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1.
PAPER CURRENT
Thérèse Wilson, J. Woodland Hastings: Bioluminescence: living lights, lights for living (2014)
Publication Date: 2014-09-01
Print ISSN: 1618-2642
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
Published by Springer
2.
PAPER CURRENT
Chemiluminescent detection of cell apoptosis enzyme by gold nanoparticle-based resonance energy transfer assay (2014)
Publication Date: 2014-09-01
Description: Abstract We report a new chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) technique, using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as efficient energy acceptor, for homogeneous measurement of cell apoptosis enzyme with high sensitivity. In the design of the CRET system, we chose the highly sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) reaction between luminol and hydrogen peroxide catalysed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) because the CL spectrum of luminol (λ max 425 nm) partially overlaps the visible absorption bands of AuNPs. In this system, the peptide substrate (DEVD) of caspase 3 was linked to the AuNP surface by Au–S linkage. HRP was attached to the AuNP surface by means of a bridge formed by the streptavidin–biotin reaction. CRET occurred as a result of formation of AuNP–peptide–biotin–streptavidin–HRP complexes. The CL of luminol was significantly reduced, because of the quenching effect of AuNPs. The quenched CL was recovered after cleavage of DEVD by caspase 3, an enzyme involved in the apoptotic process. Experimental conditions were systematically investigated. Under the optimum conditions the increase of the CL signal was linearly dependent on caspase 3 concentration within the concentration range 25 pmol L−1 to 800 pmol L−1 and the detection limit of caspase 3 was as low as 20 pmol L−1, one order of magnitude lower than for FRET sensors based on graphene oxides. Our method was successfully used to detect drug-induced apoptosis of cells. This approach is expected to be extended to other assays, i.e., using other enzymes, analytes, CL substances, and even other nanoparticles (e.g., quantum dots and graphene). Fig. a ᅟ
Print ISSN: 1618-2642
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
Published by Springer
3.
PAPER CURRENT
A novel luciferase fusion protein for highly sensitive optical imaging: from single-cell analysis to in vivo whole-body bioluminescence imaging (2014)
Publication Date: 2014-09-01
Description: Abstract Fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging have different advantages and disadvantages depending on the application. Bioluminescence imaging is now the most sensitive optical technique for tracking cells, promoter activity studies, or for longitudinal in vivo preclinical studies. Far-red and near-infrared fluorescence imaging have the advantage of being suitable for both ex vivo and in vivo analysis and have translational potential, thanks to the availability of very sensitive imaging instrumentation. Here, we report the development and validation of a new luciferase fusion reporter generated by the fusion of the firefly luciferase Luc2 to the far-red fluorescent protein TurboFP635 by a 14-amino acid linker peptide. Expression of the fusion protein, named TurboLuc, was analyzed in human embryonic kidney cells, (HEK)-293 cells, via Western blot analysis, fluorescence microscopy, and in vivo optical imaging. The created fusion protein maintained the characteristics of the original bioluminescent and fluorescent protein and showed no toxicity when expressed in living cells. To assess the sensitivity of the reporter for in vivo imaging, transfected cells were subcutaneously injected in animals. Detection limits of cells were 5 × 103 and 5 × 104 cells for bioluminescent and fluorescent imaging, respectively. In addition, hydrodynamics-based in vivo gene delivery using a minicircle vector expressing TurboLuc allowed for the analysis of luminescent signals over time in deep tissue. Bioluminescence could be monitored for over 30 days in the liver of animals. In conclusion, TurboLuc combines the advantages of both bioluminescence and fluorescence and allows for highly sensitive optical imaging ranging from single-cell analysis to in vivo whole-body bioluminescence imaging. Fig Optical imaging using TurboLuc fusion reporter protein
Print ISSN: 1618-2642
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
Published by Springer
4.
PAPER CURRENT
Transformation of Personal Computers and Mobile Phones into Genetic Diagnostic Systems (2014)
Publication Date: 2014-09-01
Description: Analytical ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/ac5022419
Print ISSN: 0003-2700
Electronic ISSN: 1520-6882
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
5.
PAPER CURRENT
Expression of the lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis gene lpxD affects biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2014)
Publication Date: 2014-09-01
Description: Abstract Bacterial biofilms are an important cause of nosocomial infections. Microorganisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonize biotic and abiotic surfaces leading to chronic infections that are difficult to eradicate. To characterize novel genes involved in biofilm formation, we identified the lpxD gene from a transposon-mutant library of P. aeruginosa. This gene encodes a glucosamine-N acyltransferase, which is important for lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. Our results showed that a loss-of-expression mutant of lpxD was defective for biofilm formation on biotic and abiotic surfaces. Additionally, this mutant strain exhibited significantly decreased bacterial attachment to cultured airway epithelial cells, as well as increased bacterial cytotoxicity toward airway cells. However, consistent with a defect in lipid A structure, airway cells incubated with the lpxD mutant or with mutant lipid A extracts exhibited decreased IL-8 production and necrosis, respectively. Overall, our data indicate that manipulating lpxD expression may influence P. aeruginosa’s ability to establish biofilm infections.
Print ISSN: 0302-8933
Electronic ISSN: 1432-072X
Topics: Biology
Published by Springer
6.
PAPER CURRENT
Advances in research of ENSO changes and the associated impacts on Asian-Pacific climate (2014)
Publication Date: 2014-09-01
Description: Abstract This review provides a summary on the recent major advances in research of ENSO changes and the associated impacts on Asian-Pacific climate. Achievements in the following topics are summarized: 1) the asymmetry between El Niño and La Niña; 2) the different features of central Pacific (CP) El Niño and eastern Pacific (EP) El Niño; 3) the change of ENSO in a warming world, including analysis of pre-industrial control simulation, historical simulation and climate projections of coupled climate system model; 4) Impact of EP ENSO on warm-pool air-sea interaction and East Asianwestern North Pacific summer monsoon; 5) Impacts of CP ENSO on Asian-Pacific climate, with focus on East Asian seasonal precipitation and tropical cyclones in the western Pacific. Research results published in the recent 5 years are the major sources for this review. Based on the review of the current progresses, some challenging issues needed to be investigated in the future are highlighted.
Print ISSN: 1976-7633
Electronic ISSN: 1976-7951
Topics: Geosciences , Physics
Published by Springer on behalf of Korean Meteorological Society.
7.
PAPER CURRENT
Bioluminescence imaging to track real-time armadillo promoter activity in live Drosophila embryos (2014)
Publication Date: 2014-09-01
Description: Abstract We established a method for bioluminescence imaging (BLI) to track real-time gene expression in live Drosophila embryos. We constructed a transgenesis vector containing multiple cloning sites and enhanced green-emitting luciferase (ELuc; Emerald Luc), a brighter and pH-insensitive luciferase for promoter analysis. To evaluate the utility of BLI using an ELuc reporter together with an optimized microscope system, we visualized the expression pattern of armadillo (arm), a member of the Wnt pathway in Drosophila, throughout embryogenesis. We generated transgenic flies carrying the arm:: ELuc fusion gene, and successfully performed BLI continuously for 22 h in the same embryos. Our study showed, for the first time, that arm::Eluc expression was dramatically increased in the anterior midgut rudiment, myoblasts of the dorsal/lateral musculature, and the posterior spiracle after stage 13, and the cephalic region at stage 17. To further demonstrate the application of our BLI system, we revealed that arm transcriptional activity in embryos was modulated inversely by treatment with ionomycin or 6-bromoindirubin-3-oxime (BIO), an inhibitor and activator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, respectively. Therefore, our microscopic BLI system is useful for monitoring gene expression in live Drosophila embryos, and for investigating regulatory mechanisms by using chemicals and mutations that might affect expression. ᅟ
Print ISSN: 1618-2642
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
Published by Springer
8.
PAPER CURRENT
Long-term variability of cold surges in Korea (2014)
Publication Date: 2014-09-01
Description: Abstract Cold surge statistics have been analyzed from the 52-year (1961–2012) winter temperature data archived at Korea Meteorological Administration. Despite a significant winter warming in South Korea, there is no statistically affirmable sign of the occurrence frequency, duration and total days of cold surges to have changed in the record; there is little abatement in the frequency, duration, and total days of cold surges. Thermal advection anomalies were also derived from the NCEP/NCAR and ERA interim reanalysis datasets. Cold surges defined in terms of thermal advection anomalies do not exhibit any statistically significant change either. The increased mean and the decreased variance of thermal advection both indicate that cold advection from north has, in fact, decreased gradually in South Korea. It appears that cold surges are statistically rare enough to be affected by increased mean and decreased variance of thermal advection. Polar warming is often interpreted as weakening of jet stream and increasing southward flux of cold air. Analysis of thermal advection, on the other hand, does not show increased advection of cold air from north in South Korea.
Print ISSN: 1976-7633
Electronic ISSN: 1976-7951
Topics: Geosciences , Physics
Published by Springer on behalf of Korean Meteorological Society.
9.
PAPER CURRENT
Applications of situation-dependent intensity and intensity spread predictions based on a weighted analog technique (2014)
Publication Date: 2014-09-01
Description: Abstract A version of our situation-dependent intensity prediction (SDIP) is proposed for operational application after three modifications: (i) Ten historical track analogs are matched with Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) official track forecasts rather than besttracks; (ii) Giving two times as much weight to the 72 h — 120 h portion of the track as to the 0–72 h portion to give higher rankings for analog tracks with similar landfall or recurvature positions and timing; and (iii) Weighting both the intensity prediction technique and a new intensity spread guidance product according to new rankings of the track analogs rather than assuming all track analogs are equally likely. These special matchings and weightings of the track analogs in this weighted-analog intensity (WANI) add skill in the 72–120 h forecast intervals in regions where landfalls occur. Viability as an operational technique is demonstrated as the WANI has only 1 kt larger mean absolute errors than the JTWC intensity errors from 12 h through 72 h, and the WANI is 5 kt (20%) better at 120 h. The WANI rank-weighted intensity spreads each 12 h among the 10 best historical track analogs are processed to reduce any intensity bias and calibrated to reduce (increase) the over-determined (under-determined) intensity spreads at early (later) forecast intervals. Thus, the situation-dependent intensity spread guidance is generated that will include about 68% of the verifying intensities at all forecast intervals. Four examples of the WANI intensity predictions and intensity spread guidance are presented to illustrate how the forecaster might use this information in potential landfall and intensity bifurcation situations.
Print ISSN: 1976-7633
Electronic ISSN: 1976-7951
Topics: Geosciences , Physics
Published by Springer on behalf of Korean Meteorological Society.
10.
PAPER CURRENT
Interdecadal changes in the Asian winter monsoon variability and its relationship with ENSO and AO (2014)
Publication Date: 2014-09-01
Description: Abstract Interdecadal changes in the Asian winter monsoon (AWM) variability are investigated using three surface air temperature datasets for the 55-year period of 1958–2012 from (1) the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis 1 (NCEP), (2) combined datasets from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) 40-yr reanalysis and interim data (ERA), and (3) Japanese 55-year reanalysis (JRA). Particular attention has been paid to the first four empirical orthogonal function (EOF) modes of the AWM temperature variability that together account for 64% of the total variance and have been previously identified as predictable modes. The four modes are characterized as follows: the first mode by a southern warming over the Indo-western Pacific Ocean associated with a gradually increasing basin-wide warming trend; the second mode by northern warming with the interdecadal change after the late 1980s; the third and fourth modes by north-south triple pattern, which reveal a phase shift after the late 1970s. The three reanalyses agree well with each other when producing the first three modes, but show large discrepancy in capturing both spatial and temporal characteristics of the fourth mode. It is therefore considered that the first three leading modes are more reliable than the rest higher modes. Considerable interdecadal changes are found mainly in the first two modes. While the first mode shows gradually decreasing variance, the second mode exhibits larger interannual variance during the recent decade. In addition, after the late 1970s, the first mode has a weakening relationship with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) whereas the second mode has strengthening association with the Artic Oscillation (AO). This indicates an increasing role of AO but decreasing role of ENSO on the AWM variability. A better understanding of the interdecadal change in the dominant modes would contribute toward advancing in seasonal prediction and the predictability of the AWM variability.
Print ISSN: 1976-7633
Electronic ISSN: 1976-7951
Topics: Geosciences , Physics
Published by Springer on behalf of Korean Meteorological Society.