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1.
PAPER (OA)
Environmental Kuznets Curve in Bulgaria (2016)
FLE Learning London
Publication Date: 2016-12-08
Description: This paper carries out an empirical test of the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis with Bulgarian data on pollution and GDP per capita for the years 1970-2008. The existence of such a curve is confirmed in most cases.
Keywords: ddc:330 ; Environmental Kuznest Curve ; pollution
Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
Language: eng
Type: doc-type:conferenceObject
2.
PAPER (OA)
The contribution of different public innovation funding programs to SMEs' export performance (2016)
Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung (ZEW) Mannheim
Publication Date: 2016-12-08
Description: This paper studies the effects of different public innovation funding programs on the innovation output and export performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). We evaluate the effectiveness of regional, national and European funding programs implemented in Germany for both product and process innovations. Our panel study shows that public financial support contributes to higher innovation outputs, which in turn translates into higher export success in later years. This relation however only holds for certain sources of public funding and certain types of innovation output. Innovation support from the European Union and national programs for cutting-edge technology that results in higher sales with new-to-market products shows a significant positive effect on SMEs' export performance. For funding programs run by regional authorities, we find similar though relatively smaller impacts on both innovation output and exporting. Bottom-up funding at the national level-which allows firms to freely define the design of the funded innovation projects in terms of content and cooperation-increases sales with innovations that are only new to the firm, but these innovations have limited impacts on export success. Our results suggest that public innovation programs should challenge SMEs to go for more ambitious innovations in order to strengthen their competitiveness.
Keywords: O32 ; O38 ; F14 ; ddc:330 ; Public Funding ; SMEs ; Innovation Outputs ; Exporting ; Panel Study ; Matching
Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
Language: eng
Type: doc-type:workingPaper
3.
PAPER (OA)
The effects of the supply of credit on real estate prices: Venezuela as a policy laboratory (2016)
Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW) Kiel
Publication Date: 2016-12-08
Description: We identify the effects of the supply of mortgage credit on house prices, using the politicallydirected credit-targeting regime of Venezuela as quasi-natural experiment. We find a large effect of the supply of housing credit on time path of house prices (or housing Markups), with an elasticity of housing markups with respect to credit of about 0.23 under our baseline specification, and similar results under a set of alternative specifications. These estimates are close to previous panel estimates for the United States, which suggests that these estimates capture similar phenomena.
Keywords: E51 ; E65 ; R31 ; ddc:330 ; house prices ; credit supply ; Venezuela ; credit targeting
Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
Language: eng
Type: doc-type:workingPaper
4.
PAPER (OA)
Macroeconomic now- and forecasting based on the factor error correction model using targeted mixed frequency indicators (2016)
Deutsche Bundesbank Frankfurt a. M.
Publication Date: 2016-12-08
Description: Since the influential paper of Stock and Watson (2002), the dynamic factor model (DFM) has been widely used for forecasting macroeconomic key variables such as GDP. However, the DFM has some weaknesses. For nowcasting, the dynamic factor model is modified by using the mixed data sampling technique. Other improvements are also studied mostly in two directions: a pre-selection is used to optimally choose a small number of indicators from a large number of indicators. The error correction mechanism takes into account the co-integrating relationship between the key variables and factors and, hence, captures the long-run dynamics of the non-stationary macroeconomic variables. This papers proposes the factor error correction model using targeted mixedfrequency indicators, which combines the three refinements for the dynamic factor model, namely the mixed data sampling technique, pre-selection methods, and the error correction mechanism. The empirical results based on euro-area data show that the now- and forecasting performance of our new model is superior to that of the subset models.
Keywords: C18 ; C23 ; C51 ; C52 ; C53 ; ddc:330 ; Factor model ; MIDAS ; Lasso ; Elastic Net ; ECM ; Nowcasting ; Forecasting
Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
Language: eng
Type: doc-type:workingPaper
5.
PAPER (OA)
Online shopping behaviors and characteristics of Gen Y consumers in Bulgaria and Croatia (2011)
Publication Date: 2016-12-08
Description: Internet usage and commerce are growing significantly around the world, and Generation Y consumers, the first generation to grow up with the Internet, have turned into young adults. As part of this generation, university students represent a lucrative market for businesses selling a wide array of goods and services. The profiles of internet shoppers and nonshoppers around the world vary based on culture, information technology infrastructure, economic status, and demographic background. The purpose of this study was to empirically analyze online buying behavior among college students in Eastern Europe. Factors affecting the online purchase of eleven different merchandise categories were examined. Data were analyzed from 421 students enrolled in universities in Croatia and Bulgaria. Understanding the similarities and differences among millenials in different regions is crucial for both marketing theory and practice.|Manuscript version
Keywords: ddc:330 ; Internet buying ; online shopping ; Generation Y ; purchasing patterns ; consumer behavior ; Eastern Europe
Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
Language: eng
Type: doc-type:article
6.
PAPER (OA)
Optimal tariffs and firm technology choice: An environmental approach (2016)
Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE) Düsseldorf
Publication Date: 2016-12-08
Description: This paper analyzes environmental concerns by a government in a setting of rent-extracting strategic trade policy with endogenous firm investment into production technologies. The simple analysis highlights the importance of investment incentives caused by tariffs in general and shows that the resulting implications for the optimal tariff decision can be completely different between traditional tariff considerations and an environmentally conscious government. We show that an importing country in a dynamic setting with endogenous firm technology choices prefers to impose discriminatory tariffs both ex post and ex ante when emissions matter, while a commitment to uniform tariffs is optimally chosen when environmental concerns do not play a role.
Keywords: F13 ; F18 ; D24 ; Q58 ; ddc:330 ; Climate policy ; Carbon tariffs ; Technology choice ; Discriminatory tariffs
Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
Language: eng
Type: doc-type:workingPaper
7.
PAPER (OA)
Dynamic Panel Models with Directors’ and Officers’ Liability Insurance Data (2006)
Emerald Bingley
Publication Date: 2016-12-08
Description: This paper uses a unique US dataset to analyze the demand for Directors’ and Officers’ liability insurance. This insurance protects managers most ly from sha reholder litigation. Corporate insurance presents a much different environment than individual insurance and calls for in-depth empirical investigation of the reasons why corporation buy insurance at all. Risk aversion by itself is not sufficient to explain the behavior of corporations. Mayers and Smith (1982), MacMinn and Garven (2000), among others, propose that corporate insurance plays a role in mitigating agency problems within the corporation, bankruptcy risk as well as provides real-services efficiencies, among others. Applying dynamic panel data models, these theories are the basis for the empirical tests in this paper. Boyer’s (2003) hypothesis that D&O insurance is entirely habit driven is rejected, while some role for persistence is still confirmed. I confirm the real-services efficiencies hypothesis and the role of insurance in mitigating bankruptcy risk. Firms with higher returns appear to demand less insurance. Although alternative monitoring mechanisms over management and corporate governance do not appear to play a large role, I find some support that they are complements rather than substitutes. I fail to confirm the role of insurance in mitigating under-investment problems in growth companies. A size adjustment to the limits as a dependent variable is proposed for the first time and it is found to have implications for the results. The paper confirms some, but not all, well-established theories about the decision-making on corporate insurance and the significance of risk management using US panel data for the first time.
Keywords: ddc:330 ; liability insurance ; corporate insurance ; dynamic panel data models ; GMM ; corporate governance
Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
Language: eng
Type: doc-type:bookPart
8.
PAPER CURRENT
Mathematical Modeling of Electrolyte Flow in a Single Flow Channel over Porous Electrode Layered System in Vanadium Flow Battery (2016)
Elsevier
Publication Date: 2016-12-08
Description: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2016 Source: Electrochimica Acta Author(s): Xinyou Ke, Joseph M. Prahl, J. Iwan D. Alexander, Robert F. Savinell In this work, a two-dimensional mathematical model is developed to study the flow patterns and volumetric flow penetrations in a single flow channel over porous electrode layered system in vanadium flow battery. The flow distributions at the interface between the flow channel and porous electrode are examined. It is found that the non-linear pressure distributions can distinguish the interface flow distributions under the ideal plug flow and ideal parabolic flow inlet boundary conditions. However, the volumetric flow penetration within the porous electrode beneath the flow channel through the integration of interface flow velocity reveals that this value is identical under both ideal plug flow and ideal parabolic flow inlet boundary conditions. The volumetric flow penetrations under the advection effects of flow channel and landing/rib are estimated. The maximum current density achieved in the flow battery can be predicted based on the 100% amount of electrolyte flow reactant consumption through the porous electrode beneath flow channel and landing/rib. The corresponding theoretical maximum current densities achieved in vanadium flow battery with one and three layers of SGL 10AA carbon paper electrode have reasonable agreement with experimental results under a proper permeability.
Print ISSN: 0013-4686
Electronic ISSN: 1873-3859
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Published by Elsevier
9.
PAPER CURRENT
Ultrafine Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide as an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (2016)
Elsevier
Publication Date: 2016-12-08
Description: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2016 Source: Electrochimica Acta Author(s): Yao Sun, Zichao Shen, Shuli Xin, Li Ma, Chunhui Xiao, Shujiang Ding, Fei Li, Guoxin Gao In this work, we developed a novel hierarchical hybrid nanostructure of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) supported cobalt-doped ZnO nanoparticles (Co-doped ZnO NPs@rGO) via a simple solution-refluxing strategy. The ultrafine CoZn-glycolate nanoparticles precursor was obtained from the alkoxide reaction among ethylene glycol and Co 2+ /Zn 2+ ions absorbed onto GO support. The post-annealing process makes the precursor easily transferred into crystalline Co-doped ZnO NPs@rGO with well-retained morphology and the oxidation state of Co element to be Co 2+ in the final hybrid. When evaluated as an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalyst in an O 2 -saturated 0.1 M KOH solution, the Co-doped ZnO NPs@rGO hybrid with the optimal Co-doping concentration of 0.38 ( i.e. , Co 0.38 Zn 0.62 O NPs@rGO) exhibits highly enhanced ORR electrocatalytic activity compared to the ZnO@rGO composite with an ORR peak potential of 0.74 V ( vs . RHE), an onset potential of 0.90 V, a current density of 3.94 mA cm −2 (at 0.4 V (vs. RHE)) and a nearly four-electron catalytic pathway. The good electrochemical stability and excellent methanol-tolerance capability of the resultant Co 0.38 Zn 0.62 O NPs@rGO hybrid, superior to those of the commercial Pt/C catalyst, further demonstrate its great potential as an efficient ORR electrocatalyst. This work proposes the feasibility of the semiconducting ZnO nanomaterials as novel ORR electrocatalysts via doping active oxygen catalytic element, such as Co 2+ , for the first time. Graphical abstract
Print ISSN: 0013-4686
Electronic ISSN: 1873-3859
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Published by Elsevier
10.
PAPER CURRENT
Zr-doped P2-Na0.75Mn0.55Ni0.25Co0.05Fe0.10Zr0.05O2 as high-rate performance cathode material for sodium ion batteries (2016)
Elsevier
Publication Date: 2016-12-08
Description: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2016 Source: Electrochimica Acta Author(s): Zheng-Yao Li, Rui Gao, Limei Sun, Zhongbo Hu, Xiangfeng Liu In this work, Zr 4+ doped P2-Na 0.75 Mn 0.55 Ni 0.25 Co 0.05 Fe 0.10 Zr 0.05 O 2 has been synthesized and investigated as high-rate sodium-ion battery cathode material for the first time. XRD results indicate that Zr-ion with a big size cannot completely dissolve into the crystal structure, but the residual ZrO 2 shows little impact on the electrochemical performance in comparison with the post-added ZrO 2 . With the substitution of Zr 4+ for Fe 3+ , the lattice parameter a decreases but c increases, resulting in the reduced lattice volume. In comparison with the Zr-free sample, Na 0.75 Mn 0.55 Ni 0.25 Co 0.05 Fe 0.10 Zr 0.05 O 2 (Zr05) can deliver a discharge capacity of about 95, 74, 61 and 53 mAh g −1 at 2C, 5C, 8C and 10C. At the current density of 2C, the capacity retention after 100 cycles has increased from 57% of Zr0 to 74% of Zr05. The results demonstrate that Zr-ion substitution can effectively improve the rate performance and cycling stability of P2-structure cathode materials. The role of Zr 4+ can be summarized as follows: (1) Zr-O ( △H f 298K (Zr-O) = 760 kJ mol −1 ) has a stronger bond energy than that of Fe-O ( △H f 298K (Fe-O) = 409 kJ mol −1 ), which enhances the structure stability and cycling performance; (2) the aliovalent substitution of Zr 4+ for Fe 3+ enhances the electronic conductivity, which is favorable for the rate capability; (3) the substitution of Zr 4+ for Fe 3+ can be beneficial to Na + conduction because it increases disorder in the transition metal (TM) layers and can prevent Na+/vacancy ordering, which further enhances the rate capability. Graphical abstract
Print ISSN: 0013-4686
Electronic ISSN: 1873-3859
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Published by Elsevier