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  • Cell & Developmental Biology  (25,032)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Photography ; Point source enlarger ; Electron micrograph ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: Point source enlargers may cause unusual types of printing defects. One type is a large spot in the center of the enlarged picture field that sometimes appears when the edges of negatives are not adequately masked during printing. Another type is a blurry image caused by a defect in the polycontrast filter. The defect appears in the filter as a small spot of about 1/8-inch diameter, formed, presumably, by heat from the focused beam of the point source light. A spot defect of this type is difficult to see by a cursory visual examination of the filter and may develop unnoticed and persist for months before it is finally recognized.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Quick freezing ; Synaptic vesicles ; Cholinergic nerve terminals ; Electric organ ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: The limitations of chemical fixation in permitting the 1:1 quantitative correlations required for convincing ultrastructural explanations of cell biological processes are noted. We describe techniques for obtaining highly reproducible direct quick freezing on the polished surface of pure copper bars dipping into a static dewar of liquid N2. The importance and the ease of testing and obtaining bounce suppression with commerically available equipment is emphasized. Artefacts caused by tissue damage and bad freezing are illustrated, and a hitherto unrecognized population of presynaptic membrane attached vesicles is described in Torpedine electric organ. Between 15 and 20% of the synaptic vesicles are attached to ca. 30% of the cytoplasmic face of the presynaptic terminal membrane. There is a close correlation between the occurrence of such attachments and the application of electrocyte basal lamina to the external face. We suggest that these vesicles are the ‘membrane operators,’ ‘vesigates,’ and ‘highly active subpopulation’ of vesicles whose existence has been invoked to explain biochemical data in other laboratories. We further speculate that relatively selective Ca pumping by this immediately submembranous population leads to displacement of acetylcholine (ACh) and reloading with newly synthesized ACh. The preferential release of the latter would then be expected.
    Additional Material: 16 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Electron energy loss spectroscopy ; Parallel detection ; Photodiode assays ; Fluorescent screens ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: The present report paper deals with the use of a photodiode array for recording electron energy loss spectra in a transmission electron microscope. Important properties of the array are outlined, together with a description of the circuitry needed for interfacing the output to a multichannel analyser.In the direct-exposure mode, the device can easily detect a single (80 or 100 keV) electron, allowing inner-shell energy losses between 200 eV and 2000 eV to be recorded in about 10 seconds. By signal averaging a large number of readouts, a dynamic range of at least 105 is possible. Irradiation damage to the array can be controlled by cooling the array and by various anealing procedures. Sensitivity and DQE are lower, but the dynamic range is higher in the indirect mode, where a fluorescent screen is used to convert the electrons into visible photons, which are then imaged onto the diodes. The choice of screen material and of optical coupling to the array are discussed. Several spectral artifacts are described, together with spectrum-processing techniques designed to remove them.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Cross-section specimen ; Thin films ; Interfaces ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: The structure and chemistry of thin solid films are best studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) when they are viewed in cross-section - that is, when the surface normal of the film is made perpendicular to the electron beam. In this orientation, the substrate, the thin film layers, and the interfaces between them can be imaged either simultaneously or individually. Further, information from each of these regions remains distinct from that obtained from the others, eliminating the problems of superimposition that are a consequence of viewing a layered structure in the conventional manner (i.e., parallel to the surface normal). A technique for fabricating TEM specimens that can be viewed in cross-section is described here. Although the majority of our work is with silicon-based materials, the technique can be readily adapted to the study of other systems.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Morphometry ; Organelle arrangement ; Exocrine glands ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: Currently available morphometric methods provide useful information on the three-dimensional properties (such as volume, surface, etc.) of biological structures. These methods, however, do not reveal how the same structures are spatially organized within the cell. A sum of problems, which concern mainly the definition of shape and location of the sectioned structures, does not allow the three-dimensional representation of the organelle arrangement from a quantitative analysis of sections. Following a different approach, this study considers the topographic relationship between ten distinct subcellular structures: nucleus, Golgi, ribosomes, mitochondria, lysosomes, lipid droplets, secretory granules, and apical, lateral, and basal plasmalemma. The analysis of associations from 2 × 2 tables calculated for each pair of structures and the pattern of multiple associations obtained by clustering methods provide a useful description of the spatial relationship among different cell compartments. The results of the investigation carried out in parallel on seven human exocrine glands (pancreas, parotid gland, submandibular gland, lacrimal gland, ceruminous gland, ampulla of the vas deferens, and seminal vesicle) allow an immediate evaluation of the method and a comparative analysis of the cytologic organization of secreting cells of human exocrine glands.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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