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1.
PAPER (OA)
Measuring Transnationality of Immigrants in Germany: Prevalence and Relationship with Social Inequalities (2015)
Routledge London
Publication Date: 2016-08-27
Description: The scope of immigrants' transnational ties and the relationship to their social position is subject to a controversial debate that suggests a dualistic picture. On the one hand, globalization theorists argue that an elite of highly educated and economically most successful professionals intensively engages in and benefits from transnationality. On the other hand, most scholars in migration and assimilation studies hold that it is the most underprivileged immigrants who maintain strong ties across state borders, which in turn furthers their marginalization. Yet, to date, very little systematic research has been conducted into the nexus between social inequalities and transnationality. This paper aims to fill this gap. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), we show that the economic, cultural and social forms of capital are related to transnationality in different ways, rather than reflecting one uniform pattern.|This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Ethnic and Racial Studies vol. 38 (2015), iss. 9, p. 1497-1519, available online at http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01419870.2015.1005639
Keywords: ddc:330 ; migrants ; transnationality ; inequality ; Germany ; capital ; heterogeneity
Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
Language: eng
Type: doc-type:article
2.
PAPER (OA)
Actuarial neutrality and financial incentives for early retirement in the Austrian pension system (2016)
ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel und Hamburg
Publication Date: 2016-08-27
Description: This paper studies actuarial neutrality in the Austrian pension system. It is often argued that actuarial neutrality constitutes an incentive for people to retire. We show that there are almost no financial incentives within the Austrian pension corridor, when we use the traditional definition of actuarial neutrality. Taking taxation into account, our results suggest that financial incentives for early retirement stem mainly from the Austrian tax system and not from the pension system itself.
Keywords: J26 ; H55 ; ddc:330 ; actuarial neutrality ; early retirement ; pension system ; retirement
Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
Language: eng
Type: doc-type:preprint
3.
PAPER (OA)
Investitionen: Warum wir sie brauchen und wie wir sie kriegen : Blessed is he who expects nothing? The role of expectations for investment (2016)
ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel und Hamburg
Publication Date: 2016-08-27
Description: Dieser Beitrag untersucht den Zusammenhang zwischen Investitionswachstum, Zinsen und Erwartungen für Österreich. Basierend auf einem Panel von 73 Wirtschaftssektoren zeigt sich, dass Zinsänderungen nur dann einen positiven Einfluss auf Investitionswachstum haben, wenn die Erwartungen stark zurückgehen. Sind die Erwartungen konstant (gut oder schlecht), so haben Zinsen jedoch kaum einen Einfluss. Ebenso zeigt sich, dass stark steigende Erwartungen einen positiven Effekt auf das Investitionswachstum aufweisen. Außerdem geht ein Anstieg der Produktionsbesteuerung sowie stärkere Kapitalmarktregulierung mit einem negativen Investitionswachstum einher.|This article focuses on the relationship between investment growth, interest rates and economic expectations. Using a panel based on 73 sectors of the Austrian economy, we show that a reduction in the interest rate is associated with positive investment growth, but only if expectations decrease. If expectations remain stable, decreasing interest rates has no effect on investment growth. An increase in expectations is associated with higher investment growth. Additionally, we show that higher taxation on production as well as increasing capital market regulation tend to decrease investment growth.
Keywords: E22 ; E43 ; E66 ; H32 ; ddc:330 ; investment ; interest rate ; expectations ; Austria
Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
Language: deu
Type: doc-type:preprint
4.
PAPER (OA)
Doing Rawls justice: Evidence from the PSID (2016)
Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW) Kiel
Publication Date: 2016-08-27
Description: Distributive value judgments based on the 'origins' of economic inequalities (e.g. circumstances and responsible choices) are increasingly evoked to argue that 'the worst form of inequality is to try to make unequal things equal'. However, one may reasonably agree that distributive value judgments should also account for the 'consequences' of economic inequalities in such a way as to (i) improve economic efficiency and (ii) prevent from subordination, exploitation and humiliation. In this way of thinking, by resorting the well-known Rawlsian 'fair equality of opportunity' and 'difference principle', the author proposes a pragmatical non-parametric estimation strategy to compare income distributions in terms of Rawlsian inequity and its contribution to overall inequality. The latter methodology is applied to PSID data from 1999 to 2013 and compared with existing empirical evidences on Roemer's (A Pragmatic Theory of Responsibility for the Egalitarian Planner, 1993, and Equality of Opportunity, 1998) inequality of opportunity. Remarkably, Rawlsian inequity is found between 56% and 65% of the overall income inequality, with an increasing pattern originating from the recent economic crisis.
Keywords: D63 ; I32 ; D3 ; ddc:330 ; Rawlsian justice ; equality of opportunity ; income distribution
Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
Language: eng
Type: doc-type:workingPaper
5.
PAPER (OA)
Academic achievement and tracking: A theory based on grading standards (2016)
Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
Publication Date: 2016-08-27
Description: We present a theory explaining the impact of ability tracking on academic performance based on grading policies. Our model distinguishes between initial ability, which is mainly determined by parental background, and eagerness to extend knowledge. We show that achievements of low ability students may be higher in a comprehensive school system, even if there are no synergy effects from teaching different students together. This arises because the comprehensive school sets a compromise standard which exceeds the standard from the low ability track. Moreover, if students with lower initial ability have higher eagerness to learn, merging classes will increase average performance.
Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; D63 ; ddc:330 ; ability tracking ; comprehensive school ; education ; equality of opportunity ; peer group effects
Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
Language: eng
Type: doc-type:workingPaper
6.
PAPER (OA)
The environmental impact of vehicle circulation tax reform in Germany (2016)
CAWM Münster
Publication Date: 2016-08-27
Description: A core political strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from road transportation in Germany is to incentivize the purchase of motor vehicles with relatively low tailpipe CO2 emissions. Consequently, since mid-2009, owners of new cars in Germany face an annual vehicle circulation tax that is partially levied according to vehicles' CO2 emission index. In this paper, I estimate the effect of CO2 -based vehicle circulation taxation in Germany on annual CO2 combustion emissions from passenger cars and CO2 climate costs using a nested logit approach on a novel panel-dataset containing registration, cost and vehicle characteristic information on approximately 7,000 unique vehicle models and approximately 19.5 million new vehicle registrations in Germany from 2007 to 2013. This approach first yields vehicle model specific estimates for the elasticity of new vehicle registrations with regard to the circulation tax. These elasticities are used to estimate changes in new vehicle registrations by model, which are then combined with model-specific CO2 emission factors and segment-specific annual distances driven to yield total emission changes attributable to the change in vehicle circulation tax. Finally, physical changes in emissions are converted into changes in monetary climate damages. Uncertainty in the elasticity of new vehicle registrations by segment with regard to vehicle circulation tax, the fuel economy and corresponding CO2 emission indices of vehicles, distances traveled by market segment, and in the monetary damages resulting from CO2 emissions are propagated through the analysis. Overall I find statistically significant, but relatively small reductions in CO2 emissions and climate costs due to the change in taxation: When simulating the ceteris paribus effect of the most stringent taxation regime implemented in 2014 on the pre-tax change models available in 2008, median registrations are estimated to decrease by approx. 9,500 vehicles, or 0.3 per cent of total new registrations. In addition, changes in registrations of individual vehicle models within each market segment lead to a relatively small reduction of segment- specific CO2 emission indices (0.03 to 0.1 per cent across segments). The reduction in new registrations and reduction in CO2 emission indices decrease median CO2 combustion emissions from newly registered vehicles by 35,000 t (90 per cent confidence interval: 31.000 to 39.000 t), and climate costs by € 1.1 Million (90 per cent confidence interval: € 0.1 to 2.2 Million), or 0.4 per cent of total CO2 emissions and climate costs from newly registered cars.
Keywords: ddc:330 ; vehicle circulation tax ; road transportation ; climate costs ; nested logit model
Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
Language: eng
Type: doc-type:workingPaper
7.
PAPER (OA)
Why you should publish open access (2015)
European Regional Science Association (ERSA) Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
Publication Date: 2016-08-27
Description: This editorial discusses the difference between creative common and commercial licenses from the point of view of the author of an article.
Keywords: ddc:330 ; Publishing ; Open Access ; Law
Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
Language: eng
Type: doc-type:article
8.
PAPER (OA)
Regional quality of living in Europe (2015)
European Regional Science Association (ERSA) Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
Publication Date: 2016-08-27
Description: This article sets out the conceptual framework and results of Regional Quality of Living indicators that were developed in order to benchmark European NUTS2 regions. Nine non-business-related indicators are constructed to support the goal of policy makers to improve the attractiveness of regions and cities for people or companies to settle in, and by doing so create economic growth. Each of the constructed indicators represents a pillar of the Quality of Living. The highest indicator scores are found for regions within Switzerland, Sweden, Norway and the Netherlands. Some countries show a wide divergence between regional scores. The southern regions of Italy and Spain, for example, have significantly lower scores than those in the north. In addition, capital city regions have better RQI scores. A positive correlation was found between the average RQI scores and both GDP per capita and weighted population density. Compared to GDP per capita, weighted population density has a modest influence on the RQI score. The European regions are divided into 11 clusters, based upon GDP per capita and weighted population density in order to benchmark a region with its peers.
Keywords: ddc:330 ; Quality of Living ; Regional policy ; Economic growth ; Competitiveness ; Population density ; GDP per capita ; European regions
Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
Language: eng
Type: doc-type:article
9.
PAPER (OA)
WooW-II: Workshop on open workflows (2015)
European Regional Science Association (ERSA) Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
Publication Date: 2016-08-27
Description: This resource describes WooW-II, a two-day workshop on open workflows for quantitative social scientists. The workshop is broken down in five main parts, where each of them typically consists of an introductionary tutorial and a hands-on assignment. The specific tools discussed in this workshop are Markdown, Pandoc, Git, Github, R, and Rstudio, but the theoretical approach applies to a wider range of tools (e.g., LATEX and Python). By the end of the workshop, participants should be able to reproduce a paper of their own and make it available in an open form applying the concepts and tools introduced.
Keywords: ddc:330 ; Open Workflows ; reproducibility ; tools
Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
Language: eng
Type: doc-type:article
10.
PAPER (OA)
Do we follow the money? The drivers of migration across regions in the EU (2015)
European Regional Science Association (ERSA) Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
Publication Date: 2016-08-27
Description: Most immigration theories tend to highlight that migration follows wealth and economic dynamism, but is this also the case across regions in Europe? The aim of the paper is to investigate whether migrants in Europe indeed follow the money and to contrast this with a variety of potential alternative explanations, including the presence of migrants from a similar origin. The analysis is based on panel data estimations including 133 European regions over a time period of 17 years. Different lag structures have been employed in order to distinguish between short- and long-run effects. The results cast some doubt about the prominence of pecuniary factors as a determinant of cross regional migration in Europe, with little evidence to support the idea that migration follows economic dynamism. Network effects, human capital related-, and 'territorially embedded' innovation enhancing regional characteristics, by contrast, seem to play a much stronger role than hitherto considered.
Keywords: ddc:330 ; Inter-regional migration ; mobility ; regional economic growth ; social networks ; regions
Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
Language: eng
Type: doc-type:article