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  • Polymer and Materials Science  (112,478)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: We are studying the use of PS-PMMA block copolymer systems to improve the mechanical properties of immiscible PS-PVC blends. For a particular PS-PMMA block copolymer system, we found that effective compatibilization occurs at compatibilizer levels of 1-5 wt % in a 50/50 PS-PVC blend. In the samples, storage and stress relaxation moduli were at least midway between those of pure PS and PVC. On the other hand, the equivalent uncompatibilized blend exhibited storage and stress relaxation moduli that are much lower than those of the soft PVC component. Stress relaxation moduli of pure PS remained fairly constant with time, while a 25% drop was observed for pure PVC after 120 sec. Also after 120 s, stress relaxation moduli for the uncompatibilized blend exhibited a 20% drop, while a less than 10% drop was observed for the compatibilized PS-PVC blends.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: The key to preparation of commercially useful blends based on immiscible polymer pairs is compatibilization. Advances over the past ten years have considerably enhanced the understanding of this phenomenon. The selection of an appropriate compatibilizer and the processing technique to enhance the compatibilization is quite complex. The selection of the compatibilizer is aided by the application of the principles of miscibility and of organic interactions. It may be advantageous to prepare the compatibilizer in situ. Chemical modification of the base components to enhance interactions between the components is an important option. Processing and rheological effects must also be taken into account. The combination of the compatibilizer and the processing conditions must yield a morphology that will preserve the desired properties of each component while minimizing the undesirable properties. This morphology must be reproducible and stable in the ultimate product and through subsequent recycling processes.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Extrudate swell studies of a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) melt have been undertaken in flows through slit and capillary dies with the purpose of finding out the effect of die-length/diameter (gap) (L/D or L/2H) ratio on the viscoelastic behavior. Numerical solutions have been obtained by using the finite element method (FEM) and an integral constitutive equation of the K-BKZ type with a spectrum of relaxation times. The material parameters have been obtained by fitting experimental viscosity and normal stress data for the melt as measured in shear, and elongational viscosity data available in the literature. Different L/D (L/2H) ratios have been considered ranging from very short to infinitely long dies. The numerical simulations reveal that as the flow rate increases, viscoelastic effects exhibited by the HDPE melt become important and manifest themselves in an enhanced swelling behavior after the die exit, while small, Newtonian-like vortices exist in the contraction before entry to the die. Elastic recovery is also captured in an enhanced extrudate swell, which is always higher at the same apparent shear rate for the capillary than the slit dies and decreases drastically as the L/D (L/2H) ratio increases, reaching asymptotic values for very long dies. Such behavior is in agreement with experimental findings from flows through slit and capillary dies and in sharp contrast with purely viscous simulations which cannot predict such strong viscoelastic phenomena associated with the memory of the polymer melt. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    Advances in Polymer Technology 12 (1993), S. 313-324 
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    Advances in Polymer Technology 12 (1993), S. 325-325 
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    Advances in Polymer Technology 12 (1993), S. 327-327 
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: As large components of fiber reinforced composite materials are being more frequently produced by Resin Transfer Molding (RTM), a computer simulation of the injection process can help the mold designer to accomplish three important tasks: (1) to ensure a complete filling of the mold through adequate positioning of the injection ports and of the air vents; (2) to verify the integrity of the mold during the filling process through knowledge of the pressure distribution; and (3) to optimize the production cycle using information about the filling time. The resin impregnation is usually modeled as a flow through a porous medium. It is governed by Darcy's law, which states that the flow rate is proportional to the pressure gradient. In our model, Darcy equation is solved at each time step inside the saturated part of the mold using nonconforming finite elements. This method was chosen because the approximated flow rates, contrary to conforming finite elements, satisfy locally the important physical condition of resin conservation across inter-element boundaries. This permits simplification of the numerical procedure. It is no longer necessary to resort to a control volume approach to move the flow front forward. The resin pressure distribution and the resin front positions are obtained by the computer simulation and calculated results for selected mold geometries are compared with experimental observations. Molds with inserts, multiple injection ports, and the case of anisotropic preforms can be analyzed by the computer program. © 1993 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Research in understanding the mechanisms behind driving forces in the fully filled nonintermeshing twin screw extruder concentrated on experimental analysis of the relation between stagger, screw speed, and cross-channel flow due to measured pressure differential in the nip region. A new measure of the pressure driving force was also sought out, to correlate new data to previous findings from visual studies. The first part of the study was to obtain the values for the dynamic pressure on both sides of the nip region. Further refinements to the equipment used in previous studies allowed closer placement of the transducers in the nip region. After the data were stored, analysis started by determining the δp values from the trace of the pressure differential. By plotting these values, we obtain a highly repeatable curve confirming that the greatest pressure flow occurs at small staggers. A simple 2-D model for pressure flow in the nip region was used to estimate the effect of the cross-channel pressure differential. Values for the cross-channel pressure flow were calculated and compared with the drag flow and found to be significant. © 1993 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: The Intelligent Processing of Materials (IMP) concept has been applied to the calendering process with the goal of improving shape quality and process efficiency. All four basic features of the IPM, including modeling, data processing, sensing, and controlling, are considered. In the process modeling, bending and thermal models are developed. With these models, the relationship between the process parameters and quality of the calendered sheets has been established. A material data bank has been established to couple with the process modeling and real-time sensing data. In sensing, ultrasonic and temperature sensors have been implemented to measure critical quality and process parameters in situ. The sensing data have been used not only to verify the modeling prediction but also to establish information needed to diagnose the causes of the layflat problem. Based on the model prediction as well as sensing information, a better control system to alleviate layflatness problems has been developed. Finally, a control strategy for future improvement of the calendering system is proposed. © 1993 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 18 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: The present article summarizes the author's recent work on the computer-based molecular modeling of polysilanes [-SiR2-]. First, conformational energies were calculated by molecular mechanics on model compounds for poly(dimethylsilane) (PDMS), poly(diethylsilane) (PDES), and poly(di-n-hexylsilane) (PDHS). Discrepancies in conformational preferences between calculated and experimental results are attributed to factors not accounted for in these calculations, such as electronic stabilization and packing forces. Second, molecular dynamics simulations carried out on a model compound for PDHS suggest the presence of an abrupt “gas phase” thermochromic transition, analogous to the abrupt thermochromic transitions observed for PDHS both in solution and in the solid state. Third, we develop a methodology for testing Schweizer's theory of polysilane thermochromism based on the existence of a unique polymer-solvent conformation-dependent stabilization energy present in conjugated chains. In his treatment of the polysilanes, Schweizer adopted reasonable estimated values for this stabilization energy term VD. Presented here is a derivation of an analytical expression for VD based on a first-principles approach. © 1993 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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