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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2009-12-28
    Description: Rotating-specimen furnace for use in determining spectral & total emittance of materials from measurement of radiant flux from specimen surface
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Measurement of Thermal Radiation Properties of Solids; NASA-SP-31
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2009-12-28
    Description: Emittance measurement for refractory materials to 5000 deg f - temperature & structure dependence
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Measurement of Thermal Radiation Properties of Solids; NASA-SP-31
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2009-12-28
    Description: Emittance measurements of ceramic coatings up to 2900 deg kelvin
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Measurement of Thermal Radiation Properties of Solids; NASA-SP-31
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2009-12-28
    Description: Emittance measuring apparatus for temperatures up to 4000-deg f
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Measurement of Thermal Radiation Properties of Solids; NASA-SP-31
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2009-11-16
    Description: Measurements of the members of the HO(x) family (OH, HO2, and H2O2) and their major source gases, H2O, and CH4 are discussed. Emphasis is placed on measurements which were made since the 1982 World Meteorologic Organization (WMO) report. Measurement techniques, available data, an assessment of data reliability, and a comparison of the data with theoretical distributions of stratospheric HO(x) species predicted from one and two dimensional photochemical models are discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Atmospheric Ozone 1985. Assessment of our Understanding of the Processes Controlling its Present Distribution and Change, Volume 2; 58 p
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  • 6
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2009-11-16
    Description: Aurora formation by electron injection and drift in upper atmosphere
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NSSDC-ID-67-073A-11-PM , NIFICANT ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN SCI. AND TECHNOL. AT GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER 1970; P 69-72
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: During December 1988, 24 hours of darkness and clear sky conditions permitted continuous observations of the O I(6300 A) airglow by a Fabry-Perot interferometer located at Thule Air Base, Greenland. Thus a continuous record of the F region neutral winds was obtained for that month. During this same time period, a digital ionosonde located at Qanaq, Greenland (110 km north of Thule Air Base), was in operation measuring electron density profiles and F region ion drifts. This combination of ground-based observations allowed the investigation of ion/neutral coupling at a temporal resolution of about 15 min. Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data from the IMP 8 satellite were also available from December 16 to 24 and indicated intervals of B(sub z) northward IMF conditions during this period. Here we investigate the observed response of the neutral wind to convection changes in the ion drift inside the polar cap for southward and northward IMF B(sub z) conditions. In particular, we establish a control day illustrating the typical antisunward neutral wind and ion drift patterns observed for southward B(sub z) over Thule and Qanaq, and we compare it with observations made when the IMF B(sub z) is directed northward. The observations during periods of northward B(sub z) display sunward directed ion drifts over the polar cap accompanied by decreasing antisunward directed neutral winds. We investigate these times of northward B(sub z) further and demonstrate that the ion drag term alone cannot describe the observed response in the neutral wind during northward IMF.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A7; p. 12,189-12,199
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: During the later stages of the auroral substorm the luminosity distribution frequently resembles a double oval, one oval lying poleward of the normal or main UV auroral oval. We interpret the double oval morphology as being due to the plasma sheet boundary layer becoming active in the later stages of the substorm process. If the disturbance engulfs the nightside low-latitude boundary layers, then the double oval configuration extends into the dayside ionospheric region. The main UV oval is associated with the inner portion of the central plasma sheet and can rapidly change its auroral character from being diffuse to discrete. This transition is associated with the substorm process and is fundamental to understanding the near-Earth character of substorm onset. On the other hand, the poleward arc system in the nightside ionosphere occurs adjacent to or near the open-closed field line boundary. This system activates at the end of the optical expansion phase and is a part of the recovery phase configuration in substorms where it occurs. These two source regions for nightside discrete auroral arcs are important in resolving the controversy concerning the mapping of arcs to the magnetosphere. The dayside extension of this double oval configuration is also investigated and shows particle signatures which differ considerably from those on the nightside giving clues to the magnetospheric source regions of the aurora in the two local time sectors. Near-Earth substorm onsets are shown to be coupled to processes occurring much further tailward and indicate the importance of understanding the temporal development of features within the double oval. Using 'variance images,' a new technqiue for the investigation of these dynamics is outlined.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A7; p. 12,075-12,092
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Magnetic field rotations in the high ion beta magnetosheath that are part of the magnetopause structure are expected to have only a small normal component. We have studied the properties of rotational discontinuities (RDs) under these conditions, viewed as the limit of weak intermediate shocks (ISs), by performing hybrid simulations with a reflecting wall boundary condition (piston method). With this dynamic formation, the sense and size of rotation are not arbitrarily predetermined, but rather evolve from the given upstream (magnetosheath) and downstream (magnetospheric) boundary conditions, similar to what takes place at the magnetopause. This work focuses on several aspects: the observed minimum shear of RDs, their width, their internal signature, and their relation to ISs in isotropic plasmas. Our simulation results are in agreement with the minimum shear observations, that is, the RDs choose the sense of rotation that corresponds to the minimum angle between the upstream and downstream field vector. The RDs are stable, with a unique scale size. Typical gradient scale half widths are one to four ion inertial lengths with a total width up to ten times of that, in agreement with magnetopause observations. We develop a generalized fluid theory of RDs and discuss the characteristic internal signatures of the rotational layer, comparing the kinetic simulation results to predictions from the generalized fluid theory. The results show that ion inertia, anisotropic pressure, finite Larmor radius effects, nonzero ion heat flux, and reflected ions all contribute to the signatures of RDs on kinetic scales. The RDs may have upstream or downstream wave trains, which become weak for high ion beta and small normal components of the magnetic field. We explain the presence and direction of wave trains in terms of the kinetic properties of the Alfven/ion-cyclotron mode. Away from the RD limit there is a smooth transition to weak intermediate shocks, which have small jumps close to expected Rankine-Hugoniot values. Apart from that, there are few kinetic plasma signatures that distinguish RDs from their neighboring ISs. However, noncoplanar ISs evolve in time into thin RDs. Using the properties of RDs and ISs, we make specific suggestions how these discontinuities can be distinguished observationally in the case of an isotropic plasma.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A7; p. 11,981-11,999
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Electromagnetic wave generation and resulting cross-field diffusion of plasma are considered at a tangential discontinuity, which characterizes the magnetopause for northward interplanetary magnetic field. Two-dimensional hybrid (particle ions, massless fluid electrons) simulations, in which the tangential discontinuity is generated self-consistently via a stream-stream interaction, are used to show that wave growth occurs when the ambient magnetic field is predominantly perpendicular to the direction of the density gradient. Low-frequency (much less than ion gyrofrequency) waves, with amplitudes delta B/B less than or equal to 0.2 and anticorrelated density fluctuations delta n/n less than or equal to 0.6, are generated at the discontinuity, resulting in cross-field diffusion that is comparable to the Bohm rate. Both the fluctuation level and the lack of ion heating in the calculations are consistent with observations at the magnetopause. The magnitude of the diffusion is considered in the presence of numerical effects and in the context of the inferred diffusion rate at the magnetopause. The relation of the low-frequency waves and their consequences to faster growing, short-wavelength waves due to the lower hybrid drift instability is also addressed. The overall conclusion of this initial study is that diffusion due to low frequency waves is not likely to be a major effect at the magnetopause.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A7; p. 11,923-11,933
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: During periods of southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation the magnetic field geometry at the dayside magnetopause is susceptible to magnetic reconnection. It has been suggested that reconnection may occur in a localized manner at several patches on the magnetopause. A major problem with this picture is the interaction of magnetic flux ropes which are generated by different reconnection processes. An individual flux rope is bent elbowlike where it intersects the magnetopause and the magnetic field changes from magnetospheric to interplanetary magnetic field orientation. Multiple patches of reconnection can lead to the formation of interlinked magnetic flux tubes. Although the corresponding flux is connected to the IMF the northward and southward connected branches are hooked into each other and cannot develop independently. We have studied this problem in the framework of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The results indicate that a singular current sheet forms at the interface of two interlinked flux tubes if no resistivity is present in the simulation. This current sheet is strongly tilted compared to the original current sheet. In the presence of resistivity the interaction of the two flux tubes forces a fast reconnection process which generates helically twisted closed magnetospheric flux. This linkage induced reconnection generates a boundary layer with layers of open and closed magnetospheric flux and may account for the brightening of auroral arcs poleward of the boundary between open and closed magnetic flux.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A7; p. 11,863-11,874
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A 54.95-MHz coherent backscatter radar, an ionosonde and the magnetometer located at Trivandrum in India (8.5 deg N, 77 deg E, 0.5 deg N dip angle) recorded large-amplitude ionospheric fluctuations and magnetic field fluctuations associated with a Pc5 micropulsation event, which occurred during an intense magnetic storm on 24 March 1991 (A(sub p) = 161). Simultaneous 100-n T-level fluctuations are also observed in the H-component at Brorfelde, Denmark (55.6 deg N gm) and at Narsarsuaq, Greenland (70.6 deg N gm). Our study of the above observations shows that the E-W electric field fluctuations in the E- and F-regions and the magnetic field fluctuations at Thumba are dominated by a near-sinusoidal oscillation of 10 min during 1730-1900 IST (1200-1330 UT), the amplitude of the electric field oscillation in the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) is 0.1-0.25 mV/m and it increases with height, while it is about 1.0 mV/m in the F-region, the ground-level H-component oscillation can be accounted for by the ionospheric current oscillation generated by the observed electric field oscillation in the EEJ and the H-component oscillations at Trivandrum and Brofelde are in phase with each other. The observations are interpreted in terms of a compressional cavity mode resonance in the inner magnetosphere and the assoicated ionospheric electric field penetrating from high latitudes to the magnetic equator.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Annales Geophysicae (ISSN 0992-7689); 12; 6; p. 565-573
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Impulsive ELF/VLF electric field bursts observed by the vector electric field instrument (VEFI) on the Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) satellite on almost every crossing of the geomagnetic equator in the evening hours are interpreted as originating in lightning discharges. These signals that peak in intensity near the magnetic equator are observed within 5-20 deg latitude of the geomagnetic equator at altitudes of 300-500 km with amplitudes of the order of approximately mV/m in the 512- or 1024-Hz frequency band of the VEFI instrument. Whistler-mode ELF/VLF wave propagation through a horizontally stratified ionosphere predicts strong attenuation of subionospheric signals reaching the equator at low altitudes. However, ray tracing analysis shows that the presence of the equatorial density anomaly, commonly observed in the upper ionosphere during evening hours, leads to the focusing of the wave energy from lightning near the geomagnetic equator at low altitudes, thus accounting for all observed aspects of the phenomenon. The observations presented here indicate that during certain hours in the evening, almost all the energy input from lightning discharges entering the ionosphere at less than 30 deg latitude remains confined to a small region (in altitude and latitude) near the geomagnetic equator. The net wideband electric field, extrapolated from the observed electric field values in the 512- to 1024-Hz band, can be approximately 10 mV/m or higher. These strong electric fields generated in the ionosphere by lightning at local evening times may be important for the equatorial electrodynamics of the ionosphere.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A5; p. 7783-7790
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The 'radial' transport of energy by internal ULF waves, stimulated by dayside magnetospheric boundary oscillations, is analyzed in the framework of one-fluid magnetohydrodynamics. (the term radial is used here to denote the direction orthogonal to geomagnetic flux surfaces.) The model for the inhomogeneous magnetospheric plasma and background magnetic field is axisymmetric and includes radial and parallel variations in the magnetic field, magnetic curvature, plasma density, and low but finite plasma pressure. The radial mode structure of the coupled fast and intermediate MHD waves is determined by numerical solution of the inhomogeneous wave equation; the parallel mode structure is characterized by a Wentzel-Kramer-Brillouin (WKB) approximation. Ionospheric dissipation is modeled by allowing the parallel wave number to be complex. For boudnary oscillations with frequencies in the range from 10 to 48 mHz, and using a dipole model for the background magnetic field, the combined effects of magnetic curvature and finite plasma pressure are shown to (1) enhance the amplitude of field line resonances by as much as a factor of 2 relative to values obtained in a cold plasma or box-model approximation for the dayside magnetosphere; (2) increase the energy flux delivered to a given resonance by a factor of 2-4; and (3) broaden the spectral width of the resonance by a factor of 2-3. The effects are attributed to the existence of an 'Alfven buoyancy oscillation,' which approaches the usual shear mode Alfven wave at resonance, but unlike the shear Alfven mode, it is dispersive at short perpendicular wavelengths. The form of dispersion is analogous to that of an internal atmospheric gravity wave, with the magnetic tension of the curved background field providing the restoring force and allowing radial propagation of the mode. For nominal dayside parameters, the propagation band of the Alfven buoyancy wave occurs between the location of its (field line) resonance and that of the fast mode cutoff that exists at larger radial distances.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A5; p. 7599-7612
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We discuss the determination of diurnal and semidiurnal variations in the rotation rate and the direction of rotation axis of Earth from the analysis of 8 years of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data. This analysis clearly show that these variations are largely periodic and tidally driven; that is, the periods of the variations correspond to the periods of the largest lunar and solar tides. For rotation rate variations, expressed in terms of changes in universal time (UT), the tidal lines with the largest observed signals are O1 (amplitude 23.5 microseconds in time (microseconds), period 25.82 solar hours); KL (18.9 microseconds, 23.93 hours); M2 (17.9 microseconds, 12.54 hours); and S2 (8.6 microseconds, 12.00 hours). For variations in the direction of the rotation axis (polar motion), significant signals exist in the retrograde semidiurnal band at the M2 and S2 tides (amplitudes 265 and 119 microarc seconds (microarc seconds, respectively); the prograde diurnal band at the O1, K1, and P1 tides (amplitudes 199, 152, and 60 microarc seconds, respectively); and the prograde semidiurnal band at the M2 and K2 tides (amplitudes 58 and 39 microarc seconds, respectively). Variations in the retrograde diurnal band are represented by corrections with previous estimates except that a previously noted discrepancy in the 13.66-day nutation (corresponding to the O1 tide) is largely removed in this new analysis. We estimate that the standard deviations of these estimates are 1.0 microseconds for the UT1 variations and 14-16 microarc seconds for the polar motion terms. These uncertainties correspond to surface displacements of approximately 0.5 mm. From the analysis of atmospheric angular momentum data we conclude that variations in UT1 excited by the atmosphere with subdaily periods are small (approximately 1 microsecond). We find that the average radial tidal displacements of the VLBI sites in the diurnal band are largely consistent with known deficiencies in current tidal models, i.e., deficiencies of up to 0.9 mm in the treatment of the free core nutation resonance. In the semidiurnal band, our analysis yields estimates of the second-degree harmonic radial Love number h(sub 2) at the M2 tide of 0.604 + i0.005 +/- 0.002. The most likely explanation for the rotational variations are the effects of ocean tides, but there may also be some contributions from atmospheric tides, the effects of triaxiality of Earth, and the equatorial second-degree-harmonic components of the core- mantle boundary.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; B9; p. 18,051-18,071
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Modern Earth science is beginning to examine interactions among the different terrestrial components at all temporal and spatial scales. Such a global perspective requires an integrated remote-sensing program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), which uses instruments throughout the electromagnetic spectrum to collect data about the Earth's surface, oceans and atmosphere over a range of selected scales. At the finest scales, we will require instruments capable of detailed sampling both spatially and spectrally. We have designed the High-Resoulution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS) to acquire simultaneous images in 192 spectral bands in the dominant wavelengths of the solar spectrum, 0.4 to 2.5 micrometers, at a spectral sampling interval of 10 nm. The ground instantaneous field of view (GIFOV) will be 30 m over a 24 km swath. A pointing capability will allow image acquisition up to +52 deg/-30 deg down track and +/-45 deg or more cross-track. Thus we will be able to study surface spectral bidirectional reflectance properties and variations in atmospheric attenuation with viewing angle. The cross-track pointing will also allow multiple viewing opportunities during one 16-day orbital revisit cycle, so that any part of the Earth may be imaged in a two-day period.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: In: The use of EOS for studies of atmospheric physics; Proceedings of the International School of Physics (Enrico Fermi), Course 115, Varenna, Italy, Jun. 26 - Jul. 6, 1990 . A95-89225; p. 287-298
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  • 17
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The differences in atmospheric composition over the globe and the short- and long-term variations in this composition are the net effect of several atmospheric and biospheric processes: biospheric emissions, atmospheric circulation, atmospheric chemical transformations and finally deposition back to the surface. Accurate and realistic atmospheric chemistry and circulation models are essential to interpret the observed global distributions and trends of atmospheric species in terms of these underlying processes. Comparisons between model predictions and observations test current understanding of these processes and models used in conjunction with inverse methods allow deductions of the rates of these processes from the observations. With the planned inclusion of at least CO and CH4 observations on the Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites, together with the large global data set expected from in situ observations under the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Project, the further development of global three-dimensional high-resolution atmospheric chemistry and circulation models in order to interpret this new data is a high-priority endeavor.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: In: The use of EOS for studies of atmospheric physics; Proceedings of the International School of Physics (Enrico Fermi), Course 115, Varenna, Italy, Jun. 26 - Jul. 6, 1990 . A95-89225; p. 65-76
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: In recent years, increasing concern has been expressed about Global Change - the natural and anthropogenic alteration of the Earth's environment involving global greenhouse warming and the associated climate change, urban and regional atmospheric pollution, acid deposition, regional increases in tropospheric zone, and the decrease in stratospheric ozone. A common theme among these problems is that they all involve those tropospheric trace gases which are fundamental to the biosphere-troposphere interaction, the chemistry of the free troposphere itself, and troposphere-stratosphere exchange. The chemical species involved all have spectral signatures within the near and mid infrared that can now be measured by advanced techniques of remote-sensing infrared spectroradiometry. Such a system is the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), now in Phase B definition for the Earth Observing System (EOS) polar platforms. TES addresses these objectives by obtaining radiometrically calibrated, linewidth-limited spectral resolution, infrared spectra of the lower atmosphere using both natural thermal emission and reflected sunlight (where appropriate) in three different, but fully programmable, modes: a gobal mode, a pointed mode, and a limb-viewing mode. The goals of TES, its instrumentation, operational modes, sensitivity and data handling are discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: In: The use of EOS for studies of atmospheric physics; Proceedings of the International School of Physics (Enrico Fermi), Course 115, Varenna, Italy, Jun. 26 - Jul. 6, 1990 . A95-89225; p. 103-123
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) is an Earth-viewing sensor being developed as a facility instrument for the Earth Observing System (EOS) to be launched in the late 1990s. MODIS consists of two separate instruments that scan a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, Sun-synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km. Of primary interest for studies of atmospheric physics is the MODIS-N (nadir) instrument which will provide images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 micrometers with spatial resoulutions of 250 m (2 bands), 500 m (5 bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). These bands have been carefully selected to enable advanced studies of land, ocean and atmosperhic processes. The intent of this lecture is to describe the current status of MODIS-N and its companion instrument MODIS-T (tilt), a tiltable cross-track scanning radiometer with 32 uniformly spaced channels between 0.410 and 0.875 micrometers, and to describe the physical principles behind the development of MODIS for the remote sensing of atmospheric properties. Primary emphasis will be placed on the main atmospheric applications of determining the optical, microphysical and physical properties of clouds and aerosol particles form spectral-reflection and thermal-emission measurements. In addition to cloud and aerosol properties, MODIS-N will be utilized for the determination of the total precipitable water vapor over land and atmospheric stability. The physical principles behind the determination of each of these atmospheric products will be described herein.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: In: The use of EOS for studies of atmospheric physics; Proceedings of the International School of Physics (Enrico Fermi), Course 115, Varenna, Italy, Jun. 26 - Jul. 6, 1990 . A95-89225; p. 253-285
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We present a statisical survey of Prognoz 10 solar wind observations at the times of transient (step function and impulsive) variations in the dayside magnetospheric magnetic field strength measured by the GOES 5 and 6 geosynchronous satellites. The results indicate that 51% of the magnetospheric events can be associated with corresponding variations in the solar wind dynamic pressure. A further 17% of the events can be associated with fluctuations in the interplanetary magnetic field orientation in the sense previously associated with foreshock pressure pulses. We find no tendency for impulsive events at dayside geosynchronous orbit to be associated with north/south fluctuations in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation, nor for the events to occur primarily during intervals of southward IMF. The success rate for associating transient events at dayside geosynchronous orbit with solar wind features decreases as Prognoz 10 moves farther from the Earth-Sun line. The observations indicate that variations in the solar wind dynamic pressure and foreshock pressure pulses associated with variations in the IMF cone angle are the predominant causes of large-amplitude transient events observed at dayside geosynchronous orbit.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A4; p. 5643-5656
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: There are four low-frequency modes which may propagate in a high-beta nearly bi-Maxwellian plasma. These are the magnetosonic, Alfven, ion acoustic, and mirror modes. This manuscript defines a procedure based on linear Vlasov theory for the unique identification of these modes by use of transport ratios, dimensionless ratios of the fluctuating field and plasma quantities. A single parameter, the mode deviation is calculated using the plasma and magnetic field data gathered by the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers/Ion Release Module (AMPTE/IRM) spacecraft to identify the modes observed in the terrestial magnetosheath near the magnetopause. As well as determining the mode which best describes the observed fluctuations, it gives us a measure of whether or not the resulting identification is unique. Using 17 time periods temporally close to a magnetopause crossing, and confining our study to the frequency range from 0.01 to 0.04 Hz, we find that the only clearly identified mode in this frequency range is the mirror mode. Most commonly, the quasi-perpendicular mirror mode (with wave vector k roughly perpendicular to the background magnetic field B(sub zero) is observed. In two events the quasi-parallel mirror mode k parallel B(sub zero) was identified.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A4; p. 5665-5679
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A tilt-dependent magnetic field model of the Earth's magnetosphere with variable magnetopause standoff distance is presented. Flexible analytic representations for the ring and cross-tail currents, each composed of the elements derived from the Tsyganenko and Usmanov (1982) model, are combined with the fully shielded vacuum dipole configurations of Voigt (1981). Although the current sheet does not warp in the y-z plane, changes in the shape and position of the neutral sheet with dipole tilt are consistent with both MHD equilibrium theory and observations. In addition, there is good agreement with observed Delta B profiles and the average equatorial contours of magnetic field magnitude. While the dipole field is rigorously shielded within the defined magnetopause, the ring and cross-tails currents are not similarly confined, consequently, the model's region of validity is limited to the inner magnetosphere. The model depends on four independent external parameters. We present a simple but limited method of simulating several substorm related magnetic field changes associated with the disrupion of the near-Earth cross-tail current sheet and collapse of the midnight magnetotail field region. This feature further facilitates the generation of magnetic field configuration time sequences useful in plasma convection simulations of real magnetospheric events.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A4; p. 5613-5626
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Plasmoids are thought to occur as a consequence of the formation of a near-Earth neutral line during the evolution of a geomagnetic substorm. Using a 3D, global MHD simulation of the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with the solar wind, we initiate a substorm by a southward turning of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) after a long period of steady northward field. A large plasmoid is formed and ejected. We show field line maps of its shape and relate its formation time to the progress of the substorm as indicated by the cross polar potential. Because of the large region of closed field in the magnetotail at the time of the substorm, this plasmoid is longer in axial dimension than is typically observed. We compare the simulation results with the type of satellite observations which have been used to argue for the existence of plasmoids or of traveling compression regions (TCRs) in the lobes or magnetosheath. The simulation predicts that plasmoid passage would result in a strong signal in the cross tail electric field.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 7; p. 859-862
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: This paper reports on results from a study of the poleward edge of the auroral oval in the morning sector using a comprehensive blend of in-situ and ground-based measurements. Three rockets, equipped to measure electric and magnetic fields, energetic particles, and plasma density flew into an auroral display whose dynamical features were reorded with a digital image into an auroral display intensified all-sky camera as well as with an incoherent scatter radar. In addition, a number of DMSP satellite measurements bracketed the launch time. Evidence is presented here that in a condition of declining magnetic activity Sun-aligned arcs are injected into the polar cap at velocities approximately 7 km/s from locations of periodic brightening along the morningside of the auroral oval. The multipoint in situ measurements allow some separation of temporal and spatial effects and strongly suggest a poleward contraction of the convention pattern of about 0.25 deg INVL in 70 s. The most equatorward of the two brightest arcs studied erupted into a region which already was characterized by strong sunward convection. The most poleward, however, pushed into a region that had been convecting in an antisunward direction at velocities exceeding 1 km/s less than 2 min earlier, and it is likely that sunward convection subsequently pertained poleward of that arc as well. We believe that these events mark the reconfiguration of the magnetosphere into a system characterized by a smaller polar cap.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; A9; p. 17,577-17,589
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Upper thermospheric meridional wind data at midlatitudes and for low magnetic activity are examined for solar activity variations following an analysis scheme suggested by a Coordinated Analysis of the Thermosphere workshop. Wind data from incoherent scatter, Fabry-Perot, and F2 peak heights show decreasing diurnal amplitudes with increasing solar activity during all seasons, except for Saint Santin data, which show a slight increase in summer. Equivalent winds from F2 peak height data have strong decreases in diurnal amplitude in all seasons. The coupled thermosphere ionosphere model and thermosphere ionosphere global circulation model predictions of diurnal amplitude, while differing considerably in magnitude, also show decreasing amplitudes during all seasons except summer, while the HWM90 empirical model amplitudes increase slightly with solar activity during all seasons. The diurnal mean wind trends with solar activity are fairly weak, except for Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar, which shows a shift from strong southward to near zero or northward wind with increasing activity. Model results for the mean generally fall within the band of measurements. Near midnight, most of the data also show that the typically southward winds weaken with increasing solart activity in all seasons except summer, when results are mixed. There are significant differences between the trends and between absolute values for the various data sets and models which need further investigation.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; A9; p. 17,601-17,608
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The data from the infrared telescope (IRT), which was flown on space shuttle Challenger Spacelab 2 mission (July 1985), were originally reported by Koch et al. (1987) as originating from near orbital emissions, primarily H2O. In this study, analysis of this data was extended to determine the collisional cross sections for the excitation of the low lying vibrational levels of H2O, present in the orbiter cloud, by atmospheric O(3P). The evaluation of the contribution to the measured signal from solar excitation and ram O excitation of outgassing H2O permits the determination of the H2O column density and the excitation cross section of the (101) level at an O(3P) velocity of approximately 7.75 km/s. Contributions to the radiation in the 1.7-3.0 micron band by transitions from the (100), (001), and multiquantum excited levels are discussed. The findings of the study are (1) the IRT data for the 4.5-9.5 micron and the nighttime data for the 1.7-3.0 micron sensors are consistent with being explained by collision excitation of H2O by O(3P), (2) diurnal variations of 4.5-9.5 micron intensities follow the model predicted O density for a full orbit, (3) daytime increases in the H2O cloud density were not evident, (4) the cross sections for the collisional excitation process are derived and compared to values computated by Johnson (1986) and Redmon et al. (1986), (5) theoretical investigation suggests greater than 60% of the radiation from H2O is a result of multiphoton emission resulting from collisional multiquanta excitation, and (6) the large daytime increase in the 1.7-3.0 micron intensity data suggests that O(+) may likely be instrumental in producing excited H2O(+) through charge exchange.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; A9; p. 17,559-17,575
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Khabarovsk transmitter signals (15.0 kHz, 48 deg N, 135 deg E) were observed on the high-altitude (approximately 15000 km) Dynamic Explorer 1 (DE 1) and the low-altitude (approximately 960) km COSMOS 1809 satellites during a 9-day period in August 1989. On 7 out of 9 days the linear wave receiver (LWR) on the DE 1 satellite also detected signals from the Alpha transmitter (11.9-15.6 kHz) in Russia and an Omega transmitter (10.2-13.6 kHz) in Australia, as well as natural VLF emissions such as hiss, chorus, whistlers, and wideband impulsive signals. On two days, August 23 and 27, 1989, observations of the Khabarovsk transmitter signals were simultaneously carried out at high altitude on thre DE 1 satellite and at low altitude on the COSMOS 1809 satellite. Analysis of data from these 2 days has led to several new results on the propagation of whistler mode signals in the Earth's magnetosphere. New evidence was found of previously reported propagation phenomena, such as (1) confinement of transmitter signals in the conjugate hemisphere at ionospheric heights (approximately 1000 km), (2) observation of direct multipath propagation on both DE 1 and COSMOS 1809, (3) detection of ionospheric irregularities of is less than or equal to 100 km scale size with a few percent enhancement in electron density. We also report the first direct detection of a magnetospheric dust at L = 2.94 which was believed to be responsible for the ducted propagation of Khabarovsk signals observed in the COSMOS 1809 satellite. Our study also indicates that duct end points can extend down to at least approximately 1000 km. The peak electric and magnetic fields of ducted Khabarovsk transmitter signals at approximately 1000 km were 520 micro V/m and 36 pT respectively. Estimated field strengths of these signals inside the dust at the geomagnetic equator were 57 micro V/m and 12 pT for electric and magnetic field respectively. The results of two-dimensional ray tracing simulations were consistent with the observations of the nonducted whistler-mode propagation of Khabarovsk (15 kHz) and Alpha (11.9 kHz) signals from the transmitter location to the DE 1 and COSMOS 1809 satellites. Our results have direct implications for the question of accessibility of waves injected from the ground to various regions of the ionosphere and the magnetosphere.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; A9; p. 17,511-17,522
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We report here the results of modeling work aimed at understanding the development of ionospheric O(+) field-aligned upflows that develop in response to high-latitude E x B drift induced frictional heating. The model used is a collisional semikinetic model which includes ion-neutral resonant charge exchange and polarization collisions as well as Coulomb self-collisions. It also includes the process of chemical removal of O(+) as well as all of the macroscopic forces: ambipolar electric, gravity, magnetic mirror, and centripetal. Model results show the development of several types of non-Maxwellian velocity distributions including toroids at low altitude, distributions with large heat flow in the perpendicular component at intermediate altitudes, and distributions with a separate upflowing population or upward superthermal tail at high altitudes. Whenever the convection electric field increases from a small value (less than 25 mV/m) to a large value (100-200 mV/m) in 6 min or less large upflows develop with parallel drift speeds which peak (below 1000 km) at values between 500 m/s and 2 km/s, parallel fluxes which peak between 6.0 x 10(exp 8) and 3.2 x 10(exp 9)/sq cm/s, and parallel per particle heat flows which peak between 8.0 x 10(exp -9) and 8.0 x 10(exp -8) ergs cm/s. The higher values in these ranges occur for a cooler neutral atmosphere, with a larger convection electric field that is turned on quickly. The model produces field-aligned O(+) flow speeds that are larger than those produced by a 20-moment generalized transport model but smaller then those produced by an isotropic hydrodynamic model for comparable values of the convection turn on times. The model results compare favorably with some topside satellite and radar data.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; A9; p. 17,453-17,466
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We have investigated the middle atmospheric response to the 27-day and 11-yr solar UV flux variations at low to middle latitudes using a two-dimensional photochemical model. The model reproduced most features of the observed 27-day sensitivity and phase lag of the profile ozone response in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere, with a maximum sensitivity of +0.51% per 1% change in 205 nm flux. The model also reproduced the observed transition to a negative phase lag above 2 mb, reflecting the increasing importance with height of the solar modulated HO(x) chemistry on the ozone response above 45 km. The model revealed the general anti-correlation of ozone and solar UV at 65-75 km, and simulated strong UV responses of water vapor and HO(x) species in the mesosphere. Consistent with previous 1D model studies, the observed upper mesospheric positive ozone response averaged over +/- 40 was simulated only when the model water vapor concentrations above 75 km were significantly reduced relative to current observations. In agreement with observations, the model computed a low to middle latitude total ozone phase lag of +3 days and a sensitivity of +0.077% per 1% change in 205 nm flux for the 27-day solar variation, and a total ozone sensitivity of +0.27% for the 11-yr solar cycle. This factor of 3 sensitivity difference is indicative of the photochemical time constant for ozone in the lower stratosphere which is comparable to the 27-day solar rotation period but is much shorter than the 11-yr solar cycle.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics (ISSN 0021-9169); 57; 4; p. 333-365
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Digital topographic contours from four 1:250000 scale maps have been gridded to produce a digital elevation model for part of Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg islands in the Canadian Arctic Islands. Gradient calculations were used to define both east and west dipping slopes defining a pattern of lineaments that have been compared with mapped geological structures. In ice-covered areas, where geological mapping was not possible, well-defined topographic lineaments have been identified and are correlated to extensions of major structural features. The northeast-southwest patterns of both topographic lineaments and mapped structures are strongly unimodal and support a single compressive event oriented at 67 deg west of north. This orientation is coincidental with the convergence direction calculated from the kinematic poles of rotation for Greenland relative to North America between 56 and 35 Ma. A minor secondary peak at 70 east of north is observed for thrust and normal fault solutions and is not directly related to the predicted convergence direction. Whether this represents a unique phase of deformation or is a subcomponent of a single event is not known. The agreement of structural components, lineament orientations, and convergence direction suggests an overwhelming over print of Eurekan deformation on any preexisting structural fabric. This study confirms, for the first time, an excellent compatibility between geological and geophysical constraints for the timing and geometry of the Eurekan orogeny.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; B10; p. 20,311-20,321
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Stochastic inversion for flexural loads and flexural rigidity of the continental elastic layer can be accomplished most effectively by using the coherence of gravity and topography. However, the spatial resolution of coherence analysis has been limited by use of two-dimensional periodogram spectra from very large (greater than 10(exp 5)sq km) windows that generally include multiple tectonic features. Using a two-dimensional spectral estimator based on the maximum entropy method, the spatial resolution of flexural proerties can be enhanced by a factor of 4 or more, enabling more detailed analysis at the scale of individual tectonic features. This new approach is used to map the spatial variation of flexural rigidity along the Basin and Range transition to the Colorado Plateau and Middle Rocky Mountains physiographic provinces. Large variations in flexural isostatic responses are found, with rigidities ranging from as low as 8.7 x 10(exp 20) N m (elastic thickness (T(sub e) = 4.6 km) in the Basin and Range to as high as 4.1 x 10(exp 24) N m T(sub e) = 77 km) in the Middle Rocky Mountains. These results compare favorably woith independent determinations of flexural rigidity in the region. Areas of low flexural rigidity correlate strongly with areas of high surface heat flow, as is expected from the contingence of flexural rigidity on a temperature-dependent flow law. Also, late Cenozoic normal faults with large displacements are found primarily in area of low flexural rigidity region. The highest flexural rigidity is found within the Archean Wyoming craton, where evidence suggests that deeply rooted cratonic lithosphere may play a role in determining the distribution of tectonism at the surface.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; B10; p. 20,123-20,140
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We develop a general method of calculating the linear stability of a fluid with homogeneous layers that is heated from below. The method employs a propagator technique to obtain expressions for the fluid velocity, stress, and temperature. The principal advantage of the method is the ease with which solutions are adapted to a wide variety of boundary conditions and fluid properties. We demonstrate the utility of the method using three examples which quantify the effects of (1) rheological layering, (2) mobile plates at the surface, and (3) multiple phase transitions. Each example is presented in the context of Earth's mantle. In the first example, we predict that convection becomes confined to the upper mantle once the viscosity increase between the upper and lower mantle exceeds a factor of 2000, consistent with the nonlinear calculations of Davies (1977). In the second example we find that the heat flux variations in a convecting fluid with variably sized, surface plates can be attributed, in part, to changes in the critical Rayleigh number. The linear stability of a fluid with multiple phase transitions is significantly affects by the locations of the transitions. We find that phase transitions have their largest effect when they are located at the center of the fluid layer and become much less important when they are located near the exterior boundaries.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; B10; p. 19,885-19,900
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We have studied 2-D time-dependent convection for a rheology which is both non-Newtonian and temperature-dependent. Strong effects associated with viscous heating are found in the downwelling sheets, which are heated on both sides with an intensity around O(100) times the chondritic value. The magnitude of viscous heating increases strongly with the subduction speed. The slab interior is weakened by viscous heating and slab breakoff then takes place. This process provides a self-regulating mechanism for governing the speed of intact slabs able to reach the deep mantle. Timescales associated with viscous heating are quite short, a few million years. Internal heating by radioactivity decreases the amount of shear heating.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 10; p. 1277-1280
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We have developed the numerical algorithm for the computation of transient viscoelastic responses in the time domain for a radially stratified Earth model. Stratifications in both the elastic parameters and the viscosity profile have been considered. The particular viscosity profile employed has a viscosity maximum with a constrast of O(100) in the mid lower mantle. The distribution of relaxation times reveals the presence of a continuous spectrum situated between O(100) and O(exp 4) years. The principal mode is embedded within this continuous spectrum. From this initial-value approach we have found that for the low degree harmonics the non-modal contributions are comparable to the modal contributions. For this viscosity model the differences between the time-domain and normal-mode results are found to decrease strongly with increasing angular order. These calculations also show that a time-dependent effective relaxation time can be defined, which can be bounded by the relaxation times of the principal modes.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 10; p. 1285-1288
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We examine the consequences of magnetic reconnection at the high-latitude magnetopause using a three-dimensional global magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the solar wind interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere. Magnetic field lines from the simulation reveal the formation of magnetic flux ropes during periods with northward interplanetary magnetic field. These flux ropes result from multiple reconnection processes between the lobes field lines and draped magnetosheath field lines that are convected around the flank of the magnetosphere. The flux ropes identified in the simulation are consistent with features observed in the magnetic field measured by Hawkeye-1 during some high-latitude magnetopause crossings.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 10; p. 1189-1192
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Ten transient magnetic structures in Earth's magnetotail, as observed in GEOTAIL measurements, selected for early 1993 (at (-) X(sub GSM) = 90 - 130 Earth radii), are shown to have helical magnetic field configurations similar to those of interplanetary magnetic clouds at 1 AU but smaller in size by a factor of approximately = 700. Such structures are shown to be well approximated by a comprehensive magnetic force-free flux-rope model. For this limited set of 10 events the rope axes are seen to be typically aligned with the Y(sub GSM) axis and the average diameter of these structures is approximately = 15 Earth radii.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 10; p. 1193-1196
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: It is shown from flux transfer event (FTE) occurrence statistics, observed as a function of MLT by the ISEE satellites, that recent 2-dimensional analytic theories of the effects of pulsed Petschek reconnection predict FTEs to contribute between 50 and 200 kV to the total reconnection voltage when the magnetosheath field points southward. The upper limit (200 kV) allows the possibility that FTEs provide all the antisunward transport of open field lines into the tail lobe. This range is compared with the voltages associated with series of FTEs signatures, as inferred from ground-based observations, which are in the range 10-60 kV. We conclude that the contribution could sometimes be made by a series of single, large events; however, the voltage is often likely to be contributed by several FTEs at different MLT.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 10; p. 1185-1188
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: This paper describes an efficient Monte Carlo algorithm for choosing a new direction of a photon after a scattering interaction. The algorithm chooses a scattering angle by linear interpolation in a table of the inverse cumulative scattering probability. A Legendre expansion of the phase function makes it easy to apply Clenshaw's algorithm to build the interpolation table. The points in the table are close enough together that linear interpolation is accurate. With a table of 100,000 entries, we can keep the absolute and relative errors in matching the probability distribution below 10(exp -5).
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer (ISSN 0022-4073); 53; 1; p. 23-38
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  • 39
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Intermediate shocks (ISs) lead to a transition from super-Alfvenic to sub-Alfvenic flow and are different from slow and fast shocks in that an IS rotates the component of the magnetic field tangent to the shock plane by 180 deg. Another peculiarity of ISs is that for the same upstream conditions an IS can have two different downstream states. There also exist a second class of ISs which rotate the magnetic field by an angle other than 180 deg. Due to their noncoplanar nature they cannot be time-stationary and are referred to as time-dependent intermediate shocks (TDIS). The existence of ISs has been the subject of much controversy over the years. Early studies questioned the physical reality of ISs. However, the studies of ISs found a new impetus when C.C. Wu showed that ISs do exist and are stable within the resistive MHD framework. In this paper, after a brief historical overview of the subject, we will review the latest developments in the study of ISs. In particular, we will address the questions of stability and structure of ISs and the relationship between ISs and other discontinuities. One of the recent developments has been the finding that ISs can be unsteady, reforming in time. Details of this process will be discussed. Finally, we examine the effect of anisotropy on the resolutions and discuss the relevance of ISs to the observed field rotations at the Earth's magnetopause.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 8-9; p. 507-520
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A bow shock (BS has been observed in the collisionless solar wind upstream of every planet except Pluto, which has yet to be visited by a spacecraft. They are all of similar character, but their size relative to the planet varies widely, e.g., the planeto-centric distance to the BS nose ranges from about 1.4 R(sub V) for Venus to 88 R(sub J) or more for Jupiter. Comparisons are reviewed that show its location may be represented satisfactorily by a gasdynamic (GD) model, provided the properties of the solar wind and planetary magnetic field and ionosphere are known and used as input in the application. Factors that determine the location are discussed, and examples are presented to illustrate effects of their variation, including which part of a BS is influenced by a local variation of the magneto/ionopause (MIP) shape. The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) has no influence on the BS location in the GD model, but is shown to have a small effect in corresponding solutions of the basic MHD model from which the GD model is derived as the limit for weak IMF. Nearly all GD and MHD solutions are for steady flow, but a solution for unsteady flow associated with the passage of an interplanetary shock is also presented. It shows that the BS moves rapidly from its initial to final location, e.g., in about minute for the earth. Since many changes in the solar wind occur over longer intervals, these results help explain the success of quasi-stationary solutions in modeling the BS in time-varying solar wind flows.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 8-9; p. 433-449
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Ions that are energized at quasi-parallel collisionless shocks and move back upstream generate low-frequency waves, largely on the fast/magnetosonic branch. At sufficient Mach number, the waves are convected back into the shock, lead to shock re-formation, and are mode-converted into downstream (magnetosheath) Alfvenic turbulence. Other waves are generated more locally at the interface of the incoming solar wind and the partially thermalized plasma. This paper reviews how recent simulation studies of collisionless shocks in conjunction with linear kinetic theory and proper wave diagnostics have aided in our understanding of the upstream and magnetosheath waves.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 8-9; p. 271-284
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: An international conference on high-latitude ionospheric modeling produced 27 papers in the areas of ionospheric mapping, electron density and distribution, ion density and distribution, ionospheric storems, ionospheric composition, and ionospheric sounding techniques. Upgrades to the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model were proposed in several papers.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 16; 1; 186 p.
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: In this study, Atmosphere Explorer data and model results for the ion and electron temperature and the density of N(+), O(+), H(+), and He(+) between 120 and 1400 km altitude are compared for two midlatitude ranges (L=2 and L=4), noon and midnight local time, winter and summer, at solar minimum. The data for the heavy atomic ions (O(+) and N(+)) show that their densities are greater at noon than at midnight for a given season and greater in summer than winter for a given local time. There is only a weak latitudinal variation in the density of these ions. The data show that the light ion (H(+) and He(+)) densities are greater at midnight than at noon and are generally greater in winter than summer. There is a strong latitudinal variation of the light ion densities, with the densities decreasing with increasing latitude. The model densities are in good agreement with the AE densities for N(+), O(+), and H(+). Model He(+) densities are lower, by a factor of 2 or more, than the measured densities. Model ion and electron temperatures agree well with the measured temperatures with only a modest increase in plasmapheric heating.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A1; p. 257-268
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The spatial structure of dayside large-scale field-aligned current (FAC) systems is examined by using Viking and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F7 (DMSP-F7) data. We focus on four events in which the satellites simultaneously observed postnoon and prenoon three FAC systems: the region 2, the region 1, and the mantle (referred to as midday region O) systems, from equatorward to poleward. These events provide the most solid evidence to date that the midday region O system is a separate and unique FAC system, and is not an extension of the region 1 system from other local times. The events are examined comprehensively by making use of a mulit-instrumental data set, which includes magnetic field, particle flux, electric field, auroral UV image data from the satellites, and the Sondrestrom convection data. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Region 2 currents flow mostly in the central plasma sheet (CPS) precipitation region, often overlapping with the boundary plasma sheet (BPD) at their poleward edge. (2) The region 1 system is located in the core part of the auroral oval and is confined in a relatively narrow range in latitude which includes the convection reversal. The low-latitude boundary layer, possibly including the outer part of the plasma sheet, and the external cusp are the major source regions of dayside region 1 currents. (2) Midday region O currents flow on open field lines and are collocated with the shear of antisunward convection flows with velocites decreasing poleward. On the basis of these results we support the view that both prenoon and postnoon current systems consist of the three-sheet structure when the disctortion ofthe convection pattern associated with interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) B(sub Y) is small and both morningside and eveningside convection cells are crescent-shaped. We also propose that the midday region O and a part of the region 1 systems are closely coupled to the same source.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A1; p. 119-136
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The poloidal mode field line resonance in the Earth's dipole magnetic field is investigated using cold plasma ideal MHD simulations in dipole geometry. In order to excite the poloidal mode resonance, we use either an initial or a continuous velocity perturbation to drive the system. The perturbation is localized at magnetic shell L = 7 with plasma flow in the radial direction (electric field component in the azimuthal direction). It is found that with the initial perturbation alone, no polodial mode resonance can be obtained and the initially localized perturbation spreads out across all magnetic L shells. With the continuous perturbation, oscillating near the poloidal resonance frequency, a global-scale poloidal cavity mode can be obtained. For the first time, a localized guided poloidal mode resonance is obtained when a radial component of electric field is added to the initial perturbation such that the curl of the electric field is everywhere perpendicular to the background dipole magnetic field. During the localized poloidal resonance, plasma vortices parallel/antiparallel to the background dipole magnetic field B(sub 0). This circular flow, elongated radially, results in twisting of magnetic field flux tubes, which, in turn, leads to the slowdown of the circular plasma flow and reversal of the plasma vortices. The energy associated with the localized poloidal resonance is conserved as it shifts back and forth between the oscillating plasma vortices and the alternately twisted magnetic flux tubes. In the simulations the eigenfunctions associated with the localized poloidal resonance are grid-scale singular functions. This result indicates that ideal MHD is inadequate to describe the underlying problem and nonideal MHD effects are needed for mode broadening.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A1; p. 63-77
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A Monte Carlo simulation was developed in order to study the effects of wave-particle interactions (WPI) on the plasma outflow in the polar wind. The simulation also considered the other mechanisms included in the `classical' polar wind studies such as gravity, the polarization electrostatic field, and the divergence of geomagnetic field lines. Although the plasma consisted of electrons, H(+) and O(+) ions, we emphasized the behavior of H(+) in this preliminary study. The ion distribution function, as well as the profiles of its moments (density, drift velocity, temperatures, etc.) were found for different levels of WPI, that is, for different values of normalized diffusion rates in the velocity space (normalized D(sub perpendicular) H(+)). We found that as the WPI strength increases: (1) the ion drift velocity increases and its density decreases; (2) the perpendicular temperature T(sub perpendicular) (H(+)) increases; (3) the parallel temperature T(sub parallel) (H(+)) first decreases and then increases due to the balance between the parallel adiabatic cooling and the transfer of the energy from the perpendicular to the parallel direction; and (4) the temperature anisotropy ((T(sub parallel) (H(+))/T(sub perpendicular) (H(+)) is reduced and even reversed in some cases. For strong WPI (normalized D(sub perpendicular) (H(+) much greater than 1), the ion distribution function shows weak conic features at high altitudes.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Planetary and Space Science (ISSN 0032-0633); 42; 11; p. 987-992
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: 48.5 kHz signals from a transmitter in Silver Creek, Nebraska, propagating to Huntsville (HU), Alabama over a approximately 1200 km Great Circle Path (GCP) exhibit characteristic amplitude changes which appear within 20 ms of cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes located within 50 km of the path. Data are consistent with the heating of ionospheric electrons by the electromagnetic (EM) pulse from lightning producing ionization changes in the D-region over the thunderstorm.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 20; 21; p. 2355-2358
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Data from the electron detectors on board the Swedish Viking satellite launched during a period of low solar activity and from the Dynamic Explorer (DE) 1 satellite launched during active solar coditions have been examined for the occurrence and location of electron conical distributions and several conclusions can be drawn. First, we note that most of the best examples of electron conics observed by the V-3 experiment onboard Viking occurred in the afternoon sector in the range of magneitc local time 14 hours less than Magnetic Local Time (MLT) less than 18 hours, at midaltitudes in the range 10,000 km less than h less than 13,500 km, with few occurring in the nightside auroral region, a region poorly sampled at altitudes greater than 5000 km. For the Viking data there is an association of electron conics with upper hybrid waves. DE 1 observations made by the high-altitude plasma instrument (HAPI) indicate that electron conics were observed in the midmorning sector and the late evening sector, and as has been reported earlier, the correlation with upper hybird waves was good. The HAPI did not sample the afternoon sector. The electon conics observed on both satellites occurred in the presence of at least a modest (several kilovolts) potential difference beneath the satellite with a maximum energy that was usually, but not always, equal to or greater than the maximum energy of the electron conics. Two independent sets of observations by DE 1 suggest two distinct production mechanisms for electron conics. Examiniation of DE 1 electric field measurements from the plasma wave instrument during the observation of electron conics show simultaneous parallel oscillations in the frequency range of 0.2 Hz less than f less than 0.5 Hz during one and perhaps two of four events examined, and upper hybrid waves were observed on all four events. In addition, recent observations of '90-deg' electron conics associated with auroral kilometric radiation source regions suggest a perpendicular heating mechanism produced by wave-particle interaction. Such distributions may be observed as electron conics at higher altitudes. These results suggest more than one possible source mechanism may be responsible for electron conics.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; A12; p. 23,673-23684
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The hot protons of the outer magnetosphere typically exhibit a temperature anistropy such that T(sub perp)/T(sub parallel) greater than 1, where perpendicular and parallel symbols denote directions relative to the background magnetic field. If this anisotrpy is sufficiently large, the electomagneitc proton cyclotron anistropy instability may be excited. This instability is studied using linear Vlasov theory and one-dimensional hybrid simulations for a homogeneous plasma model representative of conditions in the outer magnetosphere with a hot anisotropic proton component (denoted by subscript h) and a cool, initially isotropic proton component (subscript c). Linear theory yields an instability threshold condition on the hot proton temperature anistropy where as the simulations imply an upper bound on T(sub perp h)/T(sub parallel h); both the threshold and the upper bound have similar scaling with the maximum growth rate gamma (sub m), the parallel beta of the hot component, beta(sub parallel h), and the relative density of the hot component n(sub h)/n(sub e). An anlysis of plasma observations from the Los Alamos magnetospheric plasma analyzer (MPA) in geosynchronous orbits finds that the maximum value of the hot proton temperature anisotropy approximately satisfies the predicted scaling with beta(sub parallel h) and nu(sub h)/n(sub e) and yields the proportionality factor that quantifies this upper bound. The simulations are also used to examine the heating of the cool proton cyclotron instability. The simulations yield a scaling for the dimensionless late-time cool proton average temperature T(sub c)/T(sub parallel h) as (n(sub h)/n(sub e))/beta(sub parallel h exp 0.5). Analysis of MPA data shows that the observed values of T(sub c)/T(sub parallel h) have similar scaling and again yield the proportionality factor which quantifies this relationship.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; A12; p. 23,603-23,615
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Recent simulations of magnetotail reconnection have pointed to a link between plasma flows, dipolarization, and the substorm current wedge. In particular, Hesse and Birn (1991) have proposed that earthward jetting of plasma from the reconnection region transports flux into the near-Earth region. At the inner edge of the plasma sheet this flux piles up, producing a dipolarization of the magnetic field. The vorticity produced by the east-west deflection of the flow at the inner edge of the plasma sheet gives rise to field-aligned currents that have region 1 polarity. Thus in this scenario the earthward flow from the reconnection region produces the dipolarization ad the current wedge in a self-consistent fashion. In this study we examine observations made on April 8, 1985 by the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers (AMPTE)/Ion Release Module (IRM), the geosynchronous satellites 1979-053, 1983-019, and 1984-037, and Syowa station, as well as AE. This event is unique because IRM was located near the neutral sheet in the midnight sector for am extended period of time. Ground data show that there was ongoing activity in the IRM local time sector for several hours, beginning at 1800 UT and reaching a crescendo at 2300 UT. This activity was also accompanied by energetic particle variations, including injections, at geosynchronous orbit in the nighttime sector. Significantly, there were no fast flows at the neutral sheet until the great intensification of activity at 2300 UT. At that time, IRM recorded fast eartheard flow simultaneous with a dipolatization of the magetic field. We conclude that while the aforementioned scenario for the creation of the current wedge encounters serious problems explaining the earlier activity, the observations at 2300 UT are consistent with the scenario of Hesse and Birn (1191). On that basis it is argued that the physics of substorms is not exclusively rooted in the development of a global tearing mode. Processes at the inner edge of the cross-tail current that cause a disruption of the current and a consequent dipolarization and current wedge may be unrelated to the formation of a macroscale reconnection region. Thus the global evolution of a substorm is probably a complicated superposition of such processes operating on a very localized scale and a global macroscale process that allows for such things as releasing te energy stored in lobe flux and creation of plasmoids.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; A12; p. 3,561-23,569
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: VLF signals propagating in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide are used to probe the heated nighttime D region over three U.S. Navy very low frequency (VLF,3-30 kHz) transmitters. Ionospheric cooling and heating are observed when a transmitter turns off and on in the course of normal operations. Heating by the 24.0-kHz NAA transmitter in Cutler, Maine, (1000 kW radiated power) was observed by this method in 41 of 52 off/on episodes during December 1992, increasing the amplitude and retarding the phase of the 21.4-kHz NSS probe wave propagating from Annapolis, Maryland, to Gander, Newfoundland, by as much as 0.84 dB and 5.3 deg, respectively. In 6 of these 41 episodes, the amplitude of the 28.5-kHz NAU probe wave propagating from Puerto Rico to Gander was also perturbed by as much as 0.29 dB. The latter observations were unexpected due to the greater than 770 km distance between NAA and the NAU-Gander great circle path. Heating by the NSS (21.4 kHz, 265 kW) and NLK (24.8 kHz, 850 kW) transmitters was observed serendipitously in data from earlier measurements of the amplitudes of VLF signals propagating in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. A three-dimensional model of wave absorption and electron heating in a magnetized, weakly ionized plasma is used to calculate the extent nad shape of the collision frequency (i.e., electron temperature) enhancement above a VLF transmitter. The enhancements are annular, with a geomagnetic north-south asymmetry and a radius at the outer half-maximum of the collision frequency enhancement of about 150 km. Heating by the NAA transmitter is predicted to increase the nighttime D region electron temperature by as much as a factor of 3. The calculated changes in the D region conductivity are used in a three-dimensional model of propagation in the Earth-ionosphere wavelength to predict the effect of the heated patch on a subionospheric VLF probe wave. The range of predicted scattered field amplitudes is in general consistent with the observed signal perturbations. Discrepanices in the predictions are attributed to lack of knowledge of the D region electron density profile along the probe wave great circle paths.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; A12; p. 23,329-23,338
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: This paper presents a comparison of the measured and modeled ionospheric response to magnetic storms at Millstone Hill and Arecibo during March 16-23, 1990. Magnetic activity was low until midday Universal Time (UT) on day 18 when Kp reached 6, days 19 and 20 were quiet, but a large storm occurred around midnight UT on day 20 (Kp=7) ad it was a moderately disturbed (Kp=4) for the remainder of the study period. At Millstone Hill, the daytime peak density (Nm F2) showed only a modest 30% decrease in response to the first storm and recovered to prestorm values before the onset of the second storm. The model reproduces the daytime peak electron density well for this period. However, the severe storm on March 20 caused a factor of 4 deplection in electron density, while the model densities were not greatly affected. the inclusion of vibrationally excited nitrogen N2(sup *) in the model was unable to account for the observed large electron density depletions afterward March 20. The storm did not appear to affect the overall magnitude of the electron density at Arecibo very much, but did cause unusual wavelike structure in the peak density and peak height following the storm. The model reproduces the daytime Nm F2 very well for Arecibo, but after sunset the model densities decay too rapidly. This study indicates that successful modeling of severe ionospheric stroms will require better definition of the storm time inputs, especially of the neutral atmosphere.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; A12; p. 23,359-23,365
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The Ultraviolet Limb Imaging (UVLIM) experiment flew on STS-39 in the spring of 1991 to observe the Earth's thermospheric airglow and included a far ultraviolet (1080-1800 A) spectrometer. We present first results from this spectrometer, including a spectroscopic analysis at 6-A resolution of H, O, N, and N2 dayglow emissions and modeling of the observed limb-scan profiles of dayglow emissions. The observed N2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) emission reflects a vibrational population distribution in the a(1 Pi)(sub g) state that differs significantly from those predicted for direct electron excitation and excitation with cascade from the a('1 Sigma)(sub u)(-) and w(1 Delta)(sub u) states. The vibrational population distribution and LBH brightness suggest a total cascade rate 45% that of direct excitation, in contrast to laboratory measurements. For the first time, pronounced limb brightening is observed in both the N I lambda 1200 limb emission profiles, as expected for emissions excited by N2 dissociation which produces kinetically fast N fragments; however, optically thick components of these features are also observed. Preliminary modeling of the OI lambda 1356, HI lambda 1216, and OI lambda 1304 and OI lambda 1641 emissions agrees to within roughly 10% of the observed limb-scan profiles, but the models underestimate the N2 LBH profiles by a factor of 1.4-1.6, consistent with the inferred cascade effect. Other findings include: an OI lambda 1152/lambda 1356 intensity ratio that is inconsistent with the large cascade contribution to OI lambda 1356 from np 5P states required by laboratory and nightglow observations; nightglow observations of the tropical ultraviolet arcs exhibit a wide range of OI lambda 1356/lambda 1304 intensity ratios and illustrate the complicated observing geometry and radiative transfer effects that must be modeled; and we find a 3-sigma upper limit of 8.5 R to the total LBH vehicle glow emission.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; A12; p. 23,2750-23,287
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: In late July and early August of 1991, a major suborbital scientific campaign (NLC-91) involving scientists from eight countries was conducted at ESRANGE, Kiruna, Sweden and at Heiss Island, Russia. The purpose of the program was to investigate the chemical, dynamical, and electrodynamical properties of the polar summer mesosphere. Thirty one rocket flights were coordinated with two coherent radar facilities, European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) and Cornell Univesity Portable Radar Interferometer (CUPRI), and with other ground-based observatories and facilities. This permitted direct comparison between the in situ measurements and those obtained by remote sensing of the mesosphere via continuous ground-based monitoring. The primary objectives of the campaign were to study noctilucent clouds (NLCs) and polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSEs), including their possible relationship to local aerosols and/or small scale turbulence. This overview describes the scientific program, discusses the geophysical conditions during launch activities, and reviews some of the preliminary results. More detailed results can be found in the papers which follow.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 20; 20; p. 2283-2286
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A Super Arcas rocket, MISTI B, was launched as part of the Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes (PMSE) salvo to measure electron density irregularities using rf and dc probes. Large and small scale structures in the electron density were measured on rocket ascent and descent at the altitudes of 86.5 and 88.5 +/- .5 km. Since the rocket apogee was 89 km, the rocket was in the height range 88.5 +/- .5 km for 30 seconds giving us an unusual measurement of horizontal structure over a distance of 5.5 km. A power spectrum of the fluctuations for the upper layer gives further evidence that turbulent mixing is an important process in PMSE. The power spectrum of the lower layer, however, gives evidence that this layer is characterized by a form of partial or Fresnel scattering. Both spectra are in excellent agreement with similar analysis of electron fluctuation spectra measured in the same layers on the TURBO-B rocket flown 12 minutes later and the analysis of Cornell University Portable Radar Interferometer (CUPRI) data by Cho et al., 1993A. Thus two different structuring and scattering mechanisms exist at altitudes only 1 km apart. Using the simultaneous dc and rf probe measurements of electron depletions and sharp gradients in the lower layer, we speculate on the role of aerosols in creating these depletions and gradients.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 20; 20; p. 2307-2310
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The NLC-91 rocket and radar campaign provided the first opportunity for high resolution neutral and plasma turbulence measurements with simultaneous observations of PMSE (Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes). During the flight of the TURBO payload on August 1, 1991, Cornell University Portable Radar Interferometer (CUPRI) and European Incoherent Scattter facility (EISCAT) observed double PMSE layers located at 86 and 88 km altitude, respectively. Strong neutral density fluctuations were observed in the upper layer but not in the lower layer. The fluctuation spectra of the ions and neutrals within the upper layer are consistent with standard turbulence theories. However, we show that there is no neutral turbulence present in the lower layer and that something else must have been operating here to create the plasma fluctuations and hence the radar echoes. Although the in situ measurements of the electron density fluctuations are much stronger in the lower layer, the higher absolute electron density of the upper layer more than compensated for the weaker fluctuations yielding comparable radar echo powers.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 20; 20; p. 2311-2314
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: During the first rocket sequence (called Salvo B) of the NLC-91 campaign, the Cornell University Portable Radar Interferometer (CUPRI) observed two simultaneously occurring layers of Polar Mesophere Summer Echoes (PMSE). during the time of the Turbo B flight, the high time-resolution CUPRI Doppler spectra exhibited sawtooth-like discontinuities in the lower layer which we interpret to be a distorted partial reflection layer which was advected across the radar beam. The upper layer, on the other hand, appeared to be caused by turbulent scatter and we estimate the turbulence energy dissipation rate in the upper layer at the time of the Turbo B flight to have been approximately 0.04 W/kg. Futhermore, a shift in the antenna beam direction from vertical to 8 deg off zenith revealed an aspect sensitivity of approximately 5 dB in the lower layer but none in the upper layer. We conclude that, at this particular time, turbulent scatter was responsible for the upper layer while some form of partial reflection was dominant in the lower layer.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 20; 20; p. 2291-2294
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Randel (1992) has recently reported evidence for Rossby-gravity waves in tropical data fields produced by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The purpose of this paper is to show that similar features are observable in fields of total column ozone from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite instrument. The observed features are episodic, have zonal (east-west) wavelengths of approximately 6,000-10,000 km and oscillate with periods of 5-10 days. The modes exhibit westward phase progression and eastward group velocity. A simple linear model is used to estimate the magnitude of total ozone perturbations induced by Rossby-gravity waves. The model is able to account for the magnitude of observed TOMS features as well as their asymmetry about the equator. The significance of finding Rossby-gravity waves in total ozone fields is that: (1) the report of similar features in ECMWF tropical fields is corroborated with an independent data set; and (2) the TOMS data set is demonstrated to possess surprising versatility and sensitivity to relatively smaller scale tropical phenomena.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 20; 20; p. 2239-2242
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The subject of this paper is a self-consistent, magnetohydrodynamic numerical realization for the Earth's magnetosphere which is in a quasi-steady dynamic equilibrium for a due northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Although a few hours of steady northward IMF are required for this asymptotic state to be set up, it should still be of considerable theoretical interest because it constitutes a 'ground state' for the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction. Moreover, particular features of this ground state magnetosphere should be observable even under less extreme solar wind conditions. Certain characteristics of this magnetosphere, namely, NBZ Birkeland currents, four-cell ionospheric convection, a relatively weak cross-polar potential, and a prominent flow boundary layer, are widely expected. Other characteristics, such as no open tail lobes, no Earth-connected magnetic flux beyond 155 R(sub E) downstream, magnetic merging in a closed topology at the cusps, and a 'tadpole' shaped magnetospheric boundary, might not be expected. In this paper, we will present the evidence for this unusual but interesting magnetospheric equilibrium. We will also discuss our present understanding of this singular state.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A3; p. 3623-3635
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We adopt a magnetotail model with stretched field lines where ion motions are generally nonadiabatic and where it is assumed that the pressure anisotropy resides only in the electron pressure tensor. We show that the magnetic field lines with p(perpendicular) greater than p(parallel) are less stretched than the corresponding field lines in the isotropic model. For p(parallel) greater than p(perpendicular), the magnetic field lines become more and more stretched as the anisotropy approaches the marginal firehose limit, p(parallel) = p(perpendicular) + B(exp 2)/mu(sub 0). We also show that the tail current density is highly enhanced at the firehose limit, a situation that might be subject to a microscopic instability. However, we emphasize that the enhancement in the current density is notable only near the center of the tail current sheet (z = 0). Thus it remains unclear whether any microscopic instability can significantly alter the global magnetic field configuration of the tail. By comparing the radius of the field-line curvature at z = 0 with the particle's gyroradius, we suspect that even the conventional adiabatic description of electrons may become questionable very close to the marginal firehose limit.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A3; p. 3573-3584
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Contact discontinuities in a collisionless plasma are studied by hybrid simulations, in which ions are treated as particles and electrons are considered as a fluid. It is demonstrated that contact discontinuity with a stable density ramp can exist in cases with a finite electron temperature. An electron pressure gradient is present across the contact discontinuity, leading to the presence of a parallel electric field and hence field-aligned potential increase (Delta Phi (sub parallel)) in the transition region. By reflecting ions at the discontinuity, this parallel electric potential peak reduces the interpenetration between hot and cold ions and maintains a stable density ramp across the contact discontinuity. The ratio of the field-aligned electric potential energy to ion thermal energy, e(Delta) Phi(sub parallel)/kT(sub i), is found to be an increasing function of T(sub e)/T(sub i), where T(sub e) and T(sub i) are respectively the electron and ion temperature.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 21; 18; p. 2059-2062
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: On January 28, 1990, the Dynamic Explorer 1 (DE-1) and Akebono satellites crossed a magnetic field structure at the equatorward edge of the polar cusp at altitudes od 22,000 and 5000 km, respectively, within 6 min of each other. Locally measured plasma particles and fields and magnetometer data from a ground station near the foot of the magnetic field line are more consistent with an interpretation of the structure as that of a standing Alfven wave than that of a quasi-steady field-aligned current sheet. We discuss the observations supporting this conclusion and other related observations of field-aligned currents, Alfven waves, and ion energization near the equatorward edge of the cusp. These observations suggest that Alfven waves are commonly present near the equatorward edge of the cusp.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 98; A12; p. 21,463-21,470
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: During the Arctic Airborne Stratospheric Expedition (AASE) simultaneous measurements of aerosol size distribution and NO(y)(HN03 + NO + NO2 + 2(N205)) were made along ER-2 flight paths. The flow characteristics of the NO(y) instrument allow us to derive the condensed NO(y) amount (assumed to be HN03) present during polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) events. Analysis of the January 24th flight indicates that this condensed HN03 amount does not agree well with the aerosol volume if the observed PSCs are composed of solid nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), as is generally assumed. However, the composition agrees well with that predicted for liquid H2S04/HN03/H20 solution droplets using a new Aerosol Physical Chemistry Model (APCM). The agreement corresponds in detail to variations in temperature and humidity. The weight percentages of H2SO4, HN03, and H2O derived from the measurements all correspond to those predicted for ternary, liquid solutions.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 21; 23; p. 2475-2478
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: On September 19, 1984, the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracers Explorers (AMPTE) United Kingdom Satellite (UKS) and Ion Release Module (IRM) and International Sun Earth Explorers (ISEE) 1 and 2 spacecraft passed outbound through the dayside magnetopause at about the same time. The AMPTE spacecraft pair crossed first and were in the near-subsolar magnetosheath for more than an hour. Meanwhile the ISEE pair, about 5 R(sub E) to the south, observed flux transfer event (FTE) signatures. We use the AMPTE UKS and IRM plasma and field observations of magnetosheath conditions directly upstream of the subsolar magnetopause to check whether pressure pulses are responsible for the FTE signatures seen at ISEE. Pulses in both the ion thermal pressure and the dynamic pressure are observed in the magnetosheath early on when IRM and UKS are close to the magnetopause, but not later. These large pulses appear to be related to reconnection going on at the magnetopause nearby. AMPTE magnetosheath data far from the magnetopause do not show a pressure pulse correlation with FTEs at ISEE. Moreover, the magnetic pressure and tension effects seen in the ISEE FTEs are much larger than any pressure effects seen in the magnetosheath. A superposed epoch analysis based on small-amplitude peaks in the AMPTE magnetosheath total static pressure (nkT + B(exp 2)/2 mu(sub 0)) hint at some boundary effects, less than 5 nT peak-to-peak variations in the ISEE 1 and 2 B(sub N) signature starting about 1 min after the pressure peak epoch. However, these variations are much smaller than the standard deviations of the B(sub N) field component. Thus the evidence from this case study suggests that upstream magnetosheath pressure pulses do not give rise to FTEs, but may produce very small amplitude signatures in the magnetic field at the magnetopause.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; A7; p. 13,521-13,527
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The dayside magnetopause moves inward during periods of southward interplanetary magnetic field in response to decreases in the outer magnetospheric magnetic field strength. We consider possible causes for the magnetic field strength decreases and demonstrate that they are consistent with increases in the region 1 Birkeland and cross-tail currents. We reexamine the well-known series of magnetopause crossings by OGO 5 on March 27, 1968, to demonstrate that they provide evidence for two intervals of gradual inward magnetopause motion associated with magnetic flux erosion and also for two intervals of inward magnetopause motion associated with sharp increases in the solar wind dynamic pressure.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; A7; p. 13,425-13,436
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The problem of kilometer-scale irregularities in the daytime equatorial electrojet is revisited by means of an eigenmode analysis of the gradient drift instability. Realistic physical parameters are used, including the modeled altitude variations of ion and electron collision frequencies and mobilities. The full fourth-order system of two coupled differential equations (each of second order) for the denisty and electrostatic potential perturbations is solved numerically by a relaxation technique. Under some approximations, the fourth-order system can be shown to reduce to a second-order differential equation for the perturbed potential or density. The latter is solved using a shooting technique and provides initial guesses for numerical solutions to the full problem. It is shown that the linear growth rate peaks for kilometer-scale waves, contrary to the findings of recent initial-value studies. This occurs because the equilibrium velocity shear is much more effective as a damping mechanism for short-wavelength modes than it is for the longer, kilometer-scale modes. These results provide a natural qualitative explanation for the observed dominance of kilometer-scale structures in the daytime electrojet spectrum.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; A7; p. 13,219-13,226
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Using Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, we reoccupied several leveling benchmarks on the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska which had been surveyed by conventional leveling immediately following the March 27, 1964, Prince William Sound earthquake (M(sub w) = 9.3). By combining the two sets of measurements with a new, high-resolution model of the geoid in the region, we were able to determine the cumulative 1993-1964 postseismic vertical displacement. We find uplift at all of our benchmarks, relative to Seward, Alaska, a point that is stable according to tide gauge data. The maximum uplift of about 1 m occurs near the middle of the peninsula. The region of maximum uplift appears to be shifted northwest relative to the point of maximum coseismic subsidence. If we use tide gauge data at Nikishka and Seward to constrain the vertical motion, then the observed uplift has a trenchward tilt (down to the southeast) as well as an arching component. To explain the observations, we use creep-at-depth models. Most acceptable models require a fault slip of about 2.75 m, although this result is not unique. If the slip has been continuous since the 1964 earthquake, then the average slip rate is nearly 100 mm/yr, twice the plate convergence rate. Comparing the net uplift achieved in 29 years with that observed over 11 years in an adjacent region southeast of Anchorage, Alaska, we conclude that the rate of uplift is decreasing. A further decrease in the uplift rate is expected as the 29-year averaged displacement rate is about twice the plate convergence rate and therefore cannot be sustained over the entire earthquake cycle.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; B2; p. 2031-2038
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A model of mantle convection which generates plate tectonics requires strain rate- or stress-dependent rheology in order to produce strong platelike flows with weak margins as well as strike-slip deformation and plate spin (i.e., toroidal motion). Here, we employ a simple model of source-sink driven surface flow to determine the form of such a rheology that is appropriate for Earth's present-day plate motions. In this model, lithospheric motion is treated as shallow layer flow driven by sources and sinks which correspond to spreading centers and subduction zones, respectively. Two plate motion models are used to derive the source sink field. As originally implied in the simpler Cartesian version of this model, the classical power law rheologies do not generate platelike flows as well as the hypothetical Whitehead-Gans stick-slip rheology (which incorporates a simple self-lubrication mechanism). None of the fluid rheologies examined, however, produce more than approximately 60% of the original maximum shear. For either plate model, the viscosity fields produced by the power law rheologies are diffuse, and the viscosity lows over strike-slip shear zones or pseudo-margins are not as small as over the prescribed convergent-divergent margins. In contrast, the stick-slip rheology generates very platelike viscosity fields, with sharp gradients at the plate boundaries, and margins with almost uniformly low viscosity. Power law rheologies with high viscosity contrasts, however, lead to almost equally favorable comparisons, though these also yield the least platelike viscosity fields. This implies that the magnitude of toroidal flow and platelike strength distributions are not necessarily related and thus may present independent constraints on the determination of a self-consistent plate-mantle rheology.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; B2; p. 2013-2030
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2011-09-13
    Description: Feasibility and potential of atmospheric crossed- beam experiments
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The VHF band MU radar at Shigaraki, Japan, has been in full operation successfully since April 1985. Dynamical features found primarily in the data obtained by the radar during a one year period from December 1985 to November 1986 are examined. These include: basic wind observations, quasi-monochromatic gravity waves generated by the jet stream or through a geostrophic adjustment process, seasonal variation of the mesoscale wind variability, the momentum flux due to gravity wave motions, and saturated gravity wave spectrum. A short discussion is added to the relationship between turbulent layers and ambient wind field in the mesosphere.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: International Council of Scientific Unions, Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP, volume 27; p 427-438
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Chung Li Radar (24.91 N; 121.24 E) has been operating since 1986. A five beam observational configuration was used on a regular basis to study the various dynamics processes in the atmosphere-lower stratosphere height region. Due to its geographical location, the annual Typhoon and Mei-Yu seasons provide good opportunities to study the various interesting dynamic processes such as instabilities, generation of gravity waves, wave mean field interaction, etc. Three dimensional air motions due to these fronts are presented. Special cases of gravity wave generation, propagation and their effects on the turbulent layers are discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: International Council of Scientific Unions, Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP, volume 27; p 423-426
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The long term trends (least square linear regression with time) of ozone content at seven European, seven North American, three Japanese and two tropical stations during 21 years (1964 to 1984) are analyzed. In all regions negative trends are observed during the 1970s, but are partly compensated by limited periods of positive trends during the late 1960s and late 1970s. Solely the North American ozone data show negative trends in all 10 year periods. When the long term ozone trends are evaluated for each month of the year separately, a seasonal variation is revealed, which in Europe and North America has largest negative trends in late winter and spring. While in Europe the negative trends in winter/spring are partly compensated by positive trends in summer, in North America the summer values reach only zero, retaining the significant negative trend in annual mean values. In contrast to the antarctic ozone hole, the spring reduction of ozone in Europe and in North America is associated with stratospheric temperatures increasing in the analyzed period and therefore is consistent with the major natural ozone production and loss processes.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: International Council of Scientific Unions, Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP, volume 27; p 413-416
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Rocket payloads designed to measure small scale electron density irregularities and ion properties in the middle atmosphere were flown with each of the three main salvos of the MAC/Epsilon campaign conducted at the Andoya Rocket Range, Norway, during October to November 1987. Fixed bias, hemispheric nose tip probes measured small scale electron density irregularities, indicative of neutral air turbulence, during the rocket's ascent; and subsequently, parachute-borne Gerdien condensers measured the region's polar electrical conductivity, ion mobility and density. One rocket was launched during daylight (October 15, 1052:20 UT), and the other two launches occurred at night (October 21, 2134 UT: November 12, 0021:40 UT) under moderately disturbed conditions which enhanced the detection and measurement of turbulence structures. A preliminary analysis of the real time data displays indicates the presence of small scale electron density irregularities in the altitude range of 60 to 90 km. Ongoing data reduction will determine turbulence parameters and also the region's electrical properties below 90 km.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: International Council of Scientific Unions, Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP, volume 27; p 396-399
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Four Super Arcas rockets were launched at the Andoya Rocket Range, Norway, as part of the MAC/SINE campaign to measure electron density irregularities with high spatial resolution in the cold summer polar mesosphere. They were launched as part of two salvos: the turbulent/gravity wave salvo (3 rockets) and the EISCAT/SOUSY radar salvo (one rocket). In both salvos meteorological rockets, measuring temperature and winds, were also launched and the SOUSY radar, located near the launch site, measured mesospheric turbulence. Electron density irregularities and strong gradients were measured by the rocket probes in the region of most intense backscatter observed by the radar. The electron density profiles (8 to 4 on ascent and 4 on descent) show very different characteristics in the peak scattering region and show marked spatial and temporal variability. These data are intercompared and discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: International Council of Scientific Unions, Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP, volume 27; p 386-389
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Results from high resolution foil chaff experiments flown during the campaigns MAP/WINE (December 83 to February 84), MAC/SINE (June to July 1987) and Epsilon (October to November 1987) at Andenes (Northern Norway) are compared to each other and the differences in wind direction and wave activity during the different seasons are worked out.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: International Council of Scientific Unions, Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP, volume 27; p 377-385
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Measurements in the mesosphere over Andoya/Norway (69 N, 16 E) were carried out using the mobile SOUSY-VHF radar with an extended beam configuration during the MAC/SINE campaign in summer 1987. First results of a 48 h and a 3 h observational period for heights between about 83 and 91 km are presented. Zonal mean winds are characterized by a strong westward flow of up to 50/ms, whereas the equatorward directed meridional component is weaker. The dominating semidiurnal tide has amplitudes up to 30/ms and a vertical wavelength of about 55 km. The diurnal tide is less pronounced. The total upward flux of horizontal momentum takes values of -2 sq m/sq s near 84 km and increases with increasing height, reaching a maximum value of 22 sq m/sqs for both the zonal and meridional components. However, measurements of the horizontal isotropy of the wave field suggest significant anisotropy. The major contribution to the momentum flux is from the 10 min to 1 h period range below about 87 km, and from the 1 to 6 h period range above this height.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: International Council of Scientific Unions, Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP, volume 27; p 359-364
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The project Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) of the international Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) comprised a multinational study of the structure, dynamics and composition of the middle atmosphere in winter at high latitudes. Coordinated field measurements were performed during the winter 1983 to 1984 by a large number of ground-based, air-borne, rocket-borne and satellite-borne instruments. Many of the individual experiments were performed in the European sector of the high latitude and polar atmosphere. Studies of the stratosphere, were, in addition, expanded to hemispheric scales by the use of data obtained from remotely sensing satellites. Beyond its direct scientific results, which are reviewed, MAP/WINE has stimulated quite a number of follow-on experiments and projects which address the aeronomy of the middle atmosphere at high and polar latitudes.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: International Council of Scientific Unions, Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP, volume 27; p 220-225
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: While the Langmuir probe controlled by rocket propagation experiments by the University of Illinois at midlatitude revealed the existence of a permanent D region turning point (DTP), similar measurements over the Thumba equatorial station did not clearly bring out the above daytime feature. Moreover, the calibration constant (ratio of electron density to the current drawn by the Langmuir probe) increased with height (in the 70 to 100 km region) in the case of the midlatitude observations whereas the recent measurements over Thumba showed a decrease up to about 90 km followed by an increase above 90 km. Secondly, there is the problem of reconciling the station oriented observations from the COSPAR family with the ground based radio propagation measurements from the URSI family. Thirdly, new information on Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) and in USSR is available by asking for its incorporation into any global model such as the IRI. The results of investigation of the above aspects are presented.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: International Council of Scientific Unions, Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP, volume 27; p 212-215
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The middle atmosphere is weakly ionized, collision dominated plasma. Rocket-borne dc probes have proven effective in measuring conductivity and electron and ion concentrations in this plasma, and in some cases electron temperatures and ion composition were observed. During MAP, dc probes were also used successfully to study turbulence in the middle atmosphere, using the plasma as a passive tracer for the dynamical processes in the nonionized gas. Basic principles are reviewed of the dc-probe technique and examples are presented of results obtained during MAP.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: International Council of Scientific Unions, Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP, volume 27; p 201-208
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The recent revival and strong motivation for research in middle atmospheric electrodynamics can be attributed, in large part, to the discovery of large (V/m) electric fields within the lower mesosphere during the decade prior to MAP. Subsequent rocket soundings appeared to verify the preliminary findings. During the MAP era, more sophisticated techniques have been employed to obtain measurements which respond positively to criticisms of earlier results, and which provide more insight regarding the character of the fields. The occurrence of mesospheric V/m electric fields now seems to require the presence of aerosols, of local winds and related dynamics, and of an atmospheric electrical conductivity less than 10(-10)S/m. Furthermore, new theoretical ideas describing the origin of the V/m fields are consistent with the measurements. The current status of results regarding V/m fields in the middle atmosphere is reviewed in light of the more widely accepted electric field structure for this region from rocket, balloon and modeling results.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: International Council of Scientific Unions, Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP, volume 27; p 178-185
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Meteor radar provide measurements of the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere neutral wind field by using the reflection of electromagnetic waves from meteor trails. These radars are relatively inexpensive and provide an excellent means of monitoring the mean winds and tides in the 80 to 100 km region. Recently new techniques were developed to detect meteor echoes from other ground based radar systems operating in the HF/VHF frequency range. The meteor echo information augments the data that are routinely collected by these radars. These new techniques are discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: International Council of Scientific Unions, Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP, volume 27; p 160-172
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  • 82
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The aim of the MASH project is to study the dynamics of the middle atmosphere in the Southern Hemisphere, emphasizing inter-hemispheric differences. Both observational data and data from simulations with numerical models are being used. It is intended that MASH will be complemented by parallel studies on the transport and photochemistry of trace species in the Southern Hemisphere. Impetus for such studies has come from the unexpected finding of a springtime ozone hole over Antarctica. A summary of recent progress with the MASH project is given. Data from polar orbiting satellites are used to discuss the large scale circulation found in the Southern Hemisphere at extratropical latitudes. Comparisons are made with that of the Northern Hemisphere. Particular attention is paid to the springtime final warming, the most spectacular large scale phenomenon in the statosphere of the Southern Hemisphere. The circulation before and after this event has to be taken into account in theories for the formation and subsequent disappearance of the ozone hole.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: International Council of Scientific Unions, Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP, volume 27; p 132-140
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  • 83