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  • Fisheries  (13,292)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1572-8366
    Keywords: Environment ; Fisheries ; Fordism ; Nation-State ; Regulation ; Supranational State ; Transnational corporations ; Transnational State
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract This analysis uses an analytical frameworkgrounded in political economy perspectives of theglobalization of the agro-food sector combined with acase study approach focusing on the Marine StewardshipCouncil (MSC) to inform discussions regarding thecharacteristics of societal regulation in thepost-Fordist era. More specifically, this analysisuses the case of the emergence of the MSC toinvestigate propositions regarding the existence of,and location of, nascent forms of a transnationalState. The MSC proposes to regulate the certificationof sustainable fisheries at the global level throughan eco-labeling program. The MSC was created in 1996by the transnational environmental organization theWorld Wildlife Fund and the transnational corporationUnilever. The emergence of the MSC has generatedheated discussion in fisheries management circles thatis in general divided along North/South lines. Thisanalysis indicates that the case of the MSC providesvaluable insights into the possible characteristics ofsupranational regulatory mechanisms that might emulatethe role of the nation-State in the post-Fordist era.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: Coastal zone Management ; Fisheries ; Marshes ; Wetlands ; Louisiana
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract This paper examines causes and consequences of wetland losses in coastal Louisiana. Land loss is a cumulative impact, the result of many impacts both natural and artificial. Natural losses are caused by subsidence, decay of abandoned river deltas, waves, and storms. Artificial losses result from flood-control practices, impoundments, and dredging and subsequent erosion of artificial channels. Wetland loss also results from spoil disposal upon wetlands and land reclamation projects. Total land loss in Louisiana's coastal zone is at least 4,300 ha/year. Some wetlands are converted to spoil banks and other eco-systems so that wetland losses are probably two to three times higher. Annual wetland losses in the Barataria Bay basin are 2.6% of the wetland area. Human activities are the principal determinants of land loss. The present total wetland area directly lost because of canals may be close to 10% if spoil area is included. The interrelationship between hydrology, land, vegetation, substrate, subsidence, and sediment supply are complicated; however, hydrologic units with high canal density are generally associated with higher rates of land loss and the rate may be accelerating. Some cumulative impacts of land loss are increased saltwater intrusion, loss of capacity to buffer the impact of storms, and large additions of nutrients. One measure of the impact is that roughly $8–17 × 106 (U.S.A.) of fisheries products and services are lost annually in Louisiana. Viewed at the level of the hydrologic unit, land loss transcends differences in local vegetation, substrate, geology, and hydrology. Land management should therefore focus at that level of organization. Proper guideline recommendations require an appreciation of the long-term interrelations of the wetland estuarine system.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: Grass carp ; Biological control ; Nuisance aquatic weeds ; Fisheries ; Aquaculture ; Reproductive requirements ; Arkansas management plan ; Sterile hybrids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) were introduced into the United States in 1963 as potential biological control agents for nuisance aquatic weeds. Since that time an oftentimes bitter controversy has raged over its effects on sportfishing, and its possible natural reproduction and naturalization in North America. This review considers the history, ecology, and present status of grass carp in the United States in light of the voluminous scientific research conducted since its importation. Particular attention is given to the role of grass carp in the fisheries management plans of Arkansas. Recent development of a sterile, triploid grass carp hybrid may lead to widespread use of grass carp to control nuisance aquatic weeds in culturally eutrophicated waters of the United States.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: Flushing ; Scouring ; Channel Maintenance ; Fisheries ; Trinity River
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The operation of Trinity and Lewiston Dams on the Trinity River in northern California in the United States, combined with severe watershed erosion, has jeopardized the existence of prime salmonid fisheries. Extreme streamflow depletion and stream sedimentation below Lewiston have resulted in heavy accumulation of coarse sediment on riffle gravel and filling of streambed pools, causing the destruction of spawning, nursery, and overwintering habitat for prized chinook salmon (Salmo gairdnerii) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha). Proposals to restore and maintain the degraded habitat include controlled one-time remedial peak flows or annual maintenance peak flows designed to flush the spawning gravel and scour the banks, deltas, and pools. The criteria for effective channel restoration or maintenance by streambed flushing and scouring are examined here, as well as the mechanics involved. The liabilities of releasing mammoth scouring-flushing flows approximating the magnitude that preceded reservoir construction make this option unviable. The resulting damage to fish habitat established under the postproject streamflow regime, as well as damage to human settlements in the floodplain, would be unacceptable, as would the opportunity costs to hydroelectric and irrigation water users. The technical feasibility of annual maintenance flushing flows depends upon associated mechanical and structural measures, particularly instream maintenance dredging of deep pools and construction of a sediment control dam on a tributary where watershed erosion is extreme. The cost effectiveness of a sediment dam with a limited useful economic life, combined with perpetual maintenance dredging, is questionable.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Phosphorus ; Contaminants ; Ecosystem ; Management ; Simulation model ; Great Lakes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract A simulation model was developed to describe linkages among fish food web, nutrient cycling, and contaminant processes in the southern basin of Lake Michigan. The model was used to examine possible effects of management actions and an exotic zooplankter (Bythotrephes) on Lake Michigan food web and contaminant dynamics. The model predicts that contaminant concentrations in salmonines will decrease by nearly 20% ifBythotrephes successfully establishes itself in the lake. The model suggests that this decrease will result from lowered transfer efficiencies within the food web and increased flux of contaminants to the hypolimnion. The model also indicates that phosphorus management will have little effect on contaminant concentrations in salmonines. The modeling exercise helped identify weaknesses in the data base (e.g., incomplete information on contaminant loadings and on the biomass, production, and ecological efficiencies of dominant organisms) that should be corrected in order to make reliable management decisions.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: Water control ; Floodplain ; Fisheries ; Bangladesh ; Chandpur
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Bangladesh is a very flat delta built up by the Ganges—Brahmaputra—Meghna/Barak river systems. Because of its geographical location, floods cause huge destruction of lives and properties almost every year. Water control programs have been undertaken to enhance development through mitigating the threat of disasters. This structural approach to flood hazard has severely affected floodplain fisheries that supply the major share of protein to rural Bangladesh, as exemplified by the Chandpur Irrigation Project. Although the regulated environment of the Chandpur project has become favorable for closed-water cultured fish farming, the natural open-water fishery loss has been substantial. Results from research show that fish yields were better under preproject conditions. Under project conditions per capita fish consumption has dropped significantly, and the price of fish has risen beyond the means of the poor people, so that fish protein in the diet of poor people is gradually declining. Bangladesh is planning to expand water control facilities to the remaining flood-prone areas in the next 15–20 years. This will cause further loss of floodplain fisheries. If prices for closed-water fish remain beyond the buying power of the poor, alternative sources of cheap protein will be required.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: Reservoir ; Fisheries ; Breeding and wintering waterbirds ; Raising water levels ; Habitat change
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract A new, higher dam was installed at Kerkini Reservoir in 1982, causing habitat and landscape disruption. A decrease in the area of grassland and shallow water areas, the rapid disappearance of reedbeds, the appearance of beds ofNymphaea, and the disappearance of half the forest area were all observed between 1982 and 1991. With the new hydrological regime, a lacustrine system was created, with an extensive, rather deep (4–8 m), pelagic zone favorable for the development of coarse fish species throughout the year. After 1982, an increase in fishing effort and a change in the relative abundance of fish species in the catch, including the disappearance of eels and wels, were observed. The impact of the rise in the water level of breeding aquatic birds led to a general decline in species typical of marshy habitats in favor of species preferring deeper open water habitats. A decrease was recorded in bird species that feed largely on invertebrates and to a lesser extent fish (e.g., glossy ibis) and that require extensive shallow feeding areas. There was a decline in geese, whose nests were regularly flooded, and a major increase in piscivorous birds, particularly diving birds (e.g., cormorants), which prefer deeper open water and benefitted directly from the large increase in coarse fish biomass. The disappearance of birds breeding in flooded meadows (e.g., black-winged stilts) and of those restricted to reedbeds (e.g., marsh harrier) occurred from 1983. Over the same period, the changes in populations of wintering birds at Kerkini were different from those occurring in other wetlands in northern Greece. The changes recorded in the populations of wintering birds at Kerkini did not therefore result from overall regional trends but from the major habitat modifications that occurred to this wetland. As for breeding birds, strictly piscivorous species increased greatly as a result of the increased availability of fish, but also due to the appearance of many suitable night roosting sites (flooded trees) and to the great increase in the area of open water greater than 2 m deep. Today, Kerkini has become the most important breeding site in Greece for a majority of colonial waterbirds. In contrast, wintering shorebirds practically disappeared. The many changes recorded in the status of breeding and wintering birds at Kerkini can mostly be explained by the changes that occurred in the functioning of the ecosystem and in the habitat structure following the inauguration of the new hydrological regime. These changes did not all occur at the same time: some were immediate and others required a delay before they could be detected.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-5133
    Keywords: Fish introductions ; Africa ; Cichlids ; Barbus ; Haplochromis ; Lake management ; Fisheries
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Synopsis Cyprinid fishes apparently constituted the major part of the original fish fauna in Lake Luhondo, Rwanda, at least until 1934. At that time only three species, all cyprinids, were known from the lake:Barbus neumayeri, a small barbel, very common in the lake (described from the lake asBarbus luhondo) and two larger cyprinid species:Barbus microbarbis andVaricorhinus ruandae. These two large species were probably not very common in the lake. Between 1935 and 1938 some youngTilapia were introduced into Lake Luhondo. Since then and certainly since 1952 the large cyprinids seem to have disappeared completely from the lake. The smallBarbus neumayeri has become extremely rare; at present it survives only in some small tributaries of the lake. In the lake itselfTilapia andHaplochromis species are now the dominant fauna. A survey of the available information is given.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-5133
    Keywords: Chondrichthyes ; Elasmobranchs ; Fisheries ; Ageing methods ; Growth rates ; Gestation periods ; Maturity ; Vertebral bands ; Weight-length relationships ; Life histories
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Synopsis The silky shark, Carcharhinus falciformis, and scalloped hammerhead, Sphyrna lewini, represent >80% of the shark by-catch of the winter swordfish/tuna longline fishery of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. This catch represents a potential supplemental fishery, yet little is known of the life histories of the two species. This report relates reproductive biology data to age and growth estimates for 135 C. falciformis and 78 S. lewini. Unlike other regional populations, C. falciformis in the Gulf of Mexico may have a seasonal 12 month gestation period. Males mature at 210–220 cm TL (6–7 yr); females at >225 cm TL (7–9 yr). Application of age at length data for combined sexes produced von Bertalanffy growth model parameter estimates of L∞ = 291 cm TL, K = 0.153, t0 = −2.2 yr. Adult male S. lewini outnumbered adult females in catches because of differences in the distributions of the sexually segregated population. Males mature at 180 cm TL (10 yr); females at 250 cm TL (15 yr). von Bertalanffy parameter estimates for combined sexes of this species were L∞ = 329 cm TL, K = 0.073, to = −2.2 yr.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-5133
    Keywords: Production ; Fisheries ; Population dynamics ; Energetics ; Fishes ; Competition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Synopsis Production rates of seven species of fishes were determined for one year in a 0.95 ha pond. Total annual production of all fishes in the pond was 209 g m−2y−1 (after the subtraction of 16.2 g m−2y−1 of negative production). Over 90% of the production occurred in the months of June through September, with young-of-the-year fishes contributing 84% of the total. When Y of Y fishes shifted to benthic diets in the spring, the small biomass of benthos available could not sustain the large biomas of fish. Severe competition for the available food then resulted in decreased production rates for the entire fish taxocene.
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