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  • LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION  (14,409)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2009-11-23
    Description: Opinions conflict over the role of surface gravity in shaping impact craters on Mercury. One view holds that the effects of g are evident in measurable aspects of crater form; other investigators find little or no evidence for g's geomorphic importance. Ambiguity in the role of g and other variables in cratering on Mercury stems largely from uncertainty in identifying major geomorphic contrasts and the crater sizes at which they occur. One of these, depth/diameter (d/D), undergoes a major change at the transition from simple (bowl shaped) to complex (peaks and terraces) crater interiors. Four least-squares d/D fits for fresh craters on Mercury were attemped. The results are inconsistent. The d/D data that should resolve previous shortcomings is presented. The revised d/D distributions for simple and complex craters, which intersect at a diameter of about 5 km, support the initial thesis that g substantially influences the form of Mercury's craters.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA. Washington Rept. of Planetary Geol. Program, 1983; p 104-106
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  • 2
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Estimates of the mass of dust suspended in the Martian atmosphere are derived from global and regional 9-micrometer opacity maps produced from Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper data. During the peak of the 1977b storm, a total dust mass of approximately 4.3 x 10(exp 14) g was suspended, equivalent to 4.3 x 10(exp -4) g/sq cm, or a layer 1.4 micrometers thick. During a local dust storm near Solis Planum at L(sub s) 227 deg, approximately 1.3 x 10(exp 13) g of dust were lofted, equal to about a 6-micrometer layer in that vicinity.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; E4; p. 7509-7512
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The earliest evolution of the Moon likely included the formation of a magma ocean and the subsequent development of anorthositic flotation cumulates. This primary anorthositic crust was then intruded by mafic magmas which crystallized to form the lunar highlands magnesian suite. The present study is a compilation of petrologic, mineral-chemical, and geochemical information on all pristine magnesian-suite plutonic rocks and the interpretation of this data in light of 18 'new' samples. Of these 18 clasts taken from Apollo 14 breccias, 12 are probably pristine and include four dunites, two norites, four troctolites, and two anorthosites. Radiogenic isotopic whole rock data also are reported for one of the 'probably pristine' anorthositic troctolites, sample 14303,347. The relatively low Rb content and high Sm and Nd abundances of 14303,347 suggest that this cumulate rock was derived from a parental magma which had these chemical characteristics. Trace element, isotopic, and mineral-chemical data are used to interpret the total highlands magnesian suite as crustal precipitates of a primitive KREEP (possessing a K-, rare earth element (REE)-, and P-enriched chemical signature) basalt magma. This KREEP basalt was created by the mixing of ascending ultramafic melts from the lunar interior with urKREEP (the late, K-, REE-, and P-enriched residuum of the lunar magma ocean). A few samples of the magnesian suite with extremely elevated large-ion lithophile elements (5-10x other magnesian-suite rocks) cannot be explained by this model or any other model of autometasomatism, equilibrium crystallization, or 'local melt-pocket equilibrium' without recourse to an extremely large-ion lithophile element-enriched parent liquid. It is difficult to generate parental liquids which are 2-4 x higher in the REE than average lunar KREEP, unless the liquids are the basic complement of a liquid-liquid pair, i.e., the so-called 'REEP-fraction,' from the silicate liquid immiscibility of urKREEP. Scarce age information on lunar rocks suggests that magnesian-suite magmatism was initiated at progressively more recent time from the northeast to the southwest on the lunar nearside from 4.45 to 4.25 Ga.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; E5; p. 9365-9388
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The 3.0-micrometers water of hydration absorption feature observed in the IR photometry of many low-albedo and some medium-albedo asteroids strongly correlates with the 0.7-micrometers Fe(+2) to Fe(+3) oxidized iron absorption feature observed in narrowband spectrophotometry of these asteroids. Using this relationship, an empirical algorithm for predicting the presence of water of hydration in the surface material of a Solar System body using photometry obtained through the Eight-Color Asteroid Survey nu (0.550 micrometers), w (0.701 micrometers), and x (0.853 micrometers) filters was developed and applied to the ECAS photometry of asteroids and outer planet satellites. The percentage of objects in low-albedo, outer main-belt asteroid classes that test positively for water of hydration increases from P to B to C to G class and correlates linearly with the increasing mean albedos of those objects testing positively. The medium-albedo M-class asteroids do not test positively in large number using this algorithm. Aqueously altered asteroids dominate the Solar System population between heliocentric distances of 2.6 to 3.5 AU, bracketing the Solar System region where the aqueous alteration mechanism operated most strongly. One jovian satellite, J VI Himalia, and one saturnian satellite. Phoebe, tested positively for water of hydration, supporting the hypothesis that these may be captured C-class asteroids from a postaccretional dispersion. The proposed testing technique could be applied to an Earth-based survey of asteroids or a space-probe study of an asteroid's surface characteristic in order to identify a potential water source.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 111; 2; p. 456-467
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  • 5
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Launch mechanisms for lunar and martian meteorites have been investigated, by integrating physical modeling constraints, geochemical cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) constraints, and petrologic constraints. The potential source region for lunar meteorites is remarkably small compared to the final crater volume. CRE constraints indicate that most launches start at depths of less than or equal to 3.2 m, and cratering theory implies derivation of suitably accelerated objects from a subvolume with diameter only about 0.3 x the final crater diameter. The shallow depth provenance is probably related to shock-wave interference, enhanced by the lunar regolith's extremely low compressional wave velocity. CRE constraints alone imply that four to five separate launch events are represented among the eight well-studied lunar meteorites. Most of the lunar meteorites are regolith breccias, which tend to show only limited compositional diversity within any kilometer-scale region of the Moon. Several others are polymict breccias, which also show relatively subdued compositional diversity, compared to igneous rocks. The observed diversity among these samples in terms of abundances of mare basalt and KREEP, and in Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratio, implies that among eight well-studied lunar meteorites only two potential source craters pairings are plausible: between Asuka-881757 + Y-793169 (most probable) and between Y-793274 + EET875721. Altogether, these eight lunar meteorites apparently represent at least six separate source craters, including three in the past 10(exp 5) years and five in the past 10(exp 6) years. CRE constraints imply that SNC meteorites are launched from systematically greater than lunar meteorites. SNCs are also systematically bigger, and all nine well-studied SNCs are uncommonly young (by martian standards) mafic igneous rocks. Comparison between Viking and Apollo results reveals that rocks the size of common meteorites are remarkably scarce in the martian regolith, probably due to pervasive weathering. A plausible explanation for these trends is that most old, small, and shallow rocks on Mars have been weakened by a two-stage process of brecciation followed by pervasive weathering, to the point where they seldom survive the stresses of spallation off the planet. The scarcity of source-crater pairing among the lunar meteorites implies that these objects can be launched from craters much smaller than previously estimated and tends to support the suggestion of Rabinowitz (1993) that present-day cratering rates for the Earth-Moon region may be higher than previously estimated.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 111; 2; p. 338-363
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We examine the effects of the loss of Mars atmospheric constituents by solar-wind-induced sputtering and by photochemical escape during the past 3.8 billion years. Sputtering is capable of efficiently removing species from the upper atmosphere, including the light noble gases; nitrogen and oxygen are removed by photochemical processes as well. Due to diffusive separation (by mass) above the homopause, removal from the top of the atmosphere will fractionate the isotopes of each species, with the lighter mass being preferentially lost. For carbon and oxygen, this allows us to determine the size of nonatmospheric reservoirs which mix with the atmosphere; these reservoirs can be CO2 adsorbed in the regolith and H2O in the polar ice caps. We have constructed both simple analytical models and time-dependent models of the loss of volatiles from and supply to the martian atmosphere. Both argon and neon require continued replenishment from outgassing over geologic time. For argon, sputtering loss explains the fractionation of (Ar-36)/(Ar-38) without requiring a distinct epoch of hydrodynamic escape (although fractionation of Xe isotopes still requires very early hydrodynamic loss). For neon, the current (Ne-22)/(Ne-20) ratio represents a balance between loss to space and continued resupply from the interior; the similarity of the ratio to the terrestrial value is coincidental. For nitrogen, the loss by both sputtering and photochemical escape would produce a fractionation of (N-15)/(N-14) larger than observed; an early, thicker carbon dioxide atmosphere could mitigate the nitrogen loss and produce the observed fractionation, as could continued outgassing of juvenile nitorgen. Based on the isotopic constraints, the total amount of carbon dioxide lost over geologic time is probably on the order of tens of millibars rather than a substantial fraction of a bar. The total loss from solar-wind-induced sputtering and photochemical escape, therefore, does not seem able to explain the loss of a putative thick, early atmosphere withput requiring formation of extensive surface carbonate deposits or other nonatmospheric reservoirs for CO2.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 111; 2; p. 271-288
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The infrared transmission spectra and photochemical behavior of various organic compounds isolated in solid N2 ices, appropriate for applications to Triton ad Pluto, are presented. It is shown that excess absorption in the surface spectra of Triton and Pluto, i.e., absorption not explained by present models incorporating molecules already identified on these bodies (N2, CH4, CO, and CO2), that starts near 4450/cm (2.25 microns) and extends to lower frequencies, may be due to alkanes (C(n)H(2n+2)) and related molecules frozen in the nitrogen. Branched and linear alkanes may be responsible. Experiments in which the photochemstry of N2: CH4 and N2: CH4: CO ices was explored demonsrtrate that the surface ices of Triton and Pluto may contain a wide variety of additional species containing H, C, O, and N. Of these, the reactive molecule diazomethane, CH2N2, is particularly important since it may be largely responsible for the synthesis of larger alkanes from CH4 and other small alkanes. Diazomethane would also be expected to drive chemical reactions involving organics in the surface ices of Triton and Pluto toward saturation, i.e., to reduce multiple CC bonds. The positions and intrinsic strengths (A values) of many of the infrared absorption bands of N2 matrix-isolated molecules of relevance to Triton and Pluto have also been determined. These can be used to aid in their search and to place constraints on their abundances.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 111; 1; p. 151-173
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: High spatial resolution maps illustrating variations in spectral reflectance 400/560 nm ratio values have been generated for the following mare regions: (1) the border between southern Mare Serenitatis and northern Mare Tranquillitatis (including the MS-2 standard area and Apollo 17 landing site), (2) central Mare Tranquillitatis, (3) Oceanus Procellarum near Seleucus, and (4) southern Oceanus Procellarum and Flamsteed. We have also obtained 320-1000 nm reflectance spectra of several sites relative to MS-2 to facilitate scaling of the images and provide additional information on surface composition. Inferred TiO2 abundances for these mare regions have been determined using an empirical calibration which relates the weight percent TiO2 in mature mare regolith to the observed 400/560 nm ratio. Mare areas with high TiO2 abundances are probably rich in ilmenite (FeTiO3) a potential lunar resource. The highest potential TiO2 concentrations we have identified in the nearside maria occur in central Mare Tranquillitatis. Inferred TiO2 contents for these areas are greater than 9 wt% and are spatially consistent with the highest-TiO2 regions mapped previously at lower spatial resolution. We note that the morphology of surface units with high 400/560 nm ratio values increases in complexity at higher spatial resolutions. Comparisons have been made with previously published geologic maps, Lunar Orbiter IV, and ground-based images, and some possible morphologic correlatins have been found between our mapped 400/560 nm ratio values and volcanic landforms such as lava flows, mare domes, and collapse pits.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; E3; p. 5,601-5,619
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A search through cycle 1, 2, and 3 Magellan radar data covering 98% of the surface of Venus revealed very few dunes. Only two possible dune fields and several areas that may contain microdunes smaller than the resolution of the images (75 m) were identified. The Aglaonice dune field was identified in the cycle 1 images by the specular returns characteristic of dune faces oriented perpendicular to the radar illumination. Cycle 1 and 2 data of the Fortuna-Meshkenet dune field indicate that there has been no noticeable movement of the dunes over an 8-month period. The dunes, which are oriented both parallel and perpendicular to the radar illumination, appear to be dark features on a brighter substrate. Bright and dark patches that were visible in either cycle 1 or 2 data, but not both, allowed identification of several regions in the southern part of Venus that may contain microdunes. The microdunes are associated with several parabolic crater deposits in the region and are probably similar to those formed in wind tunnel experiments under Venus-like conditions. Bragg scattering and/or subpixel relfections from the near-normal face on asymmetric microdunes may account for these bright and dark patches. Look-angle effects and the lack of sufficient sand-size particles seem to be most likely reasons so few dunes were identified in Magellan data. Insufficient wind speeds, thinness of sand cover, and difficulty in identifying isolated dunes may also be contributors to the scarcity of dunes.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 112; 1; p. 282-295
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Magellan spehrical harmonic gravity and topography models are used to estimate lithospheric properties at Alta Regio, Venus, a proposed hotspot with dynamic support from mantle plume(s). Global spherical harmonic and local representations of the gravity field share common properties in the Atla region interms of their spectral behavior over a wavelength band from approximately 2100 to approximately 700 km. The estimated free-air admittance spectrum displays a rather featureless long-wavelength portion followed by a sharp rise at wavelengths shorter than about 1000 km. This sharp rise requires significant flexural support of short-wavelength structures. The Bouguer coherence also displays a sharp drop in this wavelength band, indicating a finite flexural rigidity of the lithosphere. A simple model for lithospheric loading from above and below is introduced (D. W. Forsyth, 1985) with four parameters: f, the ratio of bottom loading to top loading; z(sub m), crustal thickness; z(sub l) depth to bottom loading source; and T(sub e) elastic lithosphere thickness. A dual-mode compensation model is introduced in which the shorter wavelengths (lambda approximately less than 1000 km) might be explained best by a predominance of top loading by the large shield volcanoes Maat Mons, Ozza Mons, and Sapas Mons, and the longer wavelengths (lambda approximately greater than 1500 km) might be explained best by a deep depth of compensation, possibly representing bottom loading by a dynamic source. A Monte Carlo inversion technique is introduced to thoroughly search out the four-space of the model parameters and to examine parameter correlation in the solutions. Venus either is a considerabe deficient in heat sources relative to Earth, or the thermal lithosphere is overthickened in response to an earlier episode of significant heat loss from the planet.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 112; 1; p. 147-170
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We have analyzed high-resolution Magellan Doppler tracking data over Mead crater, using both line-of-sight and spherical harmonic methods, and have found a negative gravity anomaly of about 4-5 mgal (at spacecraft altitude, 182 km). This is consistent with no isostatic compensation of the present topography; the uncertainty in the analysis allows perhaps as much as 30% compensation at shallow dpeths (approximately 25 km). This is similar to observations of large craters on Earth, which are not generally compensated, but contrasts with at least some lunar basins which are inferred to have large Moho uplifts and corresponding positive Bouguer anomalies. An uncompensated load of this size requires a lithosphere with an effective elastic lithosphere thickness greater than 30 km. In order for the crust-mantle boundary not to have participated in the deformation associated with the collapse of the transient cavity during the creation of the crater, the yield strength near the top of the mantle must have been significantly higher on Earth and Venus than on the Moon at the time of basin formation. This might be due to increased strength against frictional sliding at the higher confining pressures within the larger planets. Alternatively, the thinner crusts of Earth and Venus compared to that of the Moon may result in higher creep strength of the upper mantle at shallower depths.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 112; 1; p. 117-129
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: This report presents the most recent spherical harmonic topography model of Venus developed at Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It was produced by a spherical harmonic analysis of the most complete set of Magellan altimetry data, augmented by Pioneer Venus and Venera data. The harmonic coefficients of the topography were computed to degree and order 360. Compared to previous topography models, this one has the highest correlation with the gravity field of Venus.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 112; 1; p. 27-33
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Roentgen satellite (ROSAT) high-resolution imager (HRI) and position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) observations of Jupiter obtained in April 1991 and May 1992 reveal soft X-ray emissions apparently associated with Jupiter's aurora and similar to X-ray emssions observed earlier by the Einstein Observatory. The HRI images show emission mainly from Jupiter's northern hemisphere at all Jovian longitudes observed, and there is some indication of a longitudinal modulation of the emission in phase with well-known ultraviolet modulation of the northern aurora. The PSPC data reveal a very soft spectrum. Comparison of the observed spectrum with models for both electron bremsstrahlung radiation and line emission from S and O ions indicates that the line spectrum gives a much better statistical fit to the observed spectrum. The X ray observations presented here therefore support the hypothesis that ion precipitation is the most likely cause of the Jovian X ray emissions, a result first suggested by the Einstein results (Metzger et al., 1983).
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; A8; p. 14,799-14,809
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: This paper gives a complete overview of the plasma and magnetic field in the magnetosheath of Neptune. A more sophisticated method is used to reanalyze the plasma data. This method provides better values of plasma density, velocity, and temperature in the magnetosheath both inbound and outbound from the planet than published previously. The data are compared to results obtained from a gasdynamic model of low around a planetary magnetosphere. Agreement of theory and data is good for some parameters and poor for others. We show that some discrepancies between the model predictions and observations may be due to changes in the solar wind parameters. The model results and data are used to check the hypothesis that Voyager encountered the high-latitude plasma mantle downstream from Neptune. The deviations of the data from the model results in this region are consistent with those expected for a mantle crossing, with the exception of the plasma temperature which decreases in one crossing and increases in the other. This may indicate that our knowledge of the nature of the mantle-magnetosheath boundary is not complete.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; A8; p. 14,789-14,797
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The formation of a large volcano loads the underlying lithospheric plate and can lead to lithospheric flexure and faulting. In turn, lithospheric deformation affects the stress field beneath and within the volcanic edifice and can influence magma transport. Modeling the interaction of these processes is crucial to an understanding of the history of eruption characteristics and tectonic deformation of large volcanoes. We develop models of time-dependent stress and deformation for the Tharsis volcanoes on Mars. By means of a finite element code, we calculate stresses and displacements due to a volcano-shaped load emplaced on an elastic plate overlying a viscoelastic mantle. Models variously incorporate growth of the volcanic load with time and a detachment between volcano and lithosphere. The models illustrate the manner in which time-dependent stresses induced by lithospheric plate flexure beneath the volcanic load may affect eruption histories, and the derived stress fields can be related to tectonic features on and surrounding Martian volcanoes. As a result of flexure there are three regions where stresses become sufficiently large to cause failure by faulting, according to the Mohr-Coulomb criterion: at the surface of the plate just outward of the volcano, near the base of the elastic lithosphere beneath the center of the volcano, and on the upper flanks of the volcano early in its growth history.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 98; E12; p. 23,553-23,579
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We report data for the trace elements Au, Co, Sb, Ga, Rb, Ag, Se, Cs, Te, Zn, Cd, Bi, Ti, and In (ordered by putative volatility during nebular condensation and accretion) determined by neutron activation analysis in 13 H5 chondrites from Victoria Land and 20 H4-6 chondrites from Queen Maud Land, Antarctica. These and earlier results provide Antarctic sample suites of 34 chondrites from Victoria Land and 25 from Queen Maud Land. Treatment of data for the most volatile 10 elements (Rb to In) in these studies by multivariate statistical techniques more robust, as well as more conservative, than conventional linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression demonstrates that compositions differ at marginally significant levels. This difference cannot be explained by trivial (terrestrial) causes and becomes more significant, despite the smaller size of the database, when comparisons are limited to data from a single analyst and when all upper limits are eliminated from consideration. The Victoria Land and Queen Maud Land suites have different mean terrestrial ages (approximately 300 kyr and approximately 100 kyr, respectively) and age distributions, suggesting that a time-dependent variation of chondritic sources with different thermal histories is responsible. As a result, these two Antarctic suites are, on average, chemically distinguishable from each other. Since H chondrites serve as a paradigm for other meteorite classes, these results indicate that the near-Earth populations of planetary materials varied with time on the 10(exp 5)-year timescale.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; E2; p. 3297-3316
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Based on the conservation of chemical elements in chemical reactions, a rule is proved that the number of boundary conditions given by densities and/or nonzero velocities should not be less than the number of chemical elements in the system, and the boundary conditions for species given by densities and velocities should include all elements in the system. Applications of this rule to Mars are considered. It is shown that the problem of the CO2-H2O chemistry in the lower and middle atmosphere of Mars, say, in the range of 0-80 km does not have a unique solution, if only CO2 and H2O densities are given at the lower boundary, and the remaining boundary conditions are fluxes. Two examples of models of this type are discussed. Two models of the photochemistry of the Martian atmosphere, with and without nitrogen chemistry, are considered. The oxygen nonthermal escape ratio of 1.2 x 10(exp 8)/cu cm/s is given at 240 km and is balanced with the total hydrogen escape rate within an uncertainty of 1% for both models. Both models fit the measured O2 and CO mixing ratios, the O3 abundance, and the O2 1.27-micrometer dayglow almost within the uncertainties of the measured values, though the model without nitrogen chemistry fits better. The importance of nitrogen chemistry in the lower and middle atmosphere of Mars depends on a fine balance between production of NO and N in the upper atmosphere which is not known within the required accuracy.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; E2; p. 3263-3276
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Turcotte (9193) proposes an episodic hypothesis regarding tectonics on Venus, wherein 'global subduction' alternates with quiescence and development of a thick strong lithosphere on a time scale of several hundred million years. Kaula (1994) argues that Turcotte's model is unpersuasive in several respects.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; E9; p. 19,095-19,096
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  • 19
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Metallic Cu of moderately high purity (approximately 985 mg/g Cu, approximately 15 mg/g Ni) occurs in at least 66% of ordinary chondrites (OC) as heterogeneously distributed, small (typically less than or equal to 20 micrometers) rounded to irregular grains. The mean modal abundance of metallic Cu in H, L and LL chondrites is low: 1.0 to 1.4 x 10(exp -4) vol%, corresponding to only 4 - 5 % of the total Cu in OC whole rocks. In more than 75% of the metallic-Cu-bearing OC, at least some metallic Cu occurs at metallic-Fe-Ni-troilite grain boundaries. In some cases it also occurs within troilite, within metallic Fe-Ni, or at the boundaries these phases form with silicates or chromite. Ordinary chondrites that contain a relatively large number of occurrences of metallic Cu/sq mm have a tendency to have experienced moderately high degrees of shock. Shock processes can cause local melting and transportation of metallic Fe-Ni and troilte; because metallic Cu is mainly associated with these phases, it also gets redistributed during shock events. In the most common petrographic assemblage containing metallic Cu, the Cu is adjacent to small irregular troilite grains surrounded by taenite plus tetrataenite; this assemblage resembles fizzed troilite and may have formed by localized shock melting or remelting of a metal-troilite assemblage.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Meteoritics (ISSN 0026-1114); 29; 1; p. 93-98
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Silicon nitride Si3N4, has previously been observed to be a common constituent of acid residues of Qingzhen (EH3) and Indarch (EH4). Ion probe analysis of the Si, N and C isotopic compositions of individual Si3N4 grains from Qingzhen and Indarch acid residues suggest most, if not all, grains are Solar System in origin. A few grains have isotopically anomalous C but this is probably due to small presolar SiC grains adhering to them. In situ observations of the Si3N4 in Qingzhen show that it is only present within, and probably exsolved from, host phases which contain elemental Si in solid solution. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the Si3N4 probably formed during metamorphism and not in the nebula. Thermodynamic calculations also show that sinoite (Si2N2O) and not Si3N4 should be the stable phase during metamorphism. It appears that kinetic factors must have inhibited the formation if sinoite in Qimgzhen and Indarch.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Meteoritics (ISSN 0026-1114); 29; 1; p. 79-84
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The ten specimens of the paired Acfer 059/El Djouf 001 CR2 chondrite contain abundant lithic fragments which we refer to as dark clasts. Petrological and mineralogical studies reveal that they are not related to the CR2 host meteorite but are similar to dark clasts in other CR2 chondrites. Dark clasts consist of chondrule and mineral fragments, phyllosilicate fragments and clusters, magnetite, sulfides and accessory phases, embedded into a very fine-grained, phyllosilicate-rich matrix. Magnetite has morphologies known from CI chondrites: spherules, framboids and platelets. Average abundances of major elements in the dark clasts are mostly in the range of both CR and CV chondrites, but strong depletions in Na and S are apparent. Oxygen isotopic compositions of two dark clasts suggest relationships to type 3 carbonaceous chondrites and dark inclusions in Allende. The dark clasts are clearly different in texture and mineralogical compositions from the host matrix of Acfer 059/El Djouf 001. Therefore, these dark clasts are xenoliths and are quite unlike the Acfer 059/El Djouf 001 CR2 host meteorite. We suggest that dark clasts accreted at the same time with all other components during the formation of Acfer 059/El Djouf 001 whole rock.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Meteoritics (ISSN 0026-1114); 29; 1; p. 26-40
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Phase fields in which hibonite and silicate melt coexist with spinel CaAl4O7, gehlenitic melilite, anorthite or corundum at 1 bar in the system CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-TiO2 were determined. The hibonites contain up to 1.7 wt% SiO2. For TiO2, the experimentally determined partition coefficients between hibonite and coexisting melt D(sub i)(sup Hib/L), vary from 0.8 to 2.1 and generally decrease with increasing TiO2 in the liquid. Based on Ti partitioning between hibonite and melt, bulk inclusion compositions and hibonite-saturated liquidus phase diagrams, the hibonite in hibonite-poor fluffy Type A inclusions from Allende and at least some hibonite from hibonite-rich inclusions is relict, although much of the hibonite from hibonite-glass spherules probably crystallized metasably from a melt. Bulk compositions for all of these CAIs are consistent with an origin as melite + hibonite + spinel + perovskite phase assembalges that were partially altered and in some cases partially or completely melted. The duration of the melting event was sufficient to remove any Na introduced by the alteration process but frequently insufficient to dissolve all of the original hibonite. Simple thermochemical models developed for meteoritic melilite and hibonite solid solutions were used to obtain equilibration temperatures of hibonite-bearing phase assemblages with vapor. Referenced to 10(exp -3) atm, hibonite + corundum + vapor equilibrated at approximately 1260 C and hibonite + spinel +/- melilite + vapor at 1215 +/- 10 C. If these temperatures reflect condensation in a cooling gas of solar composition, then hibonite +/- corundum condensed first, followed by spinel and then melilite. The position of perovskite within this sequence is uncertain, but it probably began to condense before spinel. This sequence of phase appearances and relative temperatures is generally consistent with observed textures but differs from expectations based on classical condensation calculations in that equilibration temperatures are generally lower than predicted and melilite initially condenses with or even after spinel. Simple thermochemical modes for the substitution of trace elements into the Ca site of meteoritic hibonites suggest that virtually all Eu is divalent in early condensate hibonites but that Eu(2+)/Eu(#+) decreases by a factor of 20 or more during the course of condensation primarily because the ratio is proportional to the partial pressure of Al, which decreases dramatically as aluminous phase condense. The relative sizes of Eu and Yb anomalies in meteoritic hibonites and inclusions may be partly due to this effect.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Meteoritics (ISSN 0026-1114); 29; 1; p. 41-65
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The transection and superposition relationships among channels, chaos, surface materials units, and other features in the circum-Chryse region of Mars were used to evaluate relative age relationships and evolution of flood events. Channels and chaos in contact (with one another) were treated as single discrete flood-carved systems. Some outflow channel systems form networks and are inferred to have been created by multiple flood events. Within some outflow channel networks, several separate individual channel systems can be traced to a specific chaos which acted as flood-source area to that specific flood channel. Individual flood-carved systems were related to widespread materials units or other surface features that served as stratigraphic horizons. Chryse outflow channels are inferred to have formed over most of the perceivable history of Mars. Outflow channels are inferred to become younger with increasing proximity to the Chryse basin. The relationship of subsequent outflow channel sources to the sources of earlier floods is inferred to disfavor episodic flooding due to the progresssive tapping of a juvenile near-surface water supply. Instead, we propose the circum-Chryse region as a candidate site of past hydrological recycling. The discharge rates necessary to carve the circum-Chryse outflow channels would have inevitably formed temporary standing bodies of H2O on the Martian surface where the flood-waters stagnated and pooled (the Chryse basin is topographically enclosed). These observations and inferences have led us to formulate and evaluate two hypotheses. Our numerical evaluations indicate that of these two hypotheses formulated, the groundwater seep cycle seems by far the more viable. Further observations from forthcoming missions may permit the determination of which mechanisms may have operated to recycle the Chryse flood-waters.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); p. 5433-5447
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Infrared reflectance spectra of carefully selected Mars soil analog materials have been measured under low atmospheric pressures and temperatures. Chemically altered montmorillonites containing ferrihydrite and hydrated ferric sulfate complexes are examined, as well as synthetic ferrihydrate and a palagonitic soil from Haleakala, Maui. Reflectance spectra of these analog materials exhibit subtle visible to near-infrared features, which are indicative of nanophase ferric oxides or oxyhydroxides and are similar to features observed in the spectra of the bright regions of Mars. Infrared reflectance spectra of these analogs include hydration features due to structural OH, bound H2O and adsorbed H2O. The spectal character of these hydration features is highly dependent on the sample environment and on the nature of the H2O/OH in the analogs. The behavior of the hydration features near 1.9 micrometers, 2.2 micrometers, 2.7 micrometers, 3 micrometers, and 6 micrometers are reported here in spetra measured under Marslike atmospheric environment. In spectra of these analogs measured under dry Earth atmospheric conditions the 1.9-micrometer band depth is 8-17%; this band is much stonger under moist conditions. Under Marslike atmospheric conditions the 1.9-micrometer feature is broad and barely discernible (1-3% band depth) in spectra of the ferrihydrite and palagonitic soil samples. In comparable spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonite the 1.9-micrometer feature is also broad, but stronger (6% band depth). In the low atmospheric pressure and temperature spectra of the ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonite this feature is sharper than the other analogs and relatively stronger (6% band depth). Although the intensity of the 3- micrometer band is weaker in spectra of each of the analogs when measured under Marslike conditions, the 3-micromter band remains a dominant feature and is especially broad in spectra of the ferrihydrite and palagonitic soil. The structural OH features observed in these materials at 2.2-2.3 micrometers and 2.27 micrometers remain largely unaffected by the environmental conditions. A shift in the Christiansen feature towards shorter wavelengths has also been observed with decreasing atmospheric pressure and temperature in the midinfrared spectra of these samples.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); p. 5369-5379
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Ferric-iron-bearing materials play an important role in the interpretation of visible to near-IR Mars spectra, and they may play a similarly important role in the analysis of new mid-IR spacecraft spectral observations to be obtained over the next decade. We review exisiting data on mid-IR transmission spectra of ferric oxides/oxyhydroxides and present new transmission spectra for ferric-bearing materials spanning a wide range of mineralogy and crystallinity. These materials include 11 samples of well-crystallized ferric oxides (hematite, maghemite, and magnetite) and ferric oxyhydroxides (goethite, lepidocrocite). We also report the first transmission spectra for purely nanophase ferric oxide samples that have been shown to exhibit spectral similarities to Mars in the visible to near-IR and we compare these data to previous and new transmission spectra of terrestial palagonites. Most of these samples show numerous, diagnostic absorption features in the mid-IR due to Fe(3+) - 0(2-) vibrational transitions, structural and/or bound OH, and/or silicates. These data indicate that high spatial resolution, moderate spectral resolution mid-IR ground-based and spacecraft observations of Mars may be able to detect and uniquely discriminate among different ferric-iron-bearing phases on the Martian surface or in the airborne dust.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); p. 5297-5307
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We propose key modifications to the Toon et al. (1977) model of the particle size distribution and composition of Mars atmospheric dust, based on a variety of spacecraft and wavelength observations of the dust. A much broader (r(sub eff) variance approximately 0.8 micrometers), smaller particle size (r(sub mode) approximately 0.02 micrometers) distribution coupled with a 'palagonite-like' composition is argued to fit the complete ultraviolet-to-30-micrometer absorption properties of the dust better than the montmorillonite-basalt, r(sub eff) variance = 0.4 micrometers, r(sub mode) = 0.40 dust model of Toon et al. Mariner 9 (infrared interferometer spectrometer) IRIS spectra of high atmospheric dust opacities during the 1971-1972 Mars global dust storm are analyzed in terms of the Toon et al. dust model, and a Hawaiian palagonite sample (Rousch et al., 1991) with two different size distribution models incorporating smaller dust particle sizes. Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) emmission-phase-function (EPF) observations at 9 micrometers are analyzed to retrieve 9-micrometer dust opacities coincident with solar band dust opacities obtained from the same EPF sequences (Clancy and Lee, 1991). These EPF dust opacities provide an independent measurement of the visible/9-micrometer extinction opacity ratio (greater than or = 2) for Mars atmospheric dust, which is consistent with a previous measurement by Martin (1986). Model values for the visible/9-micrometer opacity ratio and the ultraviolet and visible single-scattering albedos are calculated for the palagonite model with the smaller particle size distributions compared to the same properties for the Toon et al. model of dust. The montmorillonite model of the dust is found to fit the detailed shape of the dust 9-micrometer absorption well. However, it predicts structured, deep aborptions at 20 micrometers which are not observed and requires a separate ultraviolet-visible absorbing component to match the observed behavior of the dust in this wavelength region. The modeled palagonite does not match the 8-to 9-micrometer absorption presented by the dust in the IRIS spectra, probably due to its low SiO2 content (31%). However, it does provide consistent levels of ultraviolet/visible absorption, 9-to 12-micrometer absorption, and a lack of structured absorption at 20 micrometers. The ratios of dust extinction opacities at visible, 9 micrometers, and 30 micrometers are strongly affected by the dust particle size distribution. The Toon et al. dust size distribution (r(sub mode) = 0.40,r(sub eff) variance = 0.4 micrometers, r(sub cwmu) = 2.7 micrometers) predicts the correct ratio of the 9- to 30-micrometer opacity, but underpredicts the visible/9-micrometer opacity ratio considerably (1 versus greater than or = 2). A similar particle distribution width with smaller particle sizes (r(sub mode) = 0.17, r(sub eff) variance = 0.4 micrometers, r(sub cwmu) = 1.2 micrometers) will fit the observed visible/9-micrometer opacity ratio, but overpredicts the observed 9-micrometer/30-micrometer opacity ratio. A smaller and much broader particle size distribution (r(sub mode) = 0.002, r(sub eff) variance = 0.8 micrometers, r(sub cwmu) = 1.8 micrometers) can fit both dust opacity ratios. Overall, the nanocrystalline structure of palagonite coupled with a smaller, broader distribution of dust particle sizes provides a more consistent fit than the Toon et al. model of the dust to the IRIS spectra, the observed visible/9-micrometer dust opacity ratio, the Phobos occulation measurements of the dust particle sizes (Chassefiere et al., 1992), and the weakness of surface near IR absorptions expected for clay minerals (Clark, 1992; Bell and Crisp, 1993).
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); p. 5251-5263
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A newly discovered source of energetic particle streams directed at Venus' nightside may cause several exosphere phenomena. The streams evolve from dispersed cosmoids, a surreptitious population of meteoroids in nearly hyperbolic orbits, measured with three dust experiments on Pioneer 10/11. Loose fragile comet-like ensembles of frozen volatile material, they are orders of magnitude more populous than short-period meteoroids. Dispersion is forced near a planet masking the meteor signature at Earth, but recently terrestrial exosphere interactions have been detected principally from VLF radar returns and as suddenly formed layers of neutral sodium and iron probed by lidar. Venus influx is estimated greater than 10(exp -14)(g)/((sq cm)(s)) with nightside directed kinetic power of greater than 0.3 (erg)/((sq cm)s)). Compared to Earth, Venus, lacking a dipole field with almost no rotation, has a readily recognized set of nightside interaction signatures of these downward energetic particle streams: i.e., density depressions of the neutral thermosphere, hydrogen and helium bulges, a non-disappearing ionosphere, electron holes, nightglows, VLF bursty signals, and local magnetic fields. From Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) measurements, the cosmoid population, its temporal and solar azimuthal variation may be determined.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 4; p. (4)123-(4)129
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: High-resolution, near-infrared (1.09 to 2.5 micrometers) spectra of the night side of Venus have been obtained in 1990 and 1991 using the Fourier Transform Spectrometer at the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii telescope. Absorptions due to H2O were detected in spectral windows near 2.3, 1.74, and 1.18 micrometers. Our analysis of these absorptions constrains the abundance of water vapor in three different altitude ranges located between the clouds and the surface: 30-40 km, 15-25 km and 0-15 km. A constant water vapor mixing ratio of 30 +/- 15 ppm below the clouds can fit the observations. These values are consistent with recent near-infrared studies of the night side of Venus at lower spectral resolution. The atmosphere of Venus appears to be dryer than originally suggested by the in-situ measurements made by the Pioneer Venus and Venera mass-spectrometers and gas-chromatographs.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 4; p. (4)79-(4)88
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  • 29
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Although the Phobos-2 spacecraft recently obtained important results relevant to some of the major remaining questions in Mars aeronomy, much remains to be done. In particular, not since the Viking Landers have we made in-situ measurements of aeronomical quantities such as atmospheric and ionospheric densities and temperatures below 400 km altitude. We have never made magnetic field measurements at these altitudes. Without such measurements we cannot unambiguously resolve arguments concerning issues such as the significance of the planetary magnetic field in the solar wind interaction, or understand the atmospheric cycle that leads to escape to space. With the trio of future orbiters including Mars Observer, Mars-94, and Planet-B we should see a veritable explosion of new knowledge, but some gaps in aeronomical science coverage will still remain. This paper briefly reviews some of the major unsolved problems in Mars aeronomy, and points out which are expected to remain outstanding after this flotilla of missions.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 4; p. (4)143-(4)157
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We present plasma, magnetic field, and electric field data of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) showing that the shocked solar wind in the Venus inner ionosheath exhibits flow conditions substantially different from those in the outer ionosheath. In particular, the plasma density is seen to drop significantly to low values within a layer adjacent to, and downstream from, the planet's ionopause. This change is not seen to develop gradually as the PVO moves into that region of space but occurs abruptly across a well-defined transition which extends downstream along the flanks of the Venus ionosheath. We explore the implications that these observations have in regard to the character of the interaction process between the shocked solar wind and the ionospheric plasma. It is argued that the existence of a sharply bounded region in the inner ionosheath within which the plasma density is severely depressed is consistent with the existence of friction at and near the ionopause. Plasma perturbations generated at this latter boundary, and distributed downstream through the ionosheath flow, may be responsible for the change of properties exhibited by the solar wind plasma in the inner ionosheath.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 4; p. (4)131-(4)140
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We have combined the most recent Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and Magellan (MGN) data with the earlier 1978-1982 PVO data set to obtain a new 60th degree and order spherical harmonic gravity model and a 120th degree and order spherical harmonic topography model. Free-air gravity maps are shown over regions where the most marked improvement has been obtained (Ishtar-Terra, Alpha, Bell and Artemis). Gravity versus topography relationships are presented as correlations per degree and axes orientation.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 20; 21; p. 2403-2406
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Two groups of chondrules in the Murchison CM chondrite, which have previously been identified on the basis of FeO in the chondrule grains, are readily identified from cathodoluminescence (CL) and belong to those of the ordinary chondrite group A and B chondrules of Sears et al. (1992a). All chondrules are surrounded by fine-grained rims containing forsterite with bright red CL, but on group A chondrules an outer thin rim grades into a much thicker rim, with a lower density of forsterite grains, which in turn grades into the central chondrule. Group B chondrules have only the thin outer rim with a high density of small forsterite grains. This is the first time an unequivocal correlation has been observed between chondrule rim thickness and the composition of the object on which the rim is located. We suggest that while all objects in the meteorite (group B chondrules, refractory inclusions, mineral and chondrule fragments, clasts) acquired a very thin rim during processing in a wet regolith, the thick rims on group A chondrules were formed by aqueous alteration of precursor metal- and sulfide-rich rims which are a characteristic of group A chondrules in ordinary chondrites.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Meteoritics (ISSN 0026-1114); 28; 5; p. 669-675
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A glass separate from the LEW88516 shergottite was analyzed by step-wise combustion for N and noble gases to determine whether it contained trapped gas similar in composition to the martian atmosphere-like component previously observed in lithology C of EETA79001. Excesses of Ar-40 and Xe-129 were in fact observed in this glass, although the amounts of these excesses less than or = to 20% of those seen in the latter meteorite, and are comparable to the amounts seen in whole-rock analyses of LEW88516. The isotopic composition of N in LEW88516 does not show an enrichment in delta N-15 commensurate with the amount of isotopically-heavy N expected from the noble gases excesses. One must posit some extreme assumptions about the nature of the N components present in LEW88516 in order to allow the presence of the trapped nitrogen component. Alternatively, the N has somehow been decoupled from the noble gases, and was either never present of has been lost.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Meteoritics (ISSN 0026-1114); 28; 5; p. 637-640
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We propose a quasigeostrophic, baroclinic model for heat transport within the interior of a stably stratified Jovian planet, based on motion in thin cylindrical annuli. Density decreases from the center outward and is zero at the surface of the planet. In the homogeneous case (no core), we find instability for the poles hotter than the equator, but not for the reverse. If the motion is bounded by an impenetrable core, instability occurs for both cases. Much of the behavior can be explained by analogy to conventional baroclinic instability theory. Motivated by our results, we explore a possible connection between the highly inclined rotation axis of Uranus and its anomalously low surface heat flux. We assume that the planets formed hot. Our conjecture is that heat was efficiently convected outwards by baroclinic instability in Uranus (with the poles hotter than the equator), but not in the other three Jovian planets. The surface temperature was higher for the stably stratified case (Uranus), leading to a higher rate of infrared emission and faster cooling. Therefore, we propose that Uranus lost its internal heat sooner than Neptune because baroclinic motions, permitted by its inclination to the sun, were able to extract its internal heat while the surface was still warm.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 110; 2; p. 340-356
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Analysis of CCD images of Triton obtained with the 1.5-m telescope on Palomar Mountain shows that in the time period surrounding the Voyager 2 encounter with the satellite (1985-1990), no changes in the satellite's visual albedo or color occurred. The published observations of Triton in the 0.35- to 0.60-micrometer spectral region obtained between 1950 and 1990 were reanalyzed to detect historical variability in both its albedo and visual color. Analysis of the photometry indicates that there is little, if any, change in Triton's visual geometric albedo. This result is consistent with the albedo pattern observed by Voyager and the change in sub-Earth latitude. Two distinct types of color changes are evident: a significant secular increase in the blue region of the visual spectrum since at least the 1950s, and the reported dramatic reddening of Triton's spectrum in the late 1970s. The latter change can be explained only by a short-lived geological phenomenon. Triton's changing pole orientation with respect to a terrestrial observer cannot explain the secular color changes. These changes imply volatile transport on a global scale on Triton's surface during the past 4 decades. We present two models which show that either removal of a red volatile from Triton's polar cap or deposition of a blue volatile in the equatorial regions can explain the secular color changes. A third possibility is that the changes are the result of the alpha-beta phase transition of nitrogen and subsequent fracturing of the polar cap region (N. S. Duxbury and R. H. Brown (1993).
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 110; 2; p. 303-314
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Millimeter-wave observations of CO lines have provided a detailed picture of Venus' mesosphere dynamics in 1991 from simultaneous measurements of absolute wind velocities in two layers and of temperature and CO horizontal and vertical profiles at 75-115 km. Venus' circulation at 90-110 km was characterized in 1991 by the superposition of a zonal retrograde flow and a subsolar-to-antisolar flow of approximately equal velocities, increasing from about 40 +/- 15 m/sec at 95 km to 90 +/- 15 m/sec at 105 km altitude. The magnitude of the increase of the SS-AS flow is consistent with Venus thermosphere general circulation models (VTGCM). At 105 km, the data further indicate a cos(latitude) dependence of the zonal flow and marginally suggest the presence of a poleward meridional component of 35 +/- 30 m/sec. No obvious day-to-day variations of the circulation are evident in the data at the 20 m/sec level. Thermal profiles in the low-latitude region appear to be consistent with the Pioneer Venus nightside profile, except above 110 km, where they are somewhat colder. High-latitude warming is still found, but mid-latitudes appear to be colder than the equator. The atmosphere appears to be in cyclostrophic balance up to about 105 km. The horizontal distribution of CO on Venus' nightside is essentially uniform, both in latitude and in local time. This behavior agrees with VTGCM simulations in which the zonal flow velocity is prescribed to match the observations. Comparison with previous wind measurements indicates that the zonal flow experiences dramatic long-term variations. This variability, along with short-term fluctuations of the mesospheric zonal flow (evidenced by the variability in the O2 nightglow emissions), apparently controls the CO and O2 nightglow distributions. Gravity wave activity is a plausible mechanism that can drive these variations.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 110; 2; p. 315-339
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We report the discovery of a series of infrared absorption bands between 3600 and 3100/cm (2.8-3.2 micrometers) in the spectrum of Io. Individual narrow bands are detected at 3553, 3514.5, 3438, 3423, 3411.5, and 3401/cm (2.815, 2.845, 2.909, 2.921, 2.931, and 2.940 micrometers, respectively). The positions and relative strengths of these bands, and the difference of their absolute strengths between the leading and trailing faces of Io, indicate that they are due to SO2. The band at 3438/cm (2.909 micrometers) could potentially have a contribution from an additional molecular species. The existence of these bands in the spectrum of Io indicates that a substantial fraction of the SO2 on Io must reside in transparent ices having relatively large crystal sizes. The decrease in the continuum observed at the high frequency ends of the spectra is probably due to the low frequency side of the recently detected, strong 3590/cm (2.79 micrometer) feature. This band is likely due to the combination of a moderately strong SO2 band and an additional absorption from another molecular species, perhaps H2O isolated in SO2 at low concentrations. A broad (FWHM approximately = 40-60/cm), weak band is seen near 3160/cm (3.16 micrometers) and is consistent with the presence of small quantities of H2O isolated in SO2-rich ices. There is no evidence in the spectra for the presence of H2O vapor on Io. Thus, the spectra presented here neither provide unequivocal evidence for the presence of H2O on Io nor preclude it at the low concentrations suggested by past studies.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 110; 2; p. 292-302
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Canali-type channels on Venus show inverted profile segments; that is, large portions of the channels trend uphill. The original gradients for these channels were not horizontal, but must have progressively trended downhill. Therefore, undulation patterns imposed on the profiles have to be the result of tectonism occurring since channel formation. This implies that some of the uppermost geological units of the plains, which are coincident with canali, experienced significant postemplacement tectonic deformation. The pattern of deformation is hierarchical. Within observational limits, at least two scales of deformation are indicated. The longer scale deformation (thousands of kilometers) corresponds to large-scale basins; the shorter scale deformation (hundreds of kilometers) corresponds to ridge belts or to small-scale domes/basins. The latter features, at scales up to a few hundred kilometers, extensively deform some plain areas. Although not appearing in the topographic profiles because of resolution limitations, deformation scales of tens of kilometers or less, which mostly reflect wrinkle ridges, also overlap the longer deformation scales. The channels probably formed relatively quickly in comparison to the time scale of deformation. Canali formation is closely related to the genesis of plains, and canali profile deformation reflects tectonic processes operating at multiple scales. The lower limit rates of large-scale tectonic warping are comparable to epeirogenetic deformation rates for Earth's intraplate continental interiors.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 110; 2; p. 275-286
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Previous spectroscopic studies of the lunar crater Bullialdus, located in the Nubium Basin, indicated an unusual stratigraphy of two gabbroic layers overlying a noritic unit. The possible existence of a layered mafic pluton at Bullialdus was suggested. To investigate the geologic context with more detailed spatial information, charge-coupled device (CCD) images of Bullialdus were obtained using eight filters. A linear mixing model was used to investigate the fractional abundances of spectral end-members chosen from within the multispectral image. Since the reflectance properties of lunar materials over this wavelength range are sensitive to variations in composition and soil maturity, fractional abundance images were used to create a new geologic map of the crater. The spatial relationships of the surface materials confirm the previously inferred stratigraphy, and further reveal the central peaks to exhibit two distinct compositional units: noritic anorthosite and anorthositic norite. Three models for the origin of the observed stratigraphy are considered: Bullialdus has excavated stratigraphic units containing (1) early mare basalt overlying anorthositic-noritic crustal material, (2) part of a layered mafic pluton, and/or (3) part of an impact melt sheet formed by the Nubium Basin impact event.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 110; 2; p. 261-274
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The regions anitpodal to Mars' three largest impact basins, Hellas, Isidis, and Argyre, were assessed for evidence of impact-induced disrupted terrains. Photogeology and computer modeling using the Simplified Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (SALE) finite element code suggest that such terrains could have been found by the Hellas impact. Maximum antipodal pressures are 1100 MPa for Hellas, 520 MPa for Isidis, and 150 MPa for Argyre. The results suggest that if antipodal fracturing were associated with later volcanism, then Alba Patera may be related to the Hellas event, as proposed by Peterson (1978). Alba Patera is a unique volcano in the solar system, being a shield volcano which emitted large volume lava flows. This volcanism could be the result of the focusing of seismic energy which created a fractured region that served as a volcanic conduit for the future release of large volumes of magma. No disrupted terrain features are observed antipodal to the Isidis or Argyre basins, although some of the old fractures in Noctis Labyrinthus could have originated in response to the Isidis impact, and later have been reactivated by the Tharsis tectonics assumed to have produced Noctis. If the lower calculated antipodal pressures for Argyre were capable of producing disrupted terrains, then the terrains have been covered subsequently by volcanic or aeolian material, or modified beyond recognition.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 110; 2; p. 196-202
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The reflectance spectra of meteoritic metal, meteoritic troilite and the CR carbonaceous chondrite EET87770 have been measured in order to investigate the causes of the spectral differences between the surface of the E-class asteroid 44 Nysa and the opaque free fraction of the Happy Canyon aubrite meteorite. The data indicate that the spectral differences require the presence of Nysa's surface of a small amount of a spectrally red sloped material, of which metal and troilite are the most reasonable candidates, and a material possessing absorption bands near 0.9 micrometers and 1.8 micrometers. A material similar to the carbonaceous chondrite inclusions found in some aubrites can provide a match to the 0.9 micrometer feature and perhaps the 1.8 micrometer feature. The required abundances of these components depends on whether they are areally distributed or intimately mixed with an enstatite rich material. Based on the petrologic associations seen in aubrites and a series of simulated mineral mixtures, an intimate mixture of 69-92% enstatite and 1-11% metal + troilite and an areal component of 7-20% carbonaceous chondrite type material can provide a reasonable match to the 0.3-2.6 micrometer spectrum of Nysa.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Earth, Moon, and Planets (ISSN 0167-9295); 63; 3; p. 227-243
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Parallel Architectures for Planetary Exploration Requirements (PAPER) project is essentially research oriented towards technology insertion issues for NASA's unmanned planetary probes. It was initiated to complement and augment the long-term efforts for space exploration with particular reference to NASA/LaRC's (NASA Langley Research Center) research needs for planetary exploration missions of the mid and late 1990s. The requirements for space missions as given in the somewhat dated Advanced Information Processing Systems (AIPS) requirements document are contrasted with the new requirements from JPL/Caltech involving sensor data capture and scene analysis. It is shown that more stringent requirements have arisen as a result of technological advancements. Two possible architectures, the AIPS Proof of Concept (POC) configuration and the MAX Fault-tolerant dataflow multiprocessor, were evaluated. The main observation was that the AIPS design is biased towards fault tolerance and may not be an ideal architecture for planetary and deep space probes due to high cost and complexity. The MAX concepts appears to be a promising candidate, except that more detailed information is required. The feasibility for adding neural computation capability to this architecture needs to be studied. Key impact issues for architectural design of computing systems meant for planetary missions were also identified.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-185370 , NAS 1.26:185370
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  • 43
    facet.materialart.
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Providing power over the 354 hour lunar night provides a considerable challenge to solar power concepts for a moonbase. Concepts are reviewed for providing night power for a solar powered moonbase. The categories of solutions considered are electrical storage, physical storage, transmitted power, and innovative concepts. Electrical storage is the most well-developed option. Less developed electrical storage options are capacitors and superconducting inductors. Physical storage options include storage of potential energy and storage of energy in flywheels. Thermal storage has potentially high energy/weight, but problems of conduction and radiation losses during the night need to be addressed. Transmitted power considers use of microwave or laser beams to transmit power either from orbit or directly from the Earth. Finally, innovative concepts proposed include reflecting light from orbital mirrors, locating the moonbase at a lunar pole, converting reflected Earthlight, or moving the moonbase to follow the sun.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NAS 1.15:102127 , E-4913 , NASA-TM-102127 , Biennial SSI/Princeton Conference on Space Manufacturing; 10-13 May 1989; Princeton, NJ; United States
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The precipitation of 30 mbar of Martian atmosphere CO2 as carbonates in lakes is suggested to be the source of thick sequences of layered deposits found in the Valles Marineris. Support is adduced for this scenario from processes occurring in the perennially frozen dry valley lakes of Antarctica, where the lake water is supersaturated with atmospheric gases. Atmospheric CO2 would have accumulated in such Martian lakes as temperature fell, and the presence of an insulating ice cover would have allowed liquid water to exist.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Exobiology and Future Mars Missions; p 44-4
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Thin cherty sedimentary layers within the volcanic portions of the 3,500 to 3,300 Ma-old Onverwacht and Fig Tree Groups, Barberton Greenstone belt, South Africa, and Warrawoona Group, eastern Pilbara Block, Western Australia, contain an abundant record of early Archean life. Five principal types of organic and probably biogenic remains and or structures can be identifed: stromatolites, stromatolite detritus, carbonaceous laminite or flat stromalite, carbonaceous detrital particles, and microfossils. Early Archean stromatolites were reported from both the Barberton and eastern Pilbara greenstone belts. Systematic studies are lacking, but two main morphological types of stromatolites appear to be represented by these occurrences. Morphology of the stromalites is described. Preserved early Archean stromatolites and carbonaceous matter appear to reflect communities of photosynthetic cyanobacteria inhabiting shallow, probably marine environments developed over the surfaces of low-relief, rapidly subsiding, simatic volcanic platforms. The overall environmental and tectonic conditions were those that probably prevailed at Earth's surface since the simatic crust and oceans formed sometime before 3,800 Ma. Recent studies also suggest that these early Archean sequences contain layers of debris formed by large-body impacts on early Earth. If so, then these early bacterial communities had developed strategies for coping with the disruptive effects of possibly globe-encircling high-temperature impact vapor clouds, dust blankets, and impact-generated tsunamis. It is probable that these early Archean biogenic materials represent organic communities that evolved long before the beginning of the preserved geological record and were well adapted to the rigors of life on a young, volcanically active Earth during late bombardment. These conditions may have had parallels on Mars during its early evolution.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Ames Research Center, Exobiology and Future Mars Missions; p 40-41
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The valley systems in Mars' ancient cratered terrain provide strong evidence for a warmer and wetter climate very early in planetary history. The valley systems in some instances debouch into closed depressions that could have acted as local ponding basins for the flow. A survey of the Martian equatorial region shows that numerous local depressions at the confluence of valley systems exist. These depressions (approximately 100 km) typically are characterized by many valleys flowing into them and few or none flowing out. If ponding did take place, these basin would have contained lakes for some period during Mars' early warmer epoch. Although the collection basins are numerous, location of ones that have not suffered significant subsequent geologic modification is difficult. Some morphologic features suggest that volcanic lavas may have filled them subsequent to any early fluvial activity. Two detailed maps of valley systems and local ponding basins in USGC 1:2,000,000 subquadrangles were completed and a third is in progress. The completed regions are in Mare Tyrrhenum (MC-22 SW) and Margarifter Sinus (MC-19 SE), and the region in progress is in Iapygia (MC-21 NW). On the maps, the valley systems and interpreted margins of ponding basins are indicated. The depressions are of interest for two reasons. First, the depressions were surely the sites in which the materials eroded from the valleys were deposited. Such sediments could preserve important information about the physical conditions at the time of deposition. Second, the sediments could preserve evidence of water-atmosphere interactions during the early period of the Martian climate. Atmospheric carbon dioxide would dissolve in water, and solid carbonate minerals would tend to precipitate out to form carbonate sedimentary deposits. Formation of carbonates in this manner might account for some of the CO2 lost from the early more dense atmosphere.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Ames Research Center, Exobiology and Future Mars Missions; p 26
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Abundant martian brines would have important implication for current theories of volatile migration on Mars, since, although the presence of metastable brines is quite plausible, any brine in the reasonably near-surface should be completely depleted on a timescale short in relation to the age of Mars. It is important to determine whether brines exist in the martian subsurface, for the current paradigm for understanding martian volatile regime requires substantial alteration if they are found to exist. It is determined, however, that the prospect for detection of a subsurface brine via atmospheric water vapor measurements is marginal. Four reasons are given for this conclusion.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., MECA Workshop on Atmospheric H2O Observations of Earth and Mars. Physical Processes, Measurements and Interpretations; p 87-90
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The atmospheric heat engines of Earth and Mars are compared. Although water latent heat transfer drives the circulation of the Earth's atmosphere, particularly in the tropics, its contribution to the circulation of the martian atmosphere is negligible. The working fluid on Mars is CO2, which exerts its greatest influence on atmospheric circulation at the poles. The diurnal and seasonal flux of water within the martian regolith is also examined. Calculations indicate that, for a mean annual temperature of 200 K, a diurnal and annual temperature variation of 30 K will drive a maximum exchange of 1.2 pr micrometer and 120 pr micrometer of water, respectively.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., MECA Workshop on Atmospheric H2O Observations of Earth and Mars. Physical Processes, Measurements and Interpretations; p 75-79
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An analysis is presented of the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer (PMIRR) capabilities along with how the vertical profiles of water vapor will be obtained. The PMIRR will employ filter and pressure modulation radiometry using nine spectral channels, in both limb scanning and nadir sounding modes, to obtain daily, global maps of temperature, dust extinction, condensate extinction, and water vapor mixing ratio profiles as a function of pressure to half scale height or 5 km vertical resolution. Surface thermal properties will also be mapped, and the polar radiactive balance will be monitored.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., MECA Workshop on Atmospheric H2O Observations of Earth and Mars. Physical Processes, Measurements and Interpretations; p 82-86
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Quantitative analysis of Viking images of the martian planetary limb has uncovered the existence and temporal behavior of water ice clouds that form between 50 and 90 km elevation. These clouds show a seasonal behavior that may be correlated with lower atmosphere dynamics. Enhanced vertical mixing of the atmosphere as Mars nears perihelion is hypothesized as the cause of the seasonal dependence, and the diurnal dependence is explained by the temporal behavior of the martian diurnal thermal tide. Viking images also provide a data set of the vertical distribution of aerosols in the martian atmosphere. The temporal and spatial distribution of aerosols are characterized.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., MECA Workshop on Atmospheric H2O Observations of Earth and Mars. Physical Processes, Measurements and Interpretations; p 58-61
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A heat-pipe mechanism is proposed for the transport of heat through the lithosphere of Venus. This mechanism allows the crust and lithosphere on Venus to be greater than 150 km. thick. A thick basaltic crust on Venus is expected to transform eclogite at a depth of 60 to 80 km; the dense eclogite would contribute to lithospheric delamination that returns the crust to the interior of the planet completing the heat-pipe cycle. Topography and the associated gravity anomalies can be explained by Airy compensation of the thick crust. The principal observation that is contrary to this hypothesis is the mean age of the surface that is inferred from crater statistics; the minimum mean age is about 130 Myr and this implies an upper limit of 2 cubic kilometers per year for the surface volcanic flux. If the heat-pipe mechanism was applicable on the Earth in the Archean it would provide the thick lithosphere implied by isotopic data from diamonds.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NAS 1.26:184791 , NASA-CR-184791
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Mineralogical constraints can be placed on the Martian surface by assuming chemical equilibria among the surface rocks, atmosphere and hypothesized percolating groundwater. A study was made of possible Martian surface mineralogy, as modified by the action of aqueous alteration, using the EQ3/6 computer codes. These codes calculate gas fugacities, aqueous speciation, ionic strength, pH, Eh and concentration and degree of mineral saturation for complex aqueous systems. Thus, these codes are also able to consider mineralogical solid solutions. These codes are able to predict the likely alteration phases which will occur as the result of weathering on the Martian surface. Knowledge of the stability conditions of these phases will then assist in the definition of the specifications for the sample canister of the proposed Martian sample return mission. The model and its results are discussed.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Mars Sample Return Science; p 188-189
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  • 53
    facet.materialart.
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The SNC meteorites according to their oxygen isotope ratios and various trace element ratios form a distinct group of 8 achondrites. Their young crystallization ages and fractionated REE pattern which exclude an asteroidal origin, were the first observations to point towards Mars as their parent body. In spite of the many arguments for Mars as the parent body of the SNC meteorites there does not exist a generally accepted model for the ejecting process and other dynamical problems involved. In this discussion it is, however, assumed that Mars is the SNC parent body. The chemical composition of Mars is examined.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Mars Sample Return Science; p 175-176
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Earth based radar has often observed planets decades before space missions and provided valuable information leading to the success of those missions. As a Mars Sample Return Mission is contemplated, possible measurements by earth based radar should be reviewed. Earth based radars provide measurements of topography, bulk dielectric constants, rms slopes, and surface rock populations. All of these measurement will be valuable to a Mars Sample Return Mission. The 1988 and 1990 oppositions provide excellent positions for the extension of southern earth based coverage of Mars to -25 deg, while oppositions for the rest of the 1990's will provide coverage of northern latitudes to 25 deg.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Mars Sample Return Science; p 169-170
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The preserved cratering record of Mars indicates that impacts play an important role in deciphering Martian geologic history, whether as a mechanism to modify the lithosphere and atmosphere or as a tool to sample the planet. The various roles of impact cratering in adding a broader understanding of Mars through returned samples are examined. Five broad roles include impact craters as: (1) a process in response to a different planetary localizer environment; (2) a probe for excavating crustal/mantle materials; (3) a possible localizer of magmatic and hydrothermal processes; (4) a chronicle of changes in the volcanic, sedimentary, atmospheric, and cosmic flux history; and (5) a chronometer for extending the geologic time scale to unsampled regions. The evidence for Earth-like processes and very nonlunar styles of volcanism and tectonism may shift the emphasis of a sampling strategy away from equally fundamental issues including crustal composition, unit ages, and climate history. Impact cratering not only played an important active role in the early Martian geologic history, it also provides an important tool for addressing such issues.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Mars Sample Return Science; p 149-150
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Although the Viking Landers failed to find any evidence of life on the surface of Mars, much remains unknown. Study of returned samples can answer some of these questions. The search for organic compounds, the building blocks of life forms based on carbon chemistry, should continue. The question of life on Mars is still an open one, and deserves to be addressed by the study of returned samples. Whether life developed and evolved on Mars or not depends critically on the history of the Martian atmosphere and hydrosphere. The exobiology of Mars is thus inextrically intertwined with the nature of its paleoatmosphere and the ancient state of the planet's regolith, which may still be preserved in the polar caps and underground. Core samples from such sites could answer some of the questions.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Mars Sample Return Science; p 138-139
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The weathering history of Mars can be deduced largely from the mineralogy and distribution of ferric oxide/oxyhydroxide phases. As discussed, some insights can be gained through spectrophotometric remote sensing, but absolute determinations must depend on direct laboratory analysis of returned Martian samples.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Mars Sample Return Science; p 126-127
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Recent geochemical, isotopic, and rare gas studies suggest that eight SNC meteorites originated on the planet Mars. Since Martian rocks are found on Earth, consideration is being given to finding Earth rocks on Mars. Detailed consideration of the mechanism by which these meteorites were lofted into space strongly suggest that the process of stress-wave spallation near a large impact with, perhaps, an assist from vapor plume expansion, is the fundamental process by which lightly-shocked rock debris is ejected into interplanetary space. The theory of spall ejection was used to examine the mass and velocity of material ejected from the near vicinity of an impact. It seems likely that the half-dozen largest impact events on Earth would have ejected considerable masses of near surface rocks into interplanetary space. No computations were performed to indicate how long Earth ejecta would take to reach Mars.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Mars Sample Return Science; p 121-123
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Valles Marineris troughs offer an opportunity to sample rocks that reflect various ages and compositions, giving insight into important processes on Mars. Most of the samples would be located within reasonable proximity and could be easily reached by rovers or balloons. Although landing a spacecraft on the floor of the Valles Marineris may be too dangerous for the first sample-return mission to Mars, the scientific rewards would be so great that such a landing should be considered for later flights.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Mars Sample Return Science; p 113-114
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: In preparation for a Mars Rover/Sample return mission, the mission goals and objectives must be identified. One of the most important objectives must address exobiology and the question of the possibility of the origin and evolution of life on Mars. In particular, key signatures or bio-markers of a possible extinct Martian biota must be defined. To that end geographic locations (sites) that are likely to contain traces of past life must also be identified. Sites and experiments are being defined in support of a Mars rover sample return mission. In addition, analyses based on computer models of abiotic processes of CO2 loss from Mars suggest that the CO2 from the atmosphere may have precipitated as carbonates and be buried within the Martian regolith. The carbon cycle of perennially frozen lakes in the dry valley of Antarctica are currently being investigated. These lakes were purported to be a model system for the ancient Martian lakes. By understanding the dynamic balance between the abiotic vs. biotic cycling of carbon within this system, information is gathered which will enable the interpretation of data obtained by a Mars rover with respect to possible carbonate deposits and the processing of carbon by biological systems. These ancient carbonate deposits, and other sedimentary units would contain traces of biological signatures that would hold the key to understanding the origin and evolution of life on Mars, as well as Earth.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Mars Sample Return Science; p 115-116
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Proper site selection for sample collection is crucial to determining the nature and time scales of major events on Mars. Analysis and interpretation of lunar samples acquired by the Apollo lunar missions provides valuable experience on the effects of site selection. Lunar selection techniques are briefly examined.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Mars Sample Return Science; p 104-105
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: In general, attempts to delineate an a priori sampling strategy for missions to terrestrial planets must be simple. In the case of the Moon, for example, the simplest and most obvious plan that to sample both the highly-cratered, high-albedo highlands and less-cratered, low-albedo mare--has proven very useful. However in the case of Mars, multiple missions and/or roving samplers may prove expensive or infeasible. Thus, we may be limited to collecting samples from a single site, and, consequently, consideration of sampling strategies for a Mars mission is more critical than for the more-accessible Moon.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Mars Sample Return Science; p 97-98
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The application of the penetrator to a Mars Return Sample Mission (MRSM) has direct advantages to meet science objectives and mission safety. Based on engineering data and work currently conducted at Ball Aerospace Systems Division, the concept of penetrators as scientific instruments is entirely practical. The primary utilization of a penetrator for MRSM would be to optimize the selection of the sample site location and to help in selection of the actual sample to be returned to Earth. It is recognized that the amount of sample to be returned is very limited, therefore the selection of the sample site is critical to the success of the mission. The following mission scenario is proposed. The site selection of a sample to be acquired will be performed by science working groups. A decision will be reached and a set of target priorities established based on data to give geochemical, geophysical and geological information. The first task of a penetrator will be to collect data at up to 4 to 6 possible landing sites. The penetrator can include geophysical, geochemical, geological and engineering instruments to confirm that scientific data requirements at that site will be met. This in situ near real-time data, collected prior to final targeting of the lander, will insure that the sample site is both scientifically valuable and also that it is reachable within limits of the capability of the lander.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Mars Sample Return Science; p 71-72
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: There are many excellent reasons to examine the surface composition of a wide range of Martian samples. The existing spectral data indicate that many dust and soil particles have a thin Fe(+3) layer with a typical particle size in the 10 micrometer to 400 micrometer range. In view of the high CO2 content of the atmosphere, one might expect that surface carbonates should be present. In addition to chemisorbed material there will probably exist physisorbed atmospheric components of the atmosphere including oxygen, nitrogen and water vapor. The latter could possibly give rise to some hydrated minerals. Using ultra-high-vacuum/mass spectrographic techniques it should be possible to detect physisorbed and moderately strong chemisorbed species on the particle surfaces with a temperature programmed degassing procedure. In some instances such an approach is capable of helping distinguish between volcanic and impact generated materials by detecting the presence of fumerolic gases. Such gases typically condense on the exterior of the ejected particles. Additionally surface atomic and chemical compositions should be examined by a combination of modern surface analytical techniques. The combination we currently have in Buffalo at SUNY would appear to be one of the best available including ESCA (150 micrometer spot capability) Auger (SAM) with 300 A focussing for surface compositional surveys, SIMS for high sensitivity trace element detection and ISS for immediate surface layer analysis.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Mars Sample Return Science; p 51-52
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The table is given that summarizes four models based on observations and gives some reasonable inferences of each for Martian volatiles. The table columns give: (1) the volatile assumptions of the model; (2) the inferred Martian volatile concentrations relative to earth; (3) the N/36 Ar and C/36 Ar ratios; (4) the percentage of Martian degassing inferred by the model, and 5 and 6) the equivalent global column heights of liquid water and solid CaCO3 over the entire surface of Mars that would be formed from the model quantities of degassed volatiles.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Mars Sample Return Science; p 41-42
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Recent field observation and numerical modelling of the pattern and origin of vesicle zones and joints in terrestrial basaltic flows has resulted in increased understanding of the processes which affect flow surface morphology. This work has documented the ubiquitous occurrence of three vertical zones in basalt flows: (1) an upper vesicular zone; (2) a middle vesicle-free zone; and (3) a lower vesicular zone. The upper vesicular zone is generally about one-half of the total flow thickness. Computer modeling of the development of these zones confirms that vesicle zonation is a result of the nucleation, growth and rise of bubbles in solidifying lava and can be expected to occur in all basaltic flows. Degradation of basaltic flows, therefore, will produce vesicular blocks until the erosional level reaches the central vesicle-free zone. In addition, observation of terrestrial basaltic flows has shown that most thin (less than 10 m thick) flows have a regular pattern of orthogonal joints in vertical section in which the spacing of joints increases with depth beneath the flow surface. Using these studies we have performed a preliminary analysis of the Viking lander sites.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Mars Sample Return Science; p 33-34
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Rheoretical techniques and observations at millimeter wavelengths are combined to study the atmosphere of planets and comets, planetary and satellite regoliths, and planetary rings. Analysis of the very high quality data on the 18 cm OH line observed in recent comets continued. The high spectral resolution and high signal-to-noise make these lines ideal for study of the kinematics in cometary comae. A model of the collisional quenching of the inversion of the lambda doublet responsible for the OH radio emission has been developed by P. Schloerb. For conditions appropriate to Halley's Comet, collisional quenching should lead radio observers to systematically underestimate the OH parent production rate by a factor of approximately 3 relative to its actual value, which is very consistent with differences observed between radio and ultraviolet-derived production rates. Modeling is likewise continuing for the profiles observed in the lowest rotational transition of HCN in Comet Halley in order to better estimate the excitation and hence the abundance of HCN, as well as the kinematics of parent molecules in the coma. A collaborative program to combine data from the 14 m antenna with interferometric data abtained at the Hat Creek Radio Observatory is allowing aperture synthesis mapping of Venus in the CO J=1-0 line.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Washington, Reports of Planetary Astronomy,; p 63-64
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  • 68
    facet.materialart.
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: This theoretical/observational project constrains interior structure of Jovian planets through observational data. Researchers continue to concentrate on Neptune in support of the 1989 Voyager encounter. Occultations of stars by Neptune are observed from the Tucson area and from Chile to obtain information about Neptune's atmosphere and to continue to search for Neptune arcs. Occultations by other solar system objects are also observed as part of collaborative efforts from time to time. New results on the structure of scintillations in the central flash occultation by Neptune on 20 August 1985 were derived. Analysis shows that scintillations are present throughout the lightcurve, both near the half-intensity points (at a pressure of 1 microbar) and near the central flash (at 0.4 mbar). Near the planetary limb, the scintillations are extended parallel to the limb; near the shadow center, they are extended parallel to the limb; near the shadow center, they are extended in a radial direction. Researchers collaborated with Ramesh Narayan to derive a theory relating the scintillations to density fluctuations in Neptune's atmosphere. The theory will ultimately enable researchers to test whether the scintillations are caused by internal gravity waves in Neptune's upper atmosphere.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Washington, Reports of Planetary Astronomy,; p 59-60
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The goal of this task is to acquire physical data on the atmospheres of the outer planets and Titan by means of ground-based spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, and spectral imaging at visible to near-infrared wavelengths (approximately 0.3 to 2.5 micrometer). These data constrain physical parameters which characterize properties and distribution of aerosols in the atmospheres of these bodies. Reduced spectral imaging of Neptune was accomplished. The data were analyzed in several ways. Direct inspection of images reveals the distribution of discrete clouds in the atmosphere, which indicate that the global distribution of clouds has changed since earlier imaging. Disk-integrated photometry obtained from the images demonstrates that the diurnal variability at methane-band wavelengths is caused by the presence of discrete clouds; short-term variability is also seen in the rotational light curve, providing evidence for modification of cloud structure on the planet. The center-to-limb brightness profiles of the equatorial region of Neptune were analyzed, which provided constraints on the location, albedos, and optical depths of aerosol scattering layers in the troposphere and lower stratosphere.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Washington, Reports of Planetary Astronomy,; p 17
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  • 70
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: In a geological vein, it is noted that some permanently shadowed regions on the Moon could provide natural passive cooling environments for astronomical detectors. A telescope located in one of the low, dark, polar regions could operate with only passive cooling at 40 K or perhaps lower, depending on how well it could be insulated from the ground and surrounded by radiation shields to block heat and light from any nearby warm or illuminated objects.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Future Astronomical Observatories on the Moon; p 31-36
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The author considers the potential function of astronomy in planning for a lunar base during the 21st century. He is one of the leading advocates for a permanent settlement on the Moon and has given considerable thought to the possible impact of such a station on science. He considers the rationale for a lunar base, research on the Moon, and the definition of science objectives.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Future Astronomical Observatories on the Moon; p 11-12
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Part of the University of Wisconsin study of the feasibility of recovering He-3 from the moon is selection and evaluation of potential mining sites. Selection and evaluation are based primarily on salient findings by investigators: (1) Regoliths from areas underlain by highland materials contain less than 20 wppm He; (2) Regoliths of certain maria or parts of maria also contain less than 20 wppm He, but mare regoliths at the Apollo 11 and 17 sites contain 25 to 49 wppm He; (3) The helium content of a regolith is a function of its composition; and (4) Helium is concentrated in the -50 micron size fractions of regoliths. In site selection, the concern is with the compositions of lunar regoliths, in particular with their titanium contents. It is widely accepted that compositions of mare regoliths are controlled by the nature of the underlying basalts from which the regoliths are largely derived. The distribution and extent of the three groups of basalts and the regoliths derived from them are the first basis for site selection and evaluation. Other considerations are briefly discussed.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Lewis Research Center, Lunar Helium-3 and Fusion Power; p 159-168
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Economic geology evaluation of lunar He-3 should answer the question: Can lunar He-3 be sold on Earth with sufficient profit margins and low enough risk to attract capital investment in the enterprise. Concepts that relate to economic geology of recovering He-3 from the lunar maria are not new to human experience. A parametric cost and technology evaluation scheme, based on existing and future data, is required to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the comprehensive economic feasibility and return on investment of He-3 recovery from the lunar maria. There are also many political issues which must be considered as a result of nuclear fusion and lunar mining.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Lewis Research Center, Lunar Helium-3 and Fusion Power; p 147-157
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Analysis of high spatial resolution (down to 2 to 5 km) thermal data that shows the presence of aeolian debris mantling in topographic traps such as some channels is presented. In cases where this occurs, even if the mantle is thin, it can prevent remote sensing analysis of actual compositional differences that may characterize the true floors of the features.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: MECA Symposium on Mars: Evolution of its Climate and Atmosphere; p 126-128
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Viking XRF analyses are compared with those for terrestrial and lunar basalt samples, and eucritic meteorites (of possible Mars origin). The comparison indicates depletion of Ca relative to Si in the Mars regolith. It is suggested that carbonate formation during a warmer, wetter epoch early in Mars' history could have been responsible.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., MECA Symposium on Mars: Evolution of its Climate and Atmosphere; p 120-122
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: It is showed that periods of enhanced quasitidal pressure oscillations occur during the season preceding the global dust storm season during every Martian year. Periods of these oscillations often differ slightly from the diurnal and semidiurnal, and the oscillations may correspond to atmospheric normal modes excited by solar heating. They may also contribute to the initiation of some global dust storms.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., MECA Symposium on Mars: Evolution of its Climate and Atmosphere; p 113
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: It is contented that the initial quantities of noble gases present in planetesimals were controlled by the sizes and masses of the planets, and fit with a model of successive accretion. The successive accretion model proposed for the origin of terrestrial planets is based upon: (1) the sequence of zones of condensation of solar nebula, (2) the condensation sequence of minerals, iron and nickel in different P-T regimes of the solar nebula, and (3) the sequence in the nucleation of iron cores of the terrestrial planets.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., MECA Symposium on Mars: Evolution of its Climate and Atmosphere; p 106-108
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  • 78
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: It is concluded that Mars was dominated by vertical tectonism more than any of the other terrestrial planets. The structural imprint of the Tharsis and Elysium provinces extends over half the planet, and despite 15 years of debate over the cause of the elevation, volcanic activity, and tectonic style of Tharsis, no uniform theory of Tharsis evolution has been generally agreed upon. Although several theories have been suggested for the origin of the north-south planetary dichotomy, there is also a lack of a testable, plausible model for that major unknown in Mars' evolution.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., MECA Symposium on Mars: Evolution of its Climate and Atmosphere; p 102-103
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Evidence is presented from analysis of Viking thermal mapping results that suggests a transition to high thermal inertial material at a depth of approx. 12 cm at +75 deg latitude. This was interpreted as reflecting the transition from ice poor soil to hard frozen permafrost. It was pointed out that such a transition would be expected on the basis of theoretical models of hard frozen permafrost distribution. Although permafrost is not the only plausible martian surface material with high thermal inertia, polar thermal mapping may turn out to be a powerful tool for determining the distribution of permafrost deposits and understanding their behavior. At this point, the circumstantial case for permafrost deposits in the north pole region of Mars is very strong.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., MECA Symposium on Mars: Evolution of its Climate and Atmosphere; p 93-95
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  • 80
    facet.materialart.
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Results are presented from a model of telescope observations that indicate a diurnal cycle exist, at least at one location, in the Martian atmosphere. By comparing calculated intensities with observed intensities of reflected sunlight, the diurnal variations in the optical thickness of the Olympus cloud that forms near the summit of Olympus Mons during summer was estimated. The results indicate that the optical depth at 0.4 microns rises sharply from near zero in late morning to about 0.8 in the early afternoon.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., MECA Symposium on Mars: Evolution of its Climate and Atmosphere; p 85-87
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Glacier like landforms are observed in the fretted terrain of Mars in the latitude belts near + or - 42 deg. It was suggested that sublimation or accumulation-ablation rates could be estimated for these glaciers if their shapes were known. To this end, photoclinometric profiles were obtained of a number of these landforms. On the basis of analyses of these profiles, it was concluded that ice is chiefly ablating from these landforms that either are inactive rock-glaciers or have materials within them that are moving exceedingly slowly at this time. These conclusions are consistent with other geologic information. The analyses were performed using a two-dimensional model of an isothermal glacier.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., MECA Symposium on Mars: Evolution of its Climate and Atmosphere; p 78-80
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  • 82
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A study of seasonal variation of albedo features in the Cerberus, Solis Planum, and Syrtis Major regions was based on Viking Orbiter data obtained over more than one complete Martian year. Contour maps of Lambert albedo and single point thermal inertia were constructed from the Infrared Thermal Mapper experiment data, and Orbiter images were used to determine the pattern and variability of regional winds (inferred from wind streak orientations). Coupled with ground based radar data, these data allow the regional sediment transport direction, surface properties (texture, morphology, and roughness), and the implications of the observed seasonal and longer term dust redistribution to be investigated. Results are outlined.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., MECA Symposium on Mars: Evolution of its Climate and Atmosphere; p 71-72
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  • 83
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Results are presented of one-dimensional radiation convection modeling of the early Mars atmosphere. Up to 5 bars of CO2 would have been required to raise the surface temperature (orbitally and globally averaged) above the freezing point, although at the equator at perihelion, 1 bar would have sufficed. Such an atmospheric CO2 invertory, the author argued, is not inconsistent with any known constraint on Mars' degassed volatile inventory.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., MECA Symposium on Mars: Evolution of its Climate and Atmosphere; p 64-66
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  • 84
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Analyses of the behavior of the Martian polar caps in the recent spacecraft and ground based observations seem to reveal the existence of year to year variations on their regressions. In order to investigate the interannual differences in the regressions of the polar caps, the earlier data by Fischbacher et al., were reexamined, which were based on the measurements of the large number of high quality photographic plates and films collected from 1905 to 1965 at the Lowell Observatory. The results are reported and discussed.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., MECA Symposium on Mars: Evolution of its Climate and Atmosphere; p 57-59
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  • 85