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1.
PAPER CURRENT
Stackelberg Bipartite Vertex Cover and the Preflow Algorithm (2015)
Publication Date: 2015-03-28
Description: Abstract Stackelberg pricing of vertex covers in a bipartite graph, with the priceable nodes on one side of the bipartition, reduces to a sequence of maximum flow problems. This was shown by Briest et al. (Algorithmica 62:733–753, 2012), leading to an \(O(n^6)\) algorithm. Here \(n\) is the number of nodes of the graph. We show how the use of the preflow algorithm gives an \(O(n^4)\) algorithm.
Print ISSN: 0178-4617
Electronic ISSN: 1432-0541
Topics: Computer Science , Mathematics
Published by Springer
2.
PAPER CURRENT
Algorithms, Vol. 8, Pages 82-91: A Stable Gaussian Fitting Procedure for the Parameterization of Remote Sensed Thermal Images (2015)
Publication Date: 2015-03-28
Description: An image analysis procedure based on a two dimensional Gaussian fitting is presented and applied to satellite maps describing the surface urban heat island (SUHI). The application of this fitting technique allows us to parameterize the SUHI pattern in order to better understand its intensity trend and also to perform quantitative comparisons among different images in time and space. The proposed procedure is computationally rapid and stable, executing an initial guess parameter estimation by a multiple regression before the iterative nonlinear fitting. The Gaussian fit was applied to both low and high resolution images (1 km and 30 m pixel size) and the results of the SUHI parameterization shown. As expected, a reduction of the correlation coefficient between the map values and the Gaussian surface was observed for the image with the higher spatial resolution due to the greater variability of the SUHI values. Since the fitting procedure provides a smoothed Gaussian surface, it has better performance when applied to low resolution images, even if the reliability of the SUHI pattern representation can be preserved also for high resolution images.
Electronic ISSN: 1999-4893
Topics: Computer Science
Published by MDPI Publishing
3.
PAPER CURRENT
Loss-of-Function Alanyl-tRNA Synthetase Mutations Cause an Autosomal-Recessive Early-Onset Epileptic Encephalopathy with Persistent Myelination Defect (2015)
Publication Date: 2015-03-28
Description: Publication date: Available online 26 March 2015 Source:The American Journal of Human Genetics Author(s): Cas Simons , Laurie B. Griffin , Guy Helman , Gretchen Golas , Amy Pizzino , Miriam Bloom , Jennifer L.P. Murphy , Joanna Crawford , Sarah H. Evans , Scott Topper , Matthew T. Whitehead , John M. Schreiber , Kimberly A. Chapman , Cyndi Tifft , Katrina B. Lu , Howard Gamper , Megumi Shigematsu , Ryan J. Taft , Anthony Antonellis , Ya-Ming Hou , Adeline Vanderver Mutations in genes encoding aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are known to cause leukodystrophies and genetic leukoencephalopathies—heritable disorders that result in white matter abnormalities in the central nervous system. Here we report three individuals (two siblings and an unrelated individual) with severe infantile epileptic encephalopathy, clubfoot, absent deep tendon reflexes, extrapyramidal symptoms, and persistently deficient myelination on MRI. Analysis by whole exome sequencing identified mutations in the nuclear-encoded alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AARS) in these two unrelated families: the two affected siblings are compound heterozygous for p.Lys81Thr and p.Arg751Gly AARS, and the single affected child is homozygous for p.Arg751Gly AARS. The two identified mutations were found to result in a significant reduction in function. Mutations in AARS were previously associated with an autosomal-dominant inherited form of axonal neuropathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2N (CMT2N). The autosomal-recessive AARS mutations identified in the individuals described here, however, cause a severe infantile epileptic encephalopathy with a central myelin defect and peripheral neuropathy, demonstrating that defects of alanyl-tRNA charging can result in a wide spectrum of disease manifestations.
Print ISSN: 0002-9297
Electronic ISSN: 1537-6605
Topics: Biology , Medicine
4.
PAPER CURRENT
A Large-Scale Genetic Analysis Reveals a Strong Contribution of the HLA Class II Region to Giant Cell Arteritis Susceptibility (2015)
Publication Date: 2015-03-28
Description: Publication date: Available online 26 March 2015 Source:The American Journal of Human Genetics Author(s): F. David Carmona , Sarah L. Mackie , Jose-Ezequiel Martín , John C. Taylor , Augusto Vaglio , Stephen Eyre , Lara Bossini-Castillo , Santos Castañeda , Maria C. Cid , José Hernández-Rodríguez , Sergio Prieto-González , Roser Solans , Marc Ramentol-Sintas , M. Francisca González-Escribano , Lourdes Ortiz-Fernández , Inmaculada C. Morado , Javier Narváez , José A. Miranda-Filloy , Lorenzo Beretta , Claudio Lunardi , Marco A. Cimmino , Davide Gianfreda , Daniele Santilli , Giuseppe A. Ramirez , Alessandra Soriano , Francesco Muratore , Giulia Pazzola , Olga Addimanda , Cisca Wijmenga , Torsten Witte , Jan H. Schirmer , Frank Moosig , Verena Schönau , Andre Franke , Øyvind Palm , Øyvind Molberg , Andreas P. Diamantopoulos , Simon Carette , David Cuthbertson , Lindsy J. Forbess , Gary S. Hoffman , Nader A. Khalidi , Curry L. Koening , Carol A. Langford , Carol A. McAlear , Larry Moreland , Paul A. Monach , Christian Pagnoux , Philip Seo , Robert Spiera , Antoine G. Sreih , Kenneth J. Warrington , Steven R. Ytterberg , Peter K. Gregersen , Colin T. Pease , Andrew Gough , Michael Green , Lesley Hordon , Stephen Jarrett , Richard Watts , Sarah Levy , Yusuf Patel , Sanjeet Kamath , Bhaskar Dasgupta , Jane Worthington , Bobby P.C. Koeleman , Paul I.W. de Bakker , Jennifer H. Barrett , Carlo Salvarani , Peter A. Merkel , Miguel A. González-Gay , Ann W. Morgan , Javier Martín We conducted a large-scale genetic analysis on giant cell arteritis (GCA), a polygenic immune-mediated vasculitis. A case-control cohort, comprising 1,651 case subjects with GCA and 15,306 unrelated control subjects from six different countries of European ancestry, was genotyped by the Immunochip array. We also imputed HLA data with a previously validated imputation method to perform a more comprehensive analysis of this genomic region. The strongest association signals were observed in the HLA region, with rs477515 representing the highest peak (p = 4.05 × 10−40, OR = 1.73). A multivariate model including class II amino acids of HLA-DRβ1 and HLA-DQα1 and one class I amino acid of HLA-B explained most of the HLA association with GCA, consistent with previously reported associations of classical HLA alleles like HLA-DRB1∗04. An omnibus test on polymorphic amino acid positions highlighted DRβ1 13 (p = 4.08 × 10−43) and HLA-DQα1 47 (p = 4.02 × 10−46), 56, and 76 (both p = 1.84 × 10−45) as relevant positions for disease susceptibility. Outside the HLA region, the most significant loci included PTPN22 (rs2476601, p = 1.73 × 10−6, OR = 1.38), LRRC32 (rs10160518, p = 4.39 × 10−6, OR = 1.20), and REL (rs115674477, p = 1.10 × 10−5, OR = 1.63). Our study provides evidence of a strong contribution of HLA class I and II molecules to susceptibility to GCA. In the non-HLA region, we confirmed a key role for the functional PTPN22 rs2476601 variant and proposed other putative risk loci for GCA involved in Th1, Th17, and Treg cell function.
Print ISSN: 0002-9297
Electronic ISSN: 1537-6605
Topics: Biology , Medicine
5.
PAPER CURRENT
Agricultural landscape composition as a driver of farmland bird diversity in Brittany (NW France) (2015)
Publication Date: 2015-03-28
Description: Publication date: 1 July 2015 Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 205 Author(s): Assu Gil-Tena , Miquel De Cáceres , Aude Ernoult , Alain Butet , Lluís Brotons , Françoise Burel In agriculture-dominated landscapes, agricultural intensification and associated landscape homogenization have caused large declines in farmland biodiversity. This study was aimed at determining how agricultural landscape composition drives community diversity and composition of farmland birds in the characteristic bocage landscape in Brittany (NW France) on a broad scale. Using bird atlas data from the region (2004–2008; 10×10km), we analyzed the importance of different components of agricultural landscape composition (types of crops, amount of semi-natural covers and elements, and artificial lands) on the alpha diversity and beta diversity of farmland birds of different functional groups, defined depending on the degree of farmland specialization and ecological requirements. Agricultural landscape composition features explained a small amount of variation in alpha and beta diversity, particularly for specialists and residents. Cereal crops were negatively correlated with alpha diversity of all the functional groups considered whereas rotational grasslands were negatively associated with migrant and insectivorous alpha diversity. Although shrublands are not common in Brittany, they were positively associated with the occurrence of some species and particularly with alpha diversity of all the functional groups but specialists and residents. At the spatial grain of analysis, community composition was mainly driven by a gradient of alteration of the bocage. To conclude, we claim for the consideration of regional idiosyncrasies in far-reaching planning schemes to prevent future biodiversity loss in agriculture-dominated landscapes due to agricultural intensification. In view of the observed large-scale trends gathered from atlas data analysis and the small amount of explained variation, we also advocate for subsequent finer scale bespoke surveys to determine the biodiversity status associated with the valuable bocage agricultural landscape.
Print ISSN: 0167-8809
Electronic ISSN: 1873-2305
Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
Published by Elsevier
6.
PAPER CURRENT
Stratospheric geoengineering impacts on El Niño/Southern Oscillation (2015)
Publication Date: 2015-03-28
Description: Stratospheric geoengineering impacts on El Niño/Southern Oscillation Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 15, 9173-9202, 2015 Author(s): C. J. Gabriel and A. Robock To examine the impact of proposed stratospheric geoengineering schemes on theamplitude and frequency of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variationswe examine climate model simulations from the Geoengineering ModelIntercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G1–G4 experiments. Here we compare tropicalPacific behavior under anthropogenic global warming (AGW) using therepresentative concentration pathway resulting in 4.5 W m−2 radiativeforcing at the end of the 21st Century, the RCP4.5 scenario, with that underG1–G4 and under historical model simulations. Climate models under AGWproject relatively uniform warming across the tropical Pacific over the nextseveral decades. We find no statistically significant change in ENSOfrequency or amplitude under stratospheric geoengineering as compared withthose that would occur under ongoing AGW.
Print ISSN: 1680-7367
Electronic ISSN: 1680-7375
Topics: Geosciences
7.
PAPER CURRENT
Portable FRET Analyzer for Rapid Detection of Sugar Content (2015)
Publication Date: 2015-03-28
Description: Analyst, 2015, Accepted ManuscriptDOI: 10.1039/C4AN02195A, PaperHaseong Kim, Hyo Sang Kim, Jae-Seok Ha, Seung-Goo LeeThe fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is widely used as core process in biometric sensors to detect small molecules such as sugars, calcium ions, or amino acids. However, FRET based...The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Print ISSN: 0003-2654
Electronic ISSN: 1364-5528
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
8.
PAPER CURRENT
A turn-on fluorescent probe for selective and sensitive detection of hydrogen sulfide (2015)
Publication Date: 2015-03-28
Description: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2015 Source:Analytica Chimica Acta Author(s): Fang Ma , Mingtai Sun , Kui Zhang , Huan Yu , Zhenyang Wang , Suhua Wang An imidazolethione based turn-on fluorescent probe was synthesized for the detection of hydrogen sulfide, a biologically relevant molecule and an important air pollutant. The probe rapidly and selectively reacted with hydrogen sulfide to produce a strongly fluorescent product, resulting in the fluorescence enhancement of the system. The detection limit was determined to be 30nM at the probe concentration of 1.0μM. An indicating paper for visual detection of hydrogen sulfide gas has been fabricated by immobilizing the probe on a piece of appropriate paper substrate, and the detection limit of the visual method reached as low as 0.7ppm. Moreover, the fluorescence turn-on/off of the system showed good reversibility when exposed alternately to hydrogen sulfide and mercuric ion, which was utilized to make an INHIBIT logic circuit for the presence of the two species. Graphical abstract
Print ISSN: 0003-2670
Electronic ISSN: 1873-4324
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
Published by Elsevier
9.
PAPER CURRENT
Advanced dress-up chiral columns: New removable chiral stationary phases for enantioseparation of chiral carboxylic acids (2015)
Publication Date: 2015-03-28
Description: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2015 Source:Analytica Chimica Acta Author(s): Kenichiro Todoroki , Yasuhiro Ishii , Takafumi Ide , Jun Zhe Min , Koichi Inoue , Xin Huang , Wei Zhang , Yoshitaka Hamashima , Toshimasa Toyo’oka This paper describes the preparation of new dress-up columns featuring reproducibly removable and replaceable chiral stationary phases. After synthesizing perfluroalkylated quinine and quinidine derivatives as chiral stationary phase compounds (F-CSPs), we adsorbed them reversibly onto a fluorous LC column through pumping of their solutions. Using this dress-up chiral column and fluorophobic elution of aqueous ammonium formate/MeOH mixtures, we could enantioseparate four racemic N-acetyl amino acids, dichlorprop, and sixteen fluorescent 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC)–derivatized amino acids. Dressing and undressing of the coated F-CSPs could be controlled by varying the fluorophilicity and fluorophobicity of the eluent. The relative standard deviations of the retention times, the retention factors, the number of theoretical plates, the enantioseparation factors, and the resolutions of each of four preparations of such dress-up columns were all less than or equal to 5.26% (from 20 repeated analyses); the reproducibilities from four different preparations were all less than or equal to 10.6%. These columns also facilitated highly sensitive and selective analyses of AQC-amino acids when detected using LC-MS/MS. Graphical abstract
Print ISSN: 0003-2670
Electronic ISSN: 1873-4324
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
Published by Elsevier
10.
PAPER CURRENT
Intracellular Fluorescent Temperature Probe Based on Triarylboron Substituted Poly N-Isopropylacrylamide and Energy Transfer (2015)
Publication Date: 2015-03-28
Description: Analytical ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.5b00887
Print ISSN: 0003-2700
Electronic ISSN: 1520-6882
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology