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1.
PAPER CURRENT
On the Spatial Gradient of Soil Moisture–Precipitation Feedback Strength in the April 2011 Drought in the Southern Great Plains (2017)
American Meteorological Society (AMS)
Publication Date: 2017-02-01
Print ISSN: 0894-8755
Electronic ISSN: 1520-0442
Topics: Geography , Geosciences , Physics
2.
PAPER CURRENT
Dependence of dislocation structure on orientation and slip systems in highly oriented nanotwinned Cu (2017)
Elsevier
Publication Date: 2017-01-21
Description: Publication date: 1 April 2017 Source: Acta Materialia, Volume 127 Author(s): Qiuhong Lu, Zesheng You, Xiaoxu Huang, Niels Hansen, Lei Lu To explore the correlation between orientation, active slip systems and dislocation structure, highly oriented nanotwinned Cu has been deformed in compression to 2% and 6% strain. The compression directions are 90°, 0° and 45° with respect to the twin boundaries (TBs) of the almost parallel twins. The dislocation structures are analyzed by the two-beam diffraction imaging in a transmission electron microscope and by a Schmid factor analysis. In structures deformed at 90° a high density of long straight dislocation lines with both slip plane and Burgers vectors inclined to the twin plane (slip Mode I) are observed; they transmit across multiple TBs at a strain of 2% and form a high density of dislocations on TBs at a strain of 6%. In structures deformed at 0° dislocations with Burgers vectors parallel to the twin plane (slip Mode II) are confined within Twin/Matrix lamellae and the analysis shows that both slip Mode I and II are active with dominance of Mode II. In structures deformed at 45° dislocations from slip Modes I, II and III are identified, where Mode III dislocations consist of partial dislocations moving along the TBs and full dislocations inside the twin lamellae gliding on the slip planes parallel to the twin plane. The analysis of the dislocation structures illustrate the strong correlation between active slip systems and the dislocation structure and the strong effect of slip mode anisotropy on both the flow stress and strain hardening rate of nanotwinned Cu. Graphical abstract
Print ISSN: 1359-6454
Electronic ISSN: 1873-2453
Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
Published by Elsevier
3.
PAPER CURRENT
A novel ram-air plasma synthetic jet actuator for near space high-speed flow control (2017)
Elsevier
Publication Date: 2017-01-21
Description: Publication date: April 2017 Source: Acta Astronautica, Volume 133 Author(s): Yan Zhou, Zhixun Xia, Zhenbing Luo, Lin Wang, Xiong Deng As a promising high-speed flow control technique, plasma synthetic jet actuator (PSJA) has the superiorities of requiring no moving parts or flow supplies, extremely fast response, wide frequency band and high efflux speed. However, it has limitations for application: in near space, the air in the cavity which is used to generate the puled plasma jet becomes rare, and the low refill rate often leads to insufficient recovery which limits the working frequency. In order to overcome these limitations, a novel actuator called ram-air plasma synthetic jet actuator (RPSJA) is proposed. Inspired by the ramjet, the principle of this actuator is to take advantage of the tremendous dynamic pressure of the high-speed inflow using an added ram-air inlet. Numerical investigations were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of such an actuator. The results show that, compared with PSJA, the air in the chamber becomes denser and the refill rate is notably increased owing to the “ram-air effect” of RPSJA. Based on the flow characteristic analysis, a revised actuator with a stepped ram-air inlet is proposed and investigated as well, and the results show that the performance is improved as the stepped height rises.
Print ISSN: 0094-5765
Electronic ISSN: 1879-2030
Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
4.
PAPER CURRENT
Additive manufacturing of a functionally graded material from Ti-6Al-4V to Invar: Experimental characterization and thermodynamic calculations (2017)
Elsevier
Publication Date: 2017-01-21
Description: Publication date: 1 April 2017 Source: Acta Materialia, Volume 127 Author(s): Lourdes D. Bobbio, Richard A. Otis, John Paul Borgonia, R. Peter Dillon, Andrew A. Shapiro, Zi-Kui Liu, Allison M. Beese In functionally graded materials (FGMs), the elemental composition, or structure, within a component varies gradually as a function of position, allowing for the gradual transition from one alloy to another, and the local tailoring of properties. One method for fabricating FGMs with varying elemental composition is through layer-by-layer directed energy deposition additive manufacturing. This work combines experimental characterization and computational analysis to investigate a material graded from Ti-6Al-4V to Invar 36 (64 wt% Fe, 36 wt% Ni). The microstructure, composition, phases, and microhardness were determined as a function of position within the FGM. During the fabrication process, detrimental phases associated with the compositional blending of the Ti-6Al-4V and Invar formed, leading to cracking in the final deposited part. Intermetallic phases (FeTi, Fe 2 Ti, Ni 3 Ti, and NiTi 2 ) were experimentally identified to occur throughout the gradient region, and were considered as the reason that the FGM cracked during fabrication. CALPHAD (CALculation of PHase Diagrams) thermodynamic calculations were used concurrently to predict phases that would form during the manufacturing process and were compared to the experimental results. The experimental-computational approach described herein for characterizing FGMs can be used to improve the understanding and design of other FGMs. Graphical abstract
Print ISSN: 1359-6454
Electronic ISSN: 1873-2453
Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
Published by Elsevier
5.
PAPER CURRENT
William Davison (Ed.): Diffusive gradients in thin-films for environmental measurements (2017)
Springer
Publication Date: 2017-01-21
Print ISSN: 1618-2642
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
Published by Springer
6.
PAPER CURRENT
Correlation between luminescence intensity and cytotoxicity in cell-based cytotoxicity assay using luciferase (2017)
Elsevier
Publication Date: 2017-01-21
Description: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2017 Source: Analytical Biochemistry Author(s): S. Wakuri, K. Yamakage, Y. Kazuki, K. Kazuki, M. Oshimura, S. Aburatani, M. Yasunaga, Y. Nakajima The luciferase reporter assay has become one of the conventional methods for cytotoxicity evaluation. Typically, the decrease of luminescence expressed by a constitutive promoter is used as an index of cytotoxicity. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reports of the correlation between cytotoxicity and luminescence intensity. In this study, to accurately verify the correlation between them, beetle luciferase was stably expressed in human hepatoma HepG2 cells harboring the multi-integrase mouse artificial chromosome vector. We showed that the cytotoxicity assay using luciferase does not depend on the stability of luciferase protein and the kind of constitutive promoter. Next, HepG2 cells in which green-emitting beetle luciferase was expressed under the control of CAG promoter were exposed to 58 compounds. The luminescence intensity and cytotoxicity curves of cells exposed to 48 compounds showed similar tendencies, whereas those of cells exposed to 10 compounds did not do so, although the curves gradually approached each other with increasing exposure time. Finally, we demonstrated that luciferase expressed under the control of a constitutive promoter can be utilized both as an internal control reporter for normalizing a test reporter and for monitoring cytotoxicity when two kinds of luciferases are simultaneously used in the cytotoxicity assay.
Print ISSN: 0003-2697
Electronic ISSN: 1096-0309
Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
Published by Elsevier
7.
PAPER CURRENT
Publication Date: 2017-01-21
Description: Analytical Chemistry DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.6b04652
Print ISSN: 0003-2700
Electronic ISSN: 1520-6882
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
8.
PAPER CURRENT
Electrochemical Enantioselective Recognition in a Highly Ordered Self-Assembly Framework (2017)
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Publication Date: 2017-01-21
Description: Analytical Chemistry DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.6b04377
Print ISSN: 0003-2700
Electronic ISSN: 1520-6882
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
9.
PAPER CURRENT
Observations of equatorial ionization anomaly over Africa and Middle East during a year of deep minimum (2017)
Copernicus
Publication Date: 2017-01-21
Description: Observations of equatorial ionization anomaly over Africa and Middle East during a year of deep minimum Olawale Bolaji, Oluwafisayo Owolabi, Elijah Falayi, Emmanuel Jimoh, Afolabi Kotoye, Olumide Odeyemi, Babatunde Rabiu, Patricia Doherty, Endawoke Yizengaw, Yosuke Yamazaki, Jacob Adeniyi, Rafiat Kaka, and Kehinde Onanuga Ann. Geophys., 35, 123-132, doi:10.5194/angeo-35-123-2017, 2017 Movement of plasma to higher latitudes by EIA is known to relate to eastward electric field/EEJ and thermospheric meridional neutral wind. Experiments from GPS measurements that unveil thermospheric meridional neutral wind effect on plasma transportation in the F region are very few compared with electric field/EEJ. This work includes examples of thermospheric meridional neutral wind effects on GPS TEC measurements and their roles in transportation of plasma compared to electric field/EEJ.
Print ISSN: 0992-7689
Electronic ISSN: 1432-0576
Topics: Geosciences , Physics
10.
PAPER CURRENT
Enzymatic liquefaction of agarose above the sol–gel transition temperature using a thermostable endo-type β-agarase, Aga16B (2017)
Springer
Publication Date: 2017-01-21
Description: The main carbohydrate of red macroalgae is agarose, a heterogeneous polysaccharide composed of d -galactose and 3,6-anhydro- l -galactose. When saccharifying agarose by enzymes, the unique physical properties of agarose, namely the sol – gel transition and the near-insolubility of agarose in water, limit the accessibility of agarose to the enzymes. Due to the lower accessibility of agarose to enzymes in the gel state than to the sol state, it is important to prevent the sol – gel transition by performing the enzymatic liquefaction of agarose at a temperature higher than the sol – gel transition temperature of agarose. In this study, a thermostable endo-type β-agarase, Aga16B, originating from Saccharophagus degradans 2-40 T , was characterized and introduced in the liquefaction process. Aga16B was thermostable up to 50 °C and depolymerized agarose mainly into neoagarooligosaccharides with degrees of polymerization 4 and 6. Aga16B was applied to enzymatic liquefaction of agarose at 45 °C, which was above the sol – gel transition temperature of 1 % ( w / v ) agarose (∼35 °C) when cooling agarose. This is the first systematic demonstration of enzymatic liquefaction of agarose, enabled by determining the sol – gel temperature of agarose under specific conditions and by characterizing the thermostability of an endo-type β-agarase.
Print ISSN: 0175-7598
Electronic ISSN: 1432-0614
Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Published by Springer