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1.
PAPER CURRENT
Crystal structure of poly[(2,2′-bipyridine-κ2N,N′)tetrakis(μ-cyanido-κ2N:C)dinickel(II)] (2015)
Publication Date: 2015-05-29
Description: The polymeric title complex, [Ni2(CN)4(C10H8N2)]n, was obtained serendipitously under hydrothermal conditions. The asymmetric unit consists of one half of an [Ni(CN)4]2− anion with the Ni2+ cation situated on an inversion centre, and one half of an [Ni(2,2′-bpy)]2+ cation (2,2′-bpy is 2,2′-bipyridine), with the second Ni2+ cation situated on a twofold rotation axis. The two Ni2+ cations exhibit different coordination spheres. Whereas the coordination of the metal in the anion is that of a slightly distorted square defined by four C-bound cyanide ligands, the coordination in the cation is that of a distorted octahedron defined by four N-bound cyanide ligands and two N atoms from the chelating 2,2′-bpy ligand. The two different Ni2+ cations are alternately bridged by the cyanide ligands, resulting in a two-dimensional structure extending parallel to (010). Within the sheets, π–π interactions between pyridine rings of neighbouring 2,2′-bpy ligands, with a centroid-to-centroid distance of 3.687 (3) Å, are present. The crystal packing is dominated by van der Waals forces. A weak C—H...N interaction between adjacent sheets is also observed.
Keywords: crystal structurecyanide ligandsnickel2,2′-bipyridinecoordination polymer
Electronic ISSN: 1600-5368
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
2.
PAPER CURRENT
Crystal structure of di-μ-iodido-bis{[1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene]lithium} (2015)
Publication Date: 2015-05-29
Description: In the title binuclear complex, [Li2(C27H36N2)2I2], the unique LiI cation is coordinated by two iodide anions and one ylidene C atom from a 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene ligand in a distorted trigonal–planar geometry. The two symmetry-related iodide anions bridge two LiI cations, forming an inversion dimer in which the Li2I2 plane is nearly perpendicular to the imidazol-2-ylidene ring, with a dihedral angle of 85.5 (3)°. No hydrogen bonding is observed in the crystal.
Keywords: crystal structuredinuclear lithium compleximidazol-2-ylidene ligandcatalysis
Electronic ISSN: 1600-5368
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
3.
PAPER CURRENT
Crystal structure of N-carbamothioyl-2-methylbenzamide (2015)
Publication Date: 2015-05-29
Description: There are two molecules in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C9H10N2OS. In one, the dihedral angle between the aromatic ring and the carbamothioyl group is 52.31 (7)° and in the other it is 36.16 (6)°. Each molecule features an intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond, which generates an S(6) ring and the O and S atoms have an anti disposition. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H...S and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating separate [130] and [1\overline{3}0] infinite chains. Weak C—H...O and C—H...S interactions are also observed.
Keywords: crystal structurebenzamidethioureahydrogen bonding
Electronic ISSN: 1600-5368
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
4.
PAPER CURRENT
Crystal structure of 1-((1E)-{(E)-2-[(2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl)methylidene]hydrazin-1-ylidene}methyl)naphthalen-2-ol (2015)
Publication Date: 2015-05-29
Description: The complete molecule of the title compound, C22H16N2O2, is generated by a crystallographic inversion centre at the mid-point of the central N—N bond. Two intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bonds occur.
Keywords: crystal structureSchiff base derivativeintramolecular hydrogen bonding
Electronic ISSN: 1600-5368
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
5.
PAPER CURRENT
Irrigation and Drainage Scheme of the Plain of Arta – Effects on the Rural Landscape and the Wetlands of Amvrakikos’ Natura Area (2015)
Publication Date: 2015-05-29
Description: Publication date: 2015 Source:Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, Volume 4 Author(s): I.L. Tsirogiannis , G. Karras , D. Tsolis , D. Barelos Amvrakikos Wetlands National Park is located in the North-West Greece. It is an area of high environmental importance, as it is characterized by a very rich biodiversity. Because of it's importance, the north part of the gulf is protected by Ramsar Convention and is part of the EU NATURA network. The adjacent plain of Arta (most of which is part of the land part of the park), hosts intensively cultivated, irrigated agricultural land and a number of food processing facilities and though it constitutes a major threat for this ecosystem.As water is plentiful and cheap, most farmers over-irrigate using water by the old open canal scheme that covers part of the plain and from numerous drillings most of which are illegal. The main pathways of agricultural pollutants (fertilizers, pesticides etc) are three rivers (Louros, Aracthos and Vovos) and three main draining canals (Salaoras, Fidokastrou and Neochoriou). This presentation, reviews information from several research works of the last 10 years which investigated the effects of agricultural activity to the coastal and the inland natural and rural landscape. Efforts that have been made (installation of measuring - alarming stations, educational sessions for farmers, de-nitrification programs etc) during the same period are also referred.
Electronic ISSN: 2210-7843
Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
Published by Elsevier
6.
PAPER CURRENT
A description of internal erosion by suffusion and induced settlements on cohesionless granular matter (2015)
Publication Date: 2015-05-29
Description: Abstract Cohesionless granular matter subjected to internal flow can incur an internal erosion by suffusion characterized by a migration of its finest constituting particles. A series of suffusion tests is performed on assemblies of gap-graded glass beads using a large oedo-permeameter device. Two successive processes of erosion can be observed during the tests. First, a suffusion process is characterized by a progressive and diffuse migration of fine particles over a long time period. The second process, induced by the first one, is characterized by a strong migration over a short time period (blowout of fine particles) and produces rapidly large settlement of specimen. Time series of hydraulic conductivity, longitudinal profile of specimen density, eroded mass and axial deformation are analyzed. The initial content of fine particles and the history of hydraulic loading appear as key parameters in the suffusion development. To characterize the suffusion development, erosion rate is investigated according to the power expended by the seepage flow, and a new law of erosion by suffusion is proposed.
Print ISSN: 1861-1125
Electronic ISSN: 1861-1133
Topics: Geosciences
Published by Springer
7.
PAPER CURRENT
Predicting Soil Erosion After Land Use Changes for Irrigating Agriculture in a Large Reservoir of Southern Portugal (2015)
Publication Date: 2015-05-29
Description: Publication date: 2015 Source:Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, Volume 4 Author(s): Vera Ferreira , Thomas Panagopoulos , Anda Cakula , Rita Andrade , Andre Arvela The construction of the Alqueva reservoir in a semi-arid Mediterranean landscape brought new opportunities for irrigated farming. Land use changes and climate change may alter the risk of soil erosion that was not predicted in the initial development plans and decrease the lifetime of the investment. A comprehensive methodology that integrates the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and geographic information system was adopted to study the effect on soil erosion of different land-uses of the Alqueva reservoir region. Analysing the soil erosion of each land-use it was obtained the following land use erosion vulnerability: Olive orchard>Vineyard>Montado>Alfalfa. The strong erosion variances that were observed in the study area show the importance of locating the ‘hot spots’ of soil erosion. Simulated scenarios for the entire area can be used as a basis for site-specific soil conservation plans, to promote sustainable land management practices and to facilitate localized erosion control practices and environmentally friendly farming.
Electronic ISSN: 2210-7843
Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
Published by Elsevier
8.
PAPER CURRENT
The Technology of Land Reclamation, Drainage and Irrigation Projects in MBA–LBA Greece and Possible Implications (2015)
Publication Date: 2015-05-29
Description: Publication date: 2015 Source:Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, Volume 4 Author(s): Konstantinos Giannakos Technology and its “products”, when unearthed from archaeologists, are irrefutable witnesses of the technological level of each era and place. Evaluation of archaeological finds in relation to the advanced technology of each era and compared to the ancient literature, could infer conclusions regarding the nature of relations between different civilizations. Metallurgy, construction technology and know-how (structures, flood-control works, Land Reclamation, Drainage and Irrigation works etc.), production and exchange of precious metals, silver and iron, as very rare metals, constituted “cutting-edge technology” for the Middle and the Late Bronze Age. In prosperity periods –of excessive wealth– the “Arts and Engineering” flourish, an advanced know-how in constructions is developed and monumental projects are launched. The examination of the technological level in (monumental) constructions and hydraulic works of Middle Bronze Age – Late Bronze Age (MBA, ca. 2200/2100-1580 B.C. – LBA, ca. 1600 – 1100 B.C.) Greece, and the environment that was shaped, as it is implied by the material evidence, could infer implications for the historical canvas of the period. There is a debate surrounding Technology and its “flow”, its nature and origins. Some researchers support the spread of innovation from East to West, and a contradictious aspect of cross-fertilization or diffusion between East and West. In the present study, a combination of the archaeological evidence (both material and textual) of the technological level in constructions –especially in MBA and LBA Greece– and metal production, the ancient literature, the written sources, is attempted, in order to infer conclusions for the Technological, environmental, cultural and socio-economic aspects regarding possible relations and exchanges of Technology among Minoan Crete and/or Mycenaean Greeks -Danaoi/Achaeans, as Homer calls them- with Egypt and the land of Hatti, specifically during the Middle and Late Bronze Age.
Electronic ISSN: 2210-7843
Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
Published by Elsevier
9.
PAPER CURRENT
Evaluation of a Parametric Approach for Estimating Potential Evapotranspiration Across Different Climates (2015)
Publication Date: 2015-05-29
Description: Publication date: 2015 Source:Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, Volume 4 Author(s): Aristoteles Tegos , Andreas Efstratiadis , Nikolaos Malamos , Nikolaos Mamassis , Demetris Koutsoyiannis Potential evapotranspiration (PET) is key input in water resources, agricultural and environmental modelling. For many decades, numerous approaches have been proposed for the consistent estimation of PET at several time scales of interest. The most recognized is the Penman-Monteith formula, which is yet difficult to apply in data-scarce areas, since it requires simultaneous observations of four meteorological variables (temperature, sunshine duration, humidity, wind velocity). For this reason, parsimonious models with minimum input data requirements are strongly preferred. Typically, these have been developed and tested for specific hydroclimatic conditions, but when they are applied in different regimes they provide much less reliable (and in some cases misleading) estimates. Therefore, it is essential to develop generic methods that remain parsimonious, in terms of input data and parameterization, yet they also allow for some kind of local adjustment of their parameters, through calibration. In this study we present a recent parametric formula, based on a simplified formulation of the original Penman-Monteith expression, which only requires mean daily or monthly temperature data. The method is evaluated using meteorological records from different areas worldwide, at both the daily and monthly time scales. The outcomes of this extended analysis are very encouraging, as indicated by the substantially high validation scores of the proposed approach across all examined data sets. In general, the parametric model outperforms well-established methods of the everyday practice, since it ensures optimal approximation ofpotential evapotranspiration.
Electronic ISSN: 2210-7843
Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
Published by Elsevier
10.
PAPER CURRENT
Publication Date: 2015-05-29
Description: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & EngineeringDOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.5b00228
Electronic ISSN: 2168-0485
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology