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1.
PAPER CURRENT
Impact-Insertion Applicator Improves Reliability of Skin Penetration by Solid Microneedle Arrays (2014)
Publication Date: 2014-04-25
Electronic ISSN: 1550-7416
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
2.
PAPER CURRENT
Assessment and Reporting of the Clinical Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins and Peptides—Harmonized Terminology and Tactical Recommendations (2014)
Publication Date: 2014-04-25
Description: Abstract Immunogenicity is a significant concern for biologic drugs as it can affect both safety and efficacy. To date, the descriptions of product immunogenicity have varied not only due to different degrees of understanding of product immunogenicity at the time of licensing but also due to an evolving lexicon that has generated some confusion in the field. In recent years, there has been growing consensus regarding the data needed to assess product immunogenicity. Harmonization of the strategy for the elucidation of product immunogenicity by drug developers, as well as the use of defined common terminology, can benefit medical practitioners, health regulatory agencies, and ultimately the patients. Clearly, understanding the incidence, kinetics and magnitude of anti-drug antibody (ADA), its neutralizing ability, cross-reactivity with endogenous molecules or other marketed biologic drugs, and related clinical impact may enhance clinical management of patients treated with biologic drugs. To that end, the authors present terms and definitions for describing and analyzing clinical immunogenicity data and suggest approaches to data presentation, emphasizing associations of ADA development with pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety that are necessary to assess the clinical relevance of immunogenicity.
Electronic ISSN: 1550-7416
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
3.
PAPER CURRENT
Thermally driven large magnetoresistance and magnetostriction in multifunctional magnetic FeGa–Tb alloys (2014)
Publication Date: 2014-04-25
Description: Publication date: July 2014 Source:Acta Materialia, Volume 73 Author(s): Trifon I. Fitchorov , Steven Bennett , Liping Jiang , Guangrui Zhang , Zengqi Zhao , Yajie Chen , Vincent G. Harris The temperature stability of Fe81Ga19Tb x (x =0.3) and Fe81Ga19 (i.e. Galfenol) alloys is investigated over a temperature range from 10 to 1000K. High-temperature measurement of magnetization indicates that Tb-doped FeGa results in a Curie temperature rise of ∼150K, while saturation magnetization and magnetostrictive coefficient increase by 7% and 2.5-fold, respectively, compared to the parent Fe81Ga19 alloy. It is noticed that Fe81Ga19Tb x (x =0.3) alloy not only gives rise to a noticeable stabilization of magnetic moment below room temperature, but also presents a dramatic decrease in temperature coefficient of magnetostriction by ∼30%. Most interestingly, a large negative magnetoresistance (MR) of −25% at 10kOe is observed at low temperature, ∼75K for a magnetostrictive Fe81Ga19 alloy. Ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic behaviors occur simultaneously in the temperature range conducive to a large MR. Furthermore, the large MR is also assumed to relate to a weak spin glass phase of the alloy observed at cryogenic temperatures and confirmed by ac susceptibility measurements.
Print ISSN: 1359-6454
Electronic ISSN: 1873-2453
Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
Published by Elsevier
4.
PAPER CURRENT
Separation Transformation and a Class of Exact Solutions to the Higher-Dimensional Klein-Gordon-Zakharov Equation (2014)
Publication Date: 2014-04-25
Description: The separation transformation method is extended to the -dimensional Klein-Gordon-Zakharov equation describing the interaction of the Langmuir wave and the ion acoustic wave in plasma. We first reduce the -dimensional Klein-Gordon-Zakharov equation to a set of partial differential equations and two nonlinear ordinary differential equations of the separation variables. Then the general solutions of the set of partial differential equations are given and the two nonlinear ordinary differential equations are solved by extended -expansion method. Finally, some new exact solutions of the -dimensional Klein-Gordon-Zakharov equation are proposed explicitly by combining the separation transformation with the exact solutions of the separation variables. It is shown that, for the case of , there is an arbitrary function in every exact solution, which may reveal more nontrivial nonlinear structures in the high-dimensional Klein-Gordon-Zakharov equation.
Print ISSN: 1687-9120
Electronic ISSN: 1687-9139
Topics: Mathematics , Physics
Published by Hindawi
5.
PAPER CURRENT
Sorption of Ammonium Ions onto Natural and Modified Egyptian Kaolinites: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies (2014)
Publication Date: 2014-04-25
Description: Thermally activated, acid-activated, and acid-leached of thermally activated kaolinites were prepared from the Egyptian ore. The physical and chemical properties were studied using N2 sorption at −196°C, FTIR, SEM, and the total surface acidity. The sorption of ions on the investigated sorbents was controlled with the solution pH, sorbent dosage, and initial concentration of solution. Kinetic and equilibrium sorption at 30°C were employed. Four kinetic models were applied to the kinetic sorption data; pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and intraparticle diffusion models fitted well the kinetic data whereas pseudo-first-order model was less applicable. Elovich parameters refer to physical sorption type of on nonuniform sites and the intraparticle diffusion controls the sorption of by kaolinites to a small extent. The equilibrium sorption data followed Langmuir and D-R models; the negative value of indicates a spontaneous sorption and the mean sorption energy obtained shows also physical sorption. The sorption capacities of nonactivated and activated Egyptian kaolinites towards sorption (10.87–45.45 mg·g−1) were good sorbents as compared with those uptaken by other clays reported in the literature and proved to be more active besides being less expensive and highly available.
Print ISSN: 1687-7985
Electronic ISSN: 1687-7993
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
Published by Hindawi
6.
PAPER CURRENT
Molecular identification and biodiversity of potential allergenic molds (Aspergillus and Penicilium) in the poultry house: first report (2014)
Publication Date: 2014-04-25
Description: Abstract The production of poultry has proved to be a significant source of fungi. Penicillium and Aspergillus are among the most important species, because they can cause irritations, infections, allergies, spoilage of food and beverages and are able to produce dangerous mycotoxins. Detection and identification of the species in these genera is very significant, because it provides relevant information about the properties of the responsible strains. Therefore, their taxonomic was determined using a phenotypic and molecular (ITS and partial β-tubulin sequences) methods. Investigations were conducted in the poultry house located near Wrocław in Lower Silesia (Poland). Using morphological analyses, 215 fungal strains were identified. Among them, 56 belonged to the Penicilium and Aspergillus genera. The results obtained from sequence analysis corresponded well with the morphological identification. Classification at species level was possible in most cases using the sequence data. Most isolates belong to Penicilium genus, with the follow dominating species (P. chrysogenum, P. polonicum and P. olsonii).
Print ISSN: 0393-5965
Electronic ISSN: 1573-3025
Topics: Biology
Published by Springer
7.
PAPER CURRENT
Comparison of Alnus, Corylus, Betula pollen seasons in Riga, Moscow and Vilnius (2014)
Publication Date: 2014-04-25
Description: Abstract Research characterizes differences and similarities of the seasonal behaviour of Alnus, Betula, Corylus pollen in Riga, Moscow and Vilnius. An important uniting factor dealing with the research is that on the selected territories in spring there are abundance of Alnus, Corylus and Betula airborne pollen. The study is based on the 2004–2011 atmospheric pollen records. Differences and similarities of the analysed territories include the following: (1) the beginning of the Alnus and Corylus pollen season usually coincided in Riga and Vilnius, whereas significantly differed between Riga and Moscow; (2) no significant differences among separate stations have been estimated concerning the beginning of the Betula pollen season; (3) Moscow differed by the shortest period of pollen season, independently of the pollen type; (4) the biennial cycle of Betula pollen is characteristic to Riga only; (5) in the spectrum of spring plants’ pollen, Corylus pollen was found in the least amount (10–23 pgm−3 per day on the average); (6) average concentration of Betula pollen per day significantly differed in all locations of the survey, in Moscow, the concentration (853 pgm−3) was twice higher that in Riga and Vilnius; (7) Alnus, Corylus and Betula pollen seasons overlap each other in all locations surveyed, thus creating additional load of pollen; (8) in each of the stations, there were 13–15 days when concentration of Betula pollen exceeded 100 pgm−3.
Print ISSN: 0393-5965
Electronic ISSN: 1573-3025
Topics: Biology
Published by Springer
8.
PAPER CURRENT
Soil quality recovery and crop yield enhancement by combined application of compost and wood to vegetables grown under plastic tunnels (2014)
Publication Date: 2014-04-25
Description: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2014 Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment Author(s): G. Bonanomi , R. D’Ascoli , R. Scotti , S.A. Gaglione , M. Gonzalez Caceres , S. Sultana , R. Scelza , M.A. Rao , A. Zoina Vegetable cultivation under plastic tunnels is a steadily growing agricultural sector but concern developed over environmental sustainability of this farming system. Our aim was to identify organic amendments with a biochemical quality that effectively balance the trade-off between organic carbon recovery, in terms of increasing soil organic C stock, and nutrient mineralization. A three-year field experiment was carried out in two farms of southern Italy characterized by plastic tunnel cultivation and contrasting soil characteristics. Two compost–wood mixtures were used, with final C/N ratio of 15 and 25, and supplied in two doses (30 and 60Mgha−1). Vegetable yield was assessed by monitoring 14 cropping cycles, and soil quality by determining 18 soil parameters including chemical and biological properties. Crop yields were significantly higher in amendment plots, compared to unamended control plots under plastic tunnel, for 12 out of 14 cropping cycles. Combined application of compost and wood allowed an effective recovery of soil C content within three years. Soil amendments improved soil biological functions as revealed by a general trend of positive effects on dehydrogenase, phosphatase and β-glucosidase as well as on soil respiration. The higher C/N ratio mixture determined only a short-term restriction of mineral nitrogen availability. Organic amended plots showed a significant increase in soil exchangeable Na+ and electrical conductivity compared with untreated controls. Compost–woody combination can be used to recover soil carbon stock and fertility and, at the same time, to support vegetable production under plastic tunnels. However, the possible increase of soil salinity after compost amendment may negatively affect soil quality in the long-term. Graphical abstract
Print ISSN: 0167-8809
Electronic ISSN: 1873-2305
Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
Published by Elsevier
9.
PAPER CURRENT
Opposing effects of agricultural intensification on two ecologically similar species (2014)
Publication Date: 2014-04-25
Description: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2014 Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment Author(s): Lucy Lush , Alastair I. Ward , Philip Wheeler Brown hares and rabbits are widely distributed in agricultural landscapes across the UK, occupy similar habitats and have considerable dietary overlap. However, as agriculture in the UK has intensified, hares have declined and become a species of conservation concern while rabbits have become an increasing pest. An intensive study of hares, rabbits and the dynamics of pastures over two grazing seasons was undertaken, in order to understand the environmental factors associated with hare and rabbit abundance at field level. Linear mixed models were used to assess the environmental variables, in terms of the structure, nutritional components and effects of livestock grazing that are associated with the abundance of the two species. The models revealed that hares were negatively associated with grazing intensity and plant diversity, whereas rabbits showed the strongest associations with nutritional content of pastures, in particular fat, nitrogen and fibre content in forage, as well as a positive association with short grass swards. The data suggest that, at the field-scale intensification of pasture use may have contributed to declines in hares and increases in rabbits.
Print ISSN: 0167-8809
Electronic ISSN: 1873-2305
Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
Published by Elsevier
10.
PAPER CURRENT
Temporal trends in nitrogen concentrations and losses from agricultural catchments in the Nordic and Baltic countries (2014)
Publication Date: 2014-04-25
Description: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2014 Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems &amp; Environment Author(s): Per Stålnacke , Paul Andreas Aakerøy , Gitte Blicher-Mathiesen , Arvo Iital , Viesturs Jansons , Jari Koskiaho , Katarina Kyllmar , Ainis Lagzdins , Annelene Pengerud , Arvydas Povilaitis Long-term monitoring data from catchments with relatively uniform land use is important in order to cover management needs such as implementation of various EU Directives. This paper in a uniform fashion examines the temporal trends in nitrogen (N) concentrations and losses from agricultural catchments in the Nordic and Baltic countries. Thirty-five (35) catchments (range 0.1–33km2) in Norway (9), Denmark (5), Sweden (8), Finland (4), Estonia (3), Latvia (3) and Lithuania (3) were selected for this study. The longest time series were 23 years (1988–2010), while the shortest one was 10 years (2002–2011). The monthly nitrogen concentration and loss data series were tested for statistical trends (p <0.05; two-sided test) using the partial Mann–Kendall (PMK) test with stream discharge as an explanatory variable. The study results show a large variation in nitrogen concentrations and losses among the studied catchments, with a large interannual variability in all catchments. For nitrogen losses, 11 statistically significant trends were detected. Nine of these were downward (four out of five Danish catchments; four out of eight in Sweden; one out of three in Finland). Upward trends were detected in two catchments (one in Estonia and one in Latvia). For nitrogen concentrations, 13 statistically significant trends were detected. 10 of these were downward. Among the 11 catchments that showed trends in nitrogen losses, nine catchments also showed statistically significant trends in the in-stream concentration series. In addition, three more Swedish catchments showed downward trends in the concentration series, and one Estonian catchment showed an upward trend. These results indicate that targeted strategies towards reduced nitrogen losses from agricultural land (as in the case of Denmark and Sweden) may significantly improve nutrient surface water quality in small agricultural catchments
Print ISSN: 0167-8809
Electronic ISSN: 1873-2305
Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
Published by Elsevier