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1.
PAPER CURRENT
Publication Date: 2016-09-25
Description: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & EngineeringDOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b01766
Electronic ISSN: 2168-0485
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
2.
PAPER CURRENT
Soil geochemical parameters influencing the spatial distribution of anthrax in Northwest Minnesota, USA (2016)
Elsevier
Publication Date: 2016-09-25
Description: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2016 Source:Applied Geochemistry Author(s): Samuel Nath, Ashlee Dere Bacillus anthracis is the pathogenic bacterium that causes anthrax, which dwells in soils as highly resilient endospores. B. anthracis spore viability in soil is dependent upon environmental conditions, but the soil properties necessary for spore survival are unclear. In this study we used a range of soil geochemical and physical parameters to predict the spatial distribution of B. anthracis in northwest Minnesota, where 64 cases of anthrax in livestock were reported from 2000 to 2013. Two modeling approaches at different spatial scales were used to identify the soil conditions most correlated to known anthrax cases using both statewide and locally collected soil data. Ecological niche models were constructed using the Maximum Entropy (Maxent) approach and included 11 soil parameters as environmental inputs and recorded anthrax cases as known presences. One ecological niche model used soil data and anthrax presences for the entire state while a second model used locally sampled soil data (n = 125) and a subset of anthrax presences, providing a test of spatial scale. In addition, simple logistic regression models using the localized soil data served as an independent measure of variable importance. Maxent model results indicate that at a statewide level, soil calcium and magnesium concentrations, soil pH, and sand content are the most important properties for predicting soil suitability for B. anthracis while at the local level, clay and sand content along with phosphorous and strontium concentrations are most important. These results also show that the spatial scale of analysis is important when considering soil parameters most important for B. anthracis spores. For example, at a broad scale, B. anthracis spores may require Ca-rich soils and an alkaline pH, but may also concentrate in microenvironments with high Sr concentrations. The study is also one of the first ecological niche models that demonstrates the major importance of soil texture for defining the ecological niche of B. anthracis. These results will help improve our understanding of the soil geochemical conditions most suitable for B. anthracis as well as more reliably identify areas where anthrax may be found to focus prevention and remediation efforts.
Print ISSN: 0883-2927
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
Published by Elsevier
3.
PAPER CURRENT
Numerical and experimental investigation of UV disinfection for water treatment (2016)
Elsevier
Publication Date: 2016-09-25
Description: Publication date: 25 January 2017 Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 111 Author(s): H.Y. Li, H. Osman, C.W. Kang, T. Ba Disinfection by ultraviolet (UV) for water treatment in a UV reactor is numerically and experimentally investigated in this paper. The flow of water, UV radiation transportation as well as microorganism particle trajectories in the UV reactor is simulated. The effects of different parameters including UV transmittance (UVT), lamp power and water flow rate on the UV dose distribution and average UV dose are studied. The UV reactor performance in terms of average UV dose under these parameters is analysed. Comparisons are made between experiments and simulations on the average UV dose and reasonable agreement is achieved. The results show that the fluence rate increases exponentially with the increase of UVT. The UV dose distribution profiles moves to a high range of UV dose with the increase of UVT and lamp power. The increase of water flow rate reduces the average exposure time of microorganism particles to the UV light, resulting in the shifting of UV dose distribution to a low range of UV dose. A linear relationship is observed between fluence rate and the average UV dose. The average UV dose increases with the increase of lamp power while it decreases with the increase of UVT and water flow rate.
Print ISSN: 1359-4311
Electronic ISSN: 1873-5606
Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
Published by Elsevier
4.
PAPER CURRENT
Thermodynamic analysis and techno-economic evaluation of an integrated natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plant with post-combustion CO2 capture (2016)
Elsevier
Publication Date: 2016-09-25
Description: Publication date: 25 January 2017 Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 111 Author(s): Yue Hu, Gang Xu, Cheng Xu, Yongping Yang A new integrated system with power generation and CO2 capture aiming to reduce de-carbonization penalty is proposed in this study. In the new system, four measures are adopted, as follows: (1) recycling part of exhausted gas from gas turbine to increase the CO2 concentration in flue gas, (2) mixing a portion of condensate water from reboiler with the extracted steam to utilize the superheat degree of the extracted steam, (3) compressing the CO2 stream at the top of stripper to recover the latent heat for sorbent regeneration, and (4) introducing a transcritical CO2 cycle to utilize the sensible heat in flue gas to generate electricity. All the cases are simulated by the process simulation software, Honeywell’s UniSim Design Suit R400. Thermodynamic and preliminary tech-economic analyses are conducted in this paper. As a result, the power output of the new integrated system is 26.15MW greater than that of de-carbonization natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plant without integration. The efficiency penalty of CO2 capture is expected to decrease by 2.63%-points. Meanwhile, the investment increase of the new system is 60.17M$ which is only 4.66% larger than that of the de-carbonization power plant without integration. Finally, the cost of electricity and the cost of CO2 avoided are reduced by 8.66% and 27.46%, respectively.
Print ISSN: 1359-4311
Electronic ISSN: 1873-5606
Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
Published by Elsevier
5.
PAPER CURRENT
Chemical characteristics of aerosol and rain water during an El Niño and PDO influenced Indian summer monsoon (2016)
Elsevier
Publication Date: 2016-09-25
Description: Publication date: November 2016 Source:Atmospheric Environment, Volume 145 Author(s): Pradhi Rajeev, Prashant Rajput, Tarun Gupta According to the meteorological long-term variability pattern, year 2015 was influenced by El Niño and PDO (Pacific Decadal Oscillation; causes weakening of Indian Summer Monsoon). These conditions facilitate the assessment of chemical characteristics of fine-mode ambient aerosols (PM2.5; n = 48) and individual rain waters (pH: 6.4–7.6; n = 15) during the South-west monsoon (July–September 2015) in the central Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP; Kanpur). Water-soluble ionic species (WSIS) have been measured to assess the undergoing processes (neutralization, formation and below-cloud scavenging) and estimate their dry and wet deposition fluxes. The ∑WSIS varies from 4 to 32 μg/m3 in PM2.5, whereas it ranges from 32 to 102 mg/L in rain waters. The NH4 + and SO4 2− are found to be predominant in PM2.5 (16–120 μg/m3), whereas HCO3 − and Ca2+ are predominant in rain water samples. The difference in chemical composition of PM2.5 and rain water is largely attributed to additional contribution of coarse-mode mineral dust in rain water. The Ca2+ and Mg2+ in both aerosols and rain water samples are associated with HCO3 −. The NO3 − and SO4 2− are neutralized predominantly by NH4 + and ∑−/∑+ ratio is ≈ 1 in both aerosols and rain waters. Furthermore, co-variability of NO3 − with nss-Ca2+ in PM2.5 indicates role of fine-mode mineral dust surface in the formation of ammonium nitrate. Characteristic mass ratios (HCO3 −/Ca2+ and SO4 2−/NH4 +) in rain water look quite similar to those in aerosols (PM2.5). This suggests that below-cloud scavenging is predominant mechanism of aerosols wash-out. Dry deposition fluxes of Mg2+, NH4 + and SO4 2− are ∼13% of their wet deposition fluxes, whereas for K+, Ca2+ and NO3 − it is <6%. Graphical abstract
Print ISSN: 1352-2310
Electronic ISSN: 1873-2844
Topics: Geosciences , Physics
Published by Elsevier
6.
PAPER CURRENT
O-GlcNAcylation of the Signaling Scaffold Protein, GNB2L1 Promotes its Degradation and Increases Metastasis of Gastric Tumours (2016)
Elsevier
Publication Date: 2016-09-25
Description: Publication date: 30 September 2016 Source:Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Volume 478, Issue 4 Author(s): Shimeng Cheng, Jie Ren, Lina Su, Jianlan Liu, Qingmei Liu, Jing Zhou, Xiaolu Ye, Ningwen Zhu GNB2L1 is an intercellular scaffold protein of the Trp-Asp (WD) repeat protein family, and has been reported to play suppressive roles in the progression of gastric cancer. However, the regulatory mechanisms of GNB2L1 in gastric cancer still remain largely elusive. In the present study, we found that OGT was capable to interact with GNB2L1 directly and modify GNB2L1 with O-GlcNAcylation in gastric cancer, and this O-GlcNAcylation hindered the inhibition of GNB2L1 on migration of gastric cancer cells. Moreover, O-GlcNAcylation regulated the degradation instead of the synthesis of GNB2L1 in gastric cancer, and our data suggested the O-GlcNAcylation on GNB2L1 influenced its stability directly. In addition, the clinical data revealed the negative correlation of the protein level instead of the mRNA level of GNB2L1 with OGT expression, and showed that OGT reversed the inhibition of GNB2L1 on metastasis, and worsened the prognosis of GNB2L1High patients. In summary, this study indicated the O-GlcNAcylation on GNB2L1 reversed its inhibition on gastric tumour metastasis via promoting its degradation.
Print ISSN: 0006-291X
Electronic ISSN: 1090-2104
Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Published by Elsevier
7.
PAPER CURRENT
Nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated regulation of p75NTR expression contributes to chemotherapeutic resistance in triple negative breast cancer cells (2016)
Elsevier
Publication Date: 2016-09-25
Description: Publication date: 30 September 2016 Source:Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Volume 478, Issue 4 Author(s): Reka Chakravarthy, Katarzyna Mnich, Adrienne M. Gorman Triple negative breast cancer [TNBC] cells are reported to secrete the neurotrophin nerve growth factor [NGF] and express its receptors, p75 neurotrophin receptor [p75NTR] and TrkA, leading to NGF-activated pro-survival autocrine signaling. This provides a rationale for NGF as a potential therapeutic target for TNBC. Here we show that exposure of TNBC cells to NGF leads to increased levels of p75NTR, which was diminished by NGF-neutralizing antibody or NGF inhibitors [Ro 08-2750 and Y1086]. NGF-mediated increase in p75NTR levels were partly due to increased transcription and partly due to inhibition of proteolytic processing of p75NTR. In contrast, proNGF caused a decrease in p75NTR levels. Functionally, NGF-induced increase in p75NTR caused a decrease in the sensitivity of TNBC cells to apoptosis induction. In contrast, knock-down of p75NTR using shRNA or small molecule inhibition of NGF-p75NTR interaction [using Ro 08-2750] sensitized TNBC cells to drug-induced apoptosis. In patient samples, the expression of NGF and NGFR [the p75NTR gene] mRNA are positively correlated in several subtypes of breast cancer, including basal-like breast cancer. Together these data suggest a positive feedback loop through which NGF-mediated upregulation of p75NTR can contribute to the chemo-resistance of TNBC cells.
Print ISSN: 0006-291X
Electronic ISSN: 1090-2104
Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Published by Elsevier
8.
PAPER CURRENT
Knockdown of FSTL1 inhibits oxLDL-induced inflammation responses through the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB and MAPK pathway (2016)
Elsevier
Publication Date: 2016-09-25
Description: Publication date: 30 September 2016 Source:Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Volume 478, Issue 4 Author(s): Junxia Guo, Wanqian Liang, Jianhua Li, Jingning Long Activation of inflammation by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. Follistatin-like protein 1 (FSTL1) play a central role in the inflammation process and modulate cardiovascular disorders. However, little is known about the effects of FSTL1 on the inflammation induced by oxLDL. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of FSTL1 and investigate potential mechanisms in cultured endothelial cells. A model of oxLDL–induced injury in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) was established to evaluate the protective role of FSTL1. The mRNA transcription and secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1 were assayed using RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. We also investigated the effects of FSTL1 on the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. OxLDL increased the expression and release of TLR4, IL-6, IL-8, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in a dose– and time–dependent manner. The effects of oxLDL on the production of inflammatory cytokines by endothelial cells were completely inhibited after depletion of FSTL1. Moreover, down-regulation of FSTL1 resulted in a significant reduction in the expression of TLR4 and its downstream proteins MyD88 and p-p65, along with p-p38, p-JNK and p-ERK. However, FSTL1 had no effect on the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. These findings provide strong evidence that FSTL1 displays anti-inflammatory effects against oxLDL–induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production via a mechanism that involves the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.
Print ISSN: 0006-291X
Electronic ISSN: 1090-2104
Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Published by Elsevier
9.
PAPER CURRENT
Downregulation of IGF-1 receptor occurs after hepatic linage commitment during hepatocyte differentiation from human embryonic stem cells (2016)
Elsevier
Publication Date: 2016-09-25
Description: Publication date: 30 September 2016 Source:Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Volume 478, Issue 4 Author(s): Ahmed Waraky, Eiman Aleem, Olle Larsson The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) has been suggested to be involved in hepatocyte differentiation. Human hepatocyte cancer cells and stem cells are known to express IGF-1R whereas normal hepatocytes do not. In the present study we optimized a differentiation protocol and verified the different stages by established markers. The expression levels of IGF-1R and major downstream signaling proteins during differentiation from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) to mature hepatocytes were investigated. We could only demonstrate a minor decrease in IGF-1R expression during endodermal differentiation compared to hESC, but declined substantially (>50%) after hepatic lineage commitment during the hepatocyte specification and maturation stages. This downregulation was paralleled by an upregulation of ERK 1/2, AKT and insulin substrate-1. Neither inhibition nor activation of IGF-1R had any essential effect on endoderm differentiation of human embryonic stem cells. Therefore, our data suggest that IGF-1R downregulation may have a regulatory impact after initiation of hepatic lineage commitment.
Print ISSN: 0006-291X
Electronic ISSN: 1090-2104
Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Published by Elsevier
10.
PAPER CURRENT
Identification of pyrrolo[3,2-c]pyridin-4-amine compounds as a new class of entry inhibitors against influenza viruses in vitro (2016)
Elsevier
Publication Date: 2016-09-25
Description: Publication date: 30 September 2016 Source:Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Volume 478, Issue 4 Author(s): So Young Chang, Deu John M. Cruz, Yoonae Ko, Ji-Young Min Various influenza virus entry inhibitors are being developed as therapeutic antiviral agents in ongoing preparation for emerging influenza viruses, particularly those that may possess drug resistance to the current FDA-approved neuraminidase inhibitors. In this study, small molecules having the pyrrolopyridinamine (PPA), aminothiadiazole (ATD), dihydrofuropyridine carboxamide (HPC), or imidazopyridinamine (IPA) moiety were selected from a target-focused chemical library for their inhibitory activity against influenza A virus by high-throughput screening using the PR8GFP assay. Activity was evaluated by measuring changes the proportion of GFP-expressing cells as a reflection of influenza virus infection. Among them, PPA showed broad-spectrum activity against multiple influenza A viruses and influenza B virus. PPA was found to block the early stages of influenza virus infection using a time-of-addition assay. Using additional phenotypic assays that dissect the virus entry process, it appears that the antiviral activity of PPA against influenza virus can be attributed to interference of the post-fusion process: namely, virus uncoating and nuclear import of viral nucleoprotein complexes. Based on these results, PPA is an attractive chemical moiety that can be used to develop new antiviral drug candidates against influenza viruses.
Print ISSN: 0006-291X
Electronic ISSN: 1090-2104
Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Published by Elsevier