensation method for eddy current fields induced by B 0 field-cycling which occur in delta relaxation enhanced MR (dreMR) imaging. The presented method is based on a dynamic frequency adjustment and prevents eddy current related artifacts. It is easy to implement and can be completely realized in software for any imaging sequence. Materials and methods   In this paper, the theory of eDREAM is derived and two applications are demonstrated. The theory describes how to model the behavior of the eddy currents and how to implement the compensation. Phantom and in vivo measurements are carried out and demonstrate the benefits of eDREAM. Results   A comparison of images acquired with and without eDREAM shows a significant improvement in dreMR image quality. Images without eDREAM suffer from severe artifacts and do not allow proper interpretation while images with eDREAM are artifact free. In vivo experiments demonstrate that dreMR imaging without eDREAM is not feasible as artifacts completely change the image contrast. Conclusion   eDREAM is a flexible eddy current compensation for dreMR. It is capable of completely removing the influence of eddy currents such that the dreMR images do not suffer from artifacts. Content Type Journal Article Category Research Article Pages 1-11 DOI 10.1007/s10334-012-0335-6 Authors Uvo Christoph Hoelscher, Research Center for Magnetic Resonance Bavaria (MRB), Würzburg, Germany Peter M. Jakob, Research Center for Magnetic Resonance Bavaria (MRB), Würzburg, Germany Journal Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine Online ISSN 1352-8661 Print ISSN 0968-5243
    Print ISSN: 0968-5243
    Electronic ISSN: 1352-8661
    Topics: Medicine , Physics
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  • Publication Date: 2012-08-13
    Description: Object   The prediction of embryo viability by usual morphological analysis is currently unsatisfactory. New non-invasive techniques such as high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H-NMR) spectroscopy that allows assessment of metabolic profiling in spent culture media might help embryologists to predict embryo development. Materials and methods   Individual microdrops of culture media were analysed after 24 h of embryo culture (from day 3 to day 4) by spectroscopy using a 1 mm microliter probe allowing analysis without sample dilution. Embryos were divided into two groups on day 5: non-arrested embryos ( n  = 19) and arrested embryos unable to reach the blastocyst stage ( n  = 20). Multivariate analysis techniques such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Orthogonal Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) were performed to compare extracellular metabolite balance. Results   1 H-NMR used in combination with a 1 mm probe suggested that in vitro cultured human embryos that have a high developmental potential modify their environment slightly compared to embryos that cease to develop. However, differences between the two groups did not reach statistical significance and multivariate statistical analysis did not allow clustering of the two groups. Conclusion   This study indicated that this technique would not be sufficiently powerful alone to provide information that might help to assess the developmental potential of individual embryos for in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Content Type Journal Article Category Research Article Pages 1-10 DOI 10.1007/s10334-012-0331-x Authors Lydie Nadal-Desbarats, INSERM U930, UFR de Médecine, 10 Blvd Tonnellé, 37044 Tours Cedex 9, France Ségolène Veau, Service de Médecine et Biologie de la Reproduction, CHRU de Tours, 37044 Tours, France Hélène Blasco, INSERM U930, UFR de Médecine, 10 Blvd Tonnellé, 37044 Tours Cedex 9, France Patrick Emond, INSERM U930, UFR de Médecine, 10 Blvd Tonnellé, 37044 Tours Cedex 9, France Dominique Royere, Service de Médecine et Biologie de la Reproduction, CHRU de Tours, 37044 Tours, France Christian R. Andres, INSERM U930, UFR de Médecine, 10 Blvd Tonnellé, 37044 Tours Cedex 9, France Fabrice Guérif, Service de Médecine et Biologie de la Reproduction, CHRU de Tours, 37044 Tours, France Journal Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine Online ISSN 1352-8661 Print ISSN 0968-5243
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    Electronic ISSN: 1352-8661
    Topics: Medicine , Physics
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  • Publication Date: 2012-08-13
    Description:    PET and MRI are established clinical tools which provide complementary information, but clinical workflow limits widespread clinical application of both modalities in combination. The two modalities are usually situated in different hospital departments and operated and reported independently, and patients are referred for both scans, often consecutively. With the advent of PET/MR as a new hybrid imaging modality there is now a possibility of addressing these concerns. There are two different design philosophies for integrated PET/MR imaging—positioning PET inside the MRI magnet or in tandem, similar to PET/CT. The Ingenuity TF PET/MR by Philips Healthcare is a sequential PET/MR tomograph combining state-of-the-art time-of-flight PET and high-field MRI with parallel transmission capabilities. In this review article we describe the technology implemented in the system, for example RF and magnetic shielding, MR-based attenuation correction, peculiarities in scatter correction, MR system optimisation, and the philosophy behind its design. Furthermore, we provide an overview of how the system has been used during the last two years, and expectations of how the use of PET/MR may continue in the years to come. On the basis of these observations and experiences we discuss the utility of the system, clinical workflow and acquisition times, and possible ways of optimization. Content Type Journal Article Category Review Article Pages 1-19 DOI 10.1007/s10334-012-0330-y Authors Antonis Kalemis, Philips Healthcare, Guildford Business Park, Guildford, Surrey GU2 8XH, UK Bénédicte M. A. Delattre, Philips Healthcare, Rte des Avouillons 16, 1196 Gland, Switzerland Susanne Heinzer, Philips Healthcare, Allmendstrasse 140, 8027 Zurich, Switzerland Journal Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine Online ISSN 1352-8661 Print ISSN 0968-5243
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    Electronic ISSN: 1352-8661
    Topics: Medicine , Physics
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  • Publication Date: 2012-08-13
    Description: Object   Until now, a three-directional velocity field has mostly been obtained by velocity encoding in three directions, which is very time-consuming and hence not usually used in clinical routine. We show the feasibility of combining in-plane tagging with through-plane tissue phase mapping (TPM) to encode a three-directional velocity field at 3 T with reduced overall acquisition time. Materials and methods   Assessment of a three-directional velocity field was performed for 10 healthy volunteers. The motion patterns obtained by use of five different sequences including three-directional TPM, TPM in the through-plane direction, TPM in the through-plane direction with horizontal or vertical tagging lines, and TPM in the through-plane direction combined with a tagging grid were evaluated and compared. Results   A three-dimensional velocity field can be obtained in approximately half the acquisition time by combining through-plane TPM with in-plane tagging. Although the velocity information is derived by different means, differences between the information obtained by three-directional TPM encoding and the suggested technique are only minor. Conclusion   The combination of tagging and TPM enables assessment of the three-directional velocity field in nearly half the time taken when the conventional three-directional TPM sequence is used. Content Type Journal Article Category Research Article Pages 1-9 DOI 10.1007/s10334-012-0333-8 Authors Anja Lutz, Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 23, 89081 Ulm, Germany Jan Paul, Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 23, 89081 Ulm, Germany Axel Bornstedt, Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 23, 89081 Ulm, Germany Gerd Ulrich Nienhaus, Institute of Applied Physics and Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Wolfgang-Gaede-Strasse 1, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany Patrick Etyngier, Medisys Research Lab, Philips Healthcare, 33 rue de Verdun, 92156 Suresnes, France Peter Bernhardt, Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 23, 89081 Ulm, Germany Wolfgang Rottbauer, Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 23, 89081 Ulm, Germany Volker Rasche, Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 23, 89081 Ulm, Germany Journal Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine Online ISSN 1352-8661 Print ISSN 0968-5243
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    Electronic ISSN: 1352-8661
    Topics: Medicine , Physics
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  • Publication Date: 2012-10-11
    Description:    Tri-modality PET/CT–MRI includes the transfer of the patient on a dedicated shuttle from one system into the other. Advantages of this system include a true CT-based attenuation correction, reliable PET-quantification and higher flexibility in patient throughput on both systems. Comparative studies of PET/MRI versus PET/CT are readily accomplished without repeated PET with a different PET scanner at a different time point. Additionally, there is a higher imaging flexibility based on the availability of three imaging modalities, which can be combined for the characterization of the disease. The downside is a somewhat higher radiation dose of up to 3 mSv with a low dose CT based on the CT-component, longer acquisition times and potential misalignment between the imaging components. Overall, the tri-modality PET/CT–MR system offers comparative studies using the three different imaging modalities in the same patient virtually at the same time, and may help to develop reliable attenuation algorithms at the same time. Content Type Journal Article Category Review Article Pages 1-11 DOI 10.1007/s10334-012-0344-5 Authors Patrick Veit-Haibach, Department of Medical Imaging, University Hospital, Rämistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland Felix Pierre Kuhn, Department of Medical Imaging, University Hospital, Rämistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland Florian Wiesinger, GE Healthcare, Garching, Germany Gaspar Delso, Department of Medical Imaging, University Hospital, Rämistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland Gustav von Schulthess, Department of Medical Imaging, University Hospital, Rämistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland Journal Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine Online ISSN 1352-8661 Print ISSN 0968-5243
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    Topics: Medicine , Physics
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  • Publication Date: 2012-10-11
    Description:    The implementation of hybrid imaging systems requires thorough and anticipatory planning at local and regional levels. For installation of combined positron emission and magnetic resonance imaging systems (PET/MRI), a number of physical and constructional provisions concerning shielding of electromagnetic fields (RF- and high-field) as well as handling of radionuclides have to be met, the latter of which includes shielding for the emitted 511 keV gamma rays. Based on our experiences with a SIEMENS Biograph mMR system, a step-by-step approach is required to allow a trouble-free installation. In this article, we present a proposal for a standardized step-by-step plan to accomplish the installation of a combined PET/MRI system. Moreover, guidelines for the smooth operation of combined PET/MRI in an integrated research and clinical setting will be proposed. Overall, the most important preconditions for the successful implementation of PET/MRI in an integrated research and clinical setting is the interdisciplinary target-oriented cooperation between nuclear medicine, radiology, and all referring and collaborating institutions at all levels of interaction (personnel, imaging protocols, reporting, selection of the data transfer and communication methods). Content Type Journal Article Category Review Article Pages 1-13 DOI 10.1007/s10334-012-0347-2 Authors Bernhard Sattler, Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Leipzig, Liebigstrasse 18, 04103 Leipzig, Germany Thies Jochimsen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Leipzig, Liebigstrasse 18, 04103 Leipzig, Germany Henryk Barthel, Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Leipzig, Liebigstrasse 18, 04103 Leipzig, Germany Kerstin Sommerfeld, Department of Project Development and Technical Planning, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany Patrick Stumpp, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany Karl-Titus Hoffmann, Department of Neuroradiology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany Matthias Gutberlet, Department of Radiology, Heart Center Leipzig, University Hospital, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany Arno Villringer, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany Thomas Kahn, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany Osama Sabri, Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Leipzig, Liebigstrasse 18, 04103 Leipzig, Germany Journal Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine Online ISSN 1352-8661 Print ISSN 0968-5243
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  • Publication Date: 2012-09-18
    Description: Object   To evaluate the feasibility of positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MR) with 18 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) for therapy response evaluation of malignant lymphoma. Materials and methods   Nine patients with malignant lymphoma who underwent FDG-PET/MR before and after chemotherapy were included in this retrospective study. Average time between the two scans was 70 days. The scans were evaluated independently by two nuclear medicine physicians. The Ann Arbor classification was used to describe lymphoma stage. Furthermore, the readers also rated PET image quality using a five point scale. Weighted kappa (κ) was used to calculate interrater agreement. Results   The initial scan showed foci of increased FDG uptake in all patients, with Ann Arbor stage varying between I and IV. In the follow-up examination, all but one patient showed complete response to chemotherapy. PET image quality was rated as very good or excellent for all scans. Interrater agreement was excellent regarding Ann Arbor stage (κ = 0.97) and good regarding image quality (κ = 0.41). Conclusion   PET/MR shows promising initial results for therapy response evaluation in lymphoma patients. Content Type Journal Article Category Research Article Pages 1-7 DOI 10.1007/s10334-012-0342-7 Authors Ivan Platzek, Department of Radiology, Dresden University Hospital, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany Bettina Beuthien-Baumann, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden University Hospital, Dresden, Germany Jens Langner, Institute of Radiopharmacy, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany Manuel Popp, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden University Hospital, Dresden, Germany Georg Schramm, Institute of Radiopharmacy, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany Rainer Ordemann, Medical Clinic and Polyclinic I, Dresden University Hospital, Dresden, Germany Michael Laniado, Department of Radiology, Dresden University Hospital, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany Jörg Kotzerke, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden University Hospital, Dresden, Germany Jörg van den Hoff, Institute of Radiopharmacy, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany Journal Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine Online ISSN 1352-8661 Print ISSN 0968-5243
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  • Publication Date: 2012-09-22
    Description:    The objective of this study was to develop an automatic image registration technique capable of compensating for kidney motion in renal perfusion MRI, to assess the effect of renal artery stenosis on the kidney parenchyma. Materials and methods   Images from 20 patients scheduled for a renal perfusion study were acquired using a 1.5 T scanner. A free-breathing 3D-FSPGR sequence was used to acquire coronal views encompassing both kidneys following the infusion of Gd-BOPTA. A two-step registration algorithm was developed, including a preliminary registration minimising the quadratic difference and a fine registration maximising the mutual information (MI) between consecutive image frames. The starting point for the MI-based registration procedure was provided by an adaptive predictor that was able to predict kidney motion using a respiratory movement model. The algorithm was validated against manual registration performed by an expert user. Results   The mean distance between the automatically and manually defined contours was 2.95 ± 0.81 mm, which was not significantly different from the interobserver variability of the manual registration procedure (2.86 ± 0.80 mm, P  = 0.80). The perfusion indices evaluated on the manually and automatically extracted perfusion curves were not significantly different. Conclusions   The developed method is able to automatically compensate for kidney motion in perfusion studies, which prevents the need for time-consuming manual image registration. Content Type Journal Article Category Research Article Pages 1-11 DOI 10.1007/s10334-012-0337-4 Authors Vincenzo Positano, Fondazione CNR Regione Toscana “G. Monasterio”, Via Moruzzi, 1, 56124 Pisa, Italy Ilaria Bernardeschi, Fondazione CNR Regione Toscana “G. Monasterio”, Via Moruzzi, 1, 56124 Pisa, Italy Virna Zampa, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Martina Marinelli, Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR, Pisa, Italy Luigi Landini, Fondazione CNR Regione Toscana “G. Monasterio”, Via Moruzzi, 1, 56124 Pisa, Italy Maria Filomena Santarelli, Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR, Pisa, Italy Journal Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine Online ISSN 1352-8661 Print ISSN 0968-5243
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