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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Cellular slime molds ; Animals ; Fungi ; Plantae ; Maximum-likelihood method ; Evolution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The phylogenetic position of Dictyostelium inferred from 18S rRNA data contradicts that from protein data. Protein trees always show the close affinity of Dictyostelium with animals, fungi, and plants, whereas in 18S rRNA trees the branching of Dictyostelium is placed at a position before the massive radiation of protist groups including the divergence of the three kingdoms. To settle this controversial issue and to determine the correct position of Dictyostelium, we inferred the phylogenetic relationship among Dictyostelium and the three kingdoms Animalia, Fungi, and Plantae by a maximum-likelihood method using 19 different protein data sets. It was shown at the significance level of 1 SE that the branching of Dictyostelium antedates the divergence of Animalia and Fungi, and Plantae is an outgroup of the Animalia-Fungi-Dictyostelium clade.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Small-subunit ribosomal RNA ; Phylogeny ; Animals ; Fungi ; Plants ; Alveolates ; Heterokonts ; Stramenopiles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The evolutionary relationships of four eukaryotic kingdoms—Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, and Protista—remain unclear. In particular, statistical support for the closeness of animals to fungi rather than to plants is lacking, and a preferred branching order of these and other eukaryotic lineages is still controversial even though molecular sequences from diverse eukaryotic taxa have been analyzed. We report a statistical analysis of 214 sequences of nuclear small-subunit ribosomal RNA (srRNA) gene undertaken to clarify these evolutionary relationships. We have considered the variability of substitution rates and the nonindependence of nucleotide substitution across sites in the srRNA gene in testing alternative hypotheses regarding the branching patterns of eukaryote phylogeny. We find that the rates of evolution among sites in the srRNA sequences vary substantially and are approximately gamma distributed with size and shape parameter equal to 0.76. Our results suggest that (1) the animals and true fungi are indeed closer to each other than to any other “crown” group in the eukaryote tree, (2) red algae are the closest relatives of animals, true fungi, and green plants, and (3) the heterokonts and alveolates probably evolved prior to the divergence of red algae and animal-fungus-green-plant lineages. Furthermore, our analyses indicate that the branching order of the eukaryotic lineages that diverged prior to the evolution of alveolates may be generally difficult to resolve with the srRNA sequence data.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1769
    Keywords: Tracking ; Segmentation ; Pigs ; Animals ; Computer vision
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract An algorithm was developed for the segmentation and tracking of piglets and tested on a 200-image sequence of 10 piglets moving on a straw background. The image-capture rate was 1 image/140 ms. The segmentation method was a combination of image differencing with respect to a median background and a Laplacian operator. The features tracked were blob edges in the segmented image. During tracking, the piglets were modelled as ellipses initialised on the blobs. Each piglet was tracked by searching for blob edges in an elliptical window about the piglet's position, which was predicted from its previous two positions.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-322X
    Keywords: Animals ; Asia ; consciousness ; Australia ; Hong Kong ; India ; Israel ; Japan ; New Zealand ; The Philippines ; Russia ; Singapore ; Thailand
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Philosophy
    Notes: Abstract The interactions between humans, animals and the environment have shaped human values and ethics, not only the genes that we are made of. The animal rights movement challenges human beings to reconsider interactions between humans and other animals, and maybe connected to the environmental movement that begs us to recognize the fact that there are symbiotic relationships between humans and all other organisms. The first part of this paper looks at types of bioethics, the implications of autonomy and the value of being alive. Then the level of consciousness of these relationships are explored in survey results from Asia and the Pacific, especially in the 1993 International Bioethics Survey conducted in Australia, Hong Kong, India, Israel, Japan, New Zealand, The Philippines, Russia, Singapore and Thailand. Very few mentioned animal consciousness in the survey, but there were more biocentric comments in Australia and Japan; and more comments with the idea of harmony including humans in Thailand. Comparisons between questions and surveys will also be made, in an attempt to describe what people imagine animal consciousness to be, and whether this relates to human ethics of the relationships.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: Animals ; Indicators ; Air pollution ; Ecosystem responses
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract With existing and proposed air-quality regulations, ecological disasters resulting from air emissions such as those observed at Copperhill, Tennessee, and Sudbury, Ontario, are unlikely. Current air-quality standards, however, may not protect ecosystems from subacute and chronic exposure to air emissions. The encouragement of the use of coal for energy production and the development of the fossil-fuel industries, including oil shales, tar sands, and coal liquification, point to an increase and spread of fossil-fuel emissions and the potential to influence a number of natural ecosystems. This paper reviews the reported responses of ecosystems to air-borne pollutants and discusses the use of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to these pollutants. Animal species and populations can act as important indicators of biotic and abiotic responses of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. These responses can indicate long-term trends in ecosystem health and productivity, chemical cycling, genetics, and regulation. For short-term trends, fish and wildlife also serve as monitors of changes in community structure, signaling food-web contamination, as well as providing a measure of ecosystem vitality. Information is presented to show not only the importance of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to air-quality degradation, but also their value as air-pollution indices, that is, as air-quality-related values (AQRV), required in current air-pollution regulation.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Hypophysis ; Rostral pars distalis ; Mugil platanus ; Animals ; Prolactin hormone secretion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The rostral pars distalis (RPD) of the teleost Mugil platanus from animals pretreated with reserpine or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-HODA) were assayed for dopamine (DA) or noradrenaline (NA) or for prolactin hormone. Such determinations were coupled with electron microscopy. It was found that reserpine and 6-HODA produced a significant decrease in the content of DA, NA, and prolactin. Electron microscope studies revealed that prolactin cells became activated as judged by ultrastructural criteria. After 6-HODA treatment type “B” neurosecretory fibers entering the RPD became selectively destroyed. These observations lead us to suggest that prolactin secretion is under inhibitory control by type “B” neurosecretory fibers of adrenergic nature.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0303-2647
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell nucleus ; Evolution ; Plants ; Protoctista ; Taxonomy
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-01-14
    Description: 〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3804163/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3804163/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sprang, Stephen R -- R56 DK046371/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Jan 13;469(7329):172-3. doi: 10.1038/469172a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21228868" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adrenergic Agonists/chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Adrenergic Antagonists/chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Animals ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Drug Partial Agonism ; Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins/*metabolism ; Humans ; Models, Molecular ; Protein Conformation/drug effects ; Protein Stability/drug effects ; Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Viral Proteins/chemistry/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-03-22
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gorkin, David U -- Ren, Bing -- U01 ES017166/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Mar 20;507(7492):309-10. doi: 10.1038/nature13212. Epub 2014 Mar 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; 1] Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. [2] Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, La Jolla, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24646989" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Homeodomain Proteins/*genetics ; Humans ; Introns/*genetics ; Male ; Mixed Function Oxygenases/*genetics ; Obesity/*genetics ; Oxo-Acid-Lyases/*genetics ; Proteins/*genetics ; Transcription Factors/*genetics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-08-27
    Description: Aberrant activation of oncogenes or loss of tumour suppressor genes opposes malignant transformation by triggering a stable arrest in cell growth, which is termed cellular senescence. This process is finely tuned by both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous mechanisms that regulate the entry of tumour cells to senescence. Whether tumour-infiltrating immune cells can oppose senescence is unknown. Here we show that at the onset of senescence, PTEN null prostate tumours in mice are massively infiltrated by a population of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid cells that protect a fraction of proliferating tumour cells from senescence, thus sustaining tumour growth. Mechanistically, we found that Gr-1(+) cells antagonize senescence in a paracrine manner by interfering with the senescence-associated secretory phenotype of the tumour through the secretion of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). Strikingly, Pten-loss-induced cellular senescence was enhanced in vivo when Il1ra knockout myeloid cells were adoptively transferred to PTEN null mice. Therapeutically, docetaxel-induced senescence and efficacy were higher in PTEN null tumours when the percentage of tumour-infiltrating CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid cells was reduced using an antagonist of CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2). Taken together, our findings identify a novel non-cell-autonomous network, established by innate immunity, that controls senescence evasion and chemoresistance. Targeting this network provides novel opportunities for cancer therapy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Di Mitri, Diletta -- Toso, Alberto -- Chen, Jing Jing -- Sarti, Manuela -- Pinton, Sandra -- Jost, Tanja Rezzonico -- D'Antuono, Rocco -- Montani, Erica -- Garcia-Escudero, Ramon -- Guccini, Ilaria -- Da Silva-Alvarez, Sabela -- Collado, Manuel -- Eisenberger, Mario -- Zhang, Zhe -- Catapano, Carlo -- Grassi, Fabio -- Alimonti, Andrea -- England -- Nature. 2014 Nov 6;515(7525):134-7. doi: 10.1038/nature13638. Epub 2014 Aug 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Institute of Oncology Research (IOR), Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona CH6500, Switzerland [2]. ; 1] Institute of Oncology Research (IOR), Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona CH6500, Switzerland [2] Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne UNIL, Lausanne CH1011, Switzerland. ; Institute of Oncology Research (IOR), Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona CH6500, Switzerland. ; Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB), Bellinzona CH6500, Switzerland. ; 1] Institute of Oncology Research (IOR), Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona CH6500, Switzerland [2] Molecular Oncology Unit, CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid, Spain. ; Laboratory of Stem Cells in Cancer and Aging, (stemCHUS) Health Research Institute of Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), Clinical University Hospital (CHUS), E15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. ; Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231-1000, USA. ; Divisions of BioStatistics, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231-1000, USA. ; 1] Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB), Bellinzona CH6500, Switzerland [2] Department of Medical Biotechnology and Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Milan I-20100, Italy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25156255" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cell Aging/drug effects ; *Cell Movement ; Disease Progression ; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm ; Humans ; Immunity, Innate ; Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/deficiency/metabolism/secretion ; Interleukin-1alpha/immunology/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Myeloid Cells/*cytology/*metabolism/transplantation ; PTEN Phosphohydrolase/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy/immunology/metabolism/*pathology ; Receptors, Chemokine/*metabolism ; Receptors, Interleukin-8B/antagonists & inhibitors ; Taxoids/pharmacology ; Tumor Escape ; Tumor Microenvironment
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  • 11
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Klug, Hope -- England -- Nature. 2014 Nov 20;515(7527):343. doi: 10.1038/515343a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Tennessee, Chattanooga, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25409817" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; *Developmental Biology ; *Gene-Environment Interaction ; *Models, Biological
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2014-10-31
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McInerney, James O -- O'Connell, Mary J -- England -- Nature. 2014 Oct 30;514(7524):570-1. doi: 10.1038/514570a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, County Kildare, Ireland. ; School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Ireland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25355355" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Genes, Homeobox/*genetics ; Porifera/*genetics
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2014-07-11
    Description: Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most complex, persistent and controversial problems facing the British cattle industry, costing the country an estimated pound100 million per year. The low sensitivity of the standard diagnostic test leads to considerable ambiguity in determining the main transmission routes of infection, which exacerbates the continuing scientific debate. In turn this uncertainty fuels the fierce public and political disputes on the necessity of controlling badgers to limit the spread of infection. Here we present a dynamic stochastic spatial model for bovine TB in Great Britain that combines within-farm and between-farm transmission. At the farm scale the model incorporates stochastic transmission of infection, maintenance of infection in the environment and a testing protocol that mimics historical government policy. Between-farm transmission has a short-range environmental component and is explicitly driven by movements of individual cattle between farms, as recorded in the Cattle Tracing System. The resultant model replicates the observed annual increase of infection over time as well as the spread of infection into new areas. Given that our model is mechanistic, it can ascribe transmission pathways to each new case; the majority of newly detected cases involve several transmission routes with moving infected cattle, reinfection from an environmental reservoir and poor sensitivity of the diagnostic test all having substantive roles. This underpins our findings on the implications of control measures. Very few of the control options tested have the potential to reverse the observed annual increase, with only intensive strategies such as whole-herd culling or additional national testing proving highly effective, whereas controls focused on a single transmission route are unlikely to be highly effective.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Brooks-Pollock, Ellen -- Roberts, Gareth O -- Keeling, Matt J -- Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jul 10;511(7508):228-31. doi: 10.1038/nature13529. Epub 2014 Jul 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Disease Dynamics Unit, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ES, UK [2] WIDER Centre, Mathematics Institute and School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK. ; Department of Statistics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK. ; WIDER Centre, Mathematics Institute and School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25008532" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cattle ; *Computer Simulation ; Great Britain ; Health Policy ; Mycobacterium bovis/physiology ; Risk Factors ; Tuberculosis, Bovine/*prevention & control/*transmission
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2014-11-11
    Description: beta-catenin is a multi-functional protein that has an important role in the mature central nervous system; its dysfunction has been implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression. Here we show that in mice beta-catenin mediates pro-resilient and anxiolytic effects in the nucleus accumbens, a key brain reward region, an effect mediated by D2-type medium spiny neurons. Using genome-wide beta-catenin enrichment mapping, we identify Dicer1-important in small RNA (for example, microRNA) biogenesis--as a beta-catenin target gene that mediates resilience. Small RNA profiling after excising beta-catenin from nucleus accumbens in the context of chronic stress reveals beta-catenin-dependent microRNA regulation associated with resilience. Together, these findings establish beta-catenin as a critical regulator in the development of behavioural resilience, activating a network that includes Dicer1 and downstream microRNAs. We thus present a foundation for the development of novel therapeutic targets to promote stress resilience.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4257892/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4257892/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dias, Caroline -- Feng, Jian -- Sun, Haosheng -- Shao, Ning Yi -- Mazei-Robison, Michelle S -- Damez-Werno, Diane -- Scobie, Kimberly -- Bagot, Rosemary -- LaBonte, Benoit -- Ribeiro, Efrain -- Liu, XiaoChuan -- Kennedy, Pamela -- Vialou, Vincent -- Ferguson, Deveroux -- Pena, Catherine -- Calipari, Erin S -- Koo, Ja Wook -- Mouzon, Ezekiell -- Ghose, Subroto -- Tamminga, Carol -- Neve, Rachael -- Shen, Li -- Nestler, Eric J -- P50 MH096890/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R00 MH094405/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Dec 4;516(7529):51-5. doi: 10.1038/nature13976. Epub 2014 Nov 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Fishberg Department of Neuroscience and Friedman Brain Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA. ; Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25383518" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptation, Physiological/genetics ; Animals ; DEAD-box RNA Helicases/*genetics/metabolism ; Depression/physiopathology ; Gene Expression Profiling ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; MicroRNAs/*genetics/metabolism ; Neurons/metabolism ; *Resilience, Psychological ; Ribonuclease III/*genetics/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Stress, Physiological/*genetics ; beta Catenin/genetics/*metabolism
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2014-08-15
    Description: Notch signalling plays a key role in the generation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during vertebrate development and requires intimate contact between signal-emitting and signal-receiving cells, although little is known regarding when, where and how these intercellular events occur. We previously reported that the somitic Notch ligands, Dlc and Dld, are essential for HSC specification. It has remained unclear, however, how these somitic requirements are connected to the later emergence of HSCs from the dorsal aorta. Here we show in zebrafish that Notch signalling establishes HSC fate as their shared vascular precursors migrate across the ventral face of the somite and that junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs) mediate this required Notch signal transduction. HSC precursors express jam1a (also known as f11r) and migrate axially across the ventral somite, where Jam2a and the Notch ligands Dlc and Dld are expressed. Despite no alteration in the expression of Notch ligand or receptor genes, loss of function of jam1a led to loss of Notch signalling and loss of HSCs. Enforced activation of Notch in shared vascular precursors rescued HSCs in jam1a or jam2a deficient embryos. Together, these results indicate that Jam1a-Jam2a interactions facilitate the transduction of requisite Notch signals from the somite to the precursors of HSCs, and that these events occur well before formation of the dorsal aorta.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4237229/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4237229/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kobayashi, Isao -- Kobayashi-Sun, Jingjing -- Kim, Albert D -- Pouget, Claire -- Fujita, Naonobu -- Suda, Toshio -- Traver, David -- R01 DK074482/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01-DK074482/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Aug 21;512(7514):319-23. doi: 10.1038/nature13623. Epub 2014 Aug 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0380, USA. ; Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0380, USA. ; Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory, School of Medicine, Keio University, Shinjukuku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan. ; 1] Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0380, USA [2] Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0380, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25119047" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Aorta/cytology/growth & development/metabolism ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Movement ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism ; Junctional Adhesion Molecule A/genetics/*metabolism ; Junctional Adhesion Molecule B/genetics/*metabolism ; Phenotype ; Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics/*metabolism ; Receptors, Notch/*metabolism ; *Signal Transduction ; Somites/cytology/embryology/metabolism ; Zebrafish/embryology/*metabolism ; Zebrafish Proteins/genetics/*metabolism
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2014-09-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McMahon, Clive R -- Harcourt, Robert -- England -- Nature. 2014 Sep 4;513(7516):33. doi: 10.1038/513033e.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Sydney Institute of Marine Science, New South Wales, Australia. ; Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25186889" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antarctic Regions ; Environmental Monitoring/*methods ; Ice Cover ; *Oceans and Seas ; *Seals, Earless ; Seasons
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2014-03-05
    Description: Filoviruses are emerging pathogens and causative agents of viral haemorrhagic fever. Case fatality rates of filovirus disease outbreaks are among the highest reported for any human pathogen, exceeding 90% (ref. 1). Licensed therapeutic or vaccine products are not available to treat filovirus diseases. Candidate therapeutics previously shown to be efficacious in non-human primate disease models are based on virus-specific designs and have limited broad-spectrum antiviral potential. Here we show that BCX4430, a novel synthetic adenosine analogue, inhibits infection of distinct filoviruses in human cells. Biochemical, reporter-based and primer-extension assays indicate that BCX4430 inhibits viral RNA polymerase function, acting as a non-obligate RNA chain terminator. Post-exposure intramuscular administration of BCX4430 protects against Ebola virus and Marburg virus disease in rodent models. Most importantly, BCX4430 completely protects cynomolgus macaques from Marburg virus infection when administered as late as 48 hours after infection. In addition, BCX4430 exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral activity against numerous viruses, including bunyaviruses, arenaviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses and flaviviruses. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of non-human primate protection from filovirus disease by a synthetic drug-like small molecule. We provide additional pharmacological characterizations supporting the potential development of BCX4430 as a countermeasure against human filovirus diseases and other viral diseases representing major public health threats.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Warren, Travis K -- Wells, Jay -- Panchal, Rekha G -- Stuthman, Kelly S -- Garza, Nicole L -- Van Tongeren, Sean A -- Dong, Lian -- Retterer, Cary J -- Eaton, Brett P -- Pegoraro, Gianluca -- Honnold, Shelley -- Bantia, Shanta -- Kotian, Pravin -- Chen, Xilin -- Taubenheim, Brian R -- Welch, Lisa S -- Minning, Dena M -- Babu, Yarlagadda S -- Sheridan, William P -- Bavari, Sina -- HHSN272201100016I/PHS HHS/ -- HHSN272201100019I/PHS HHS/ -- HHSN27220110005I/PHS HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Apr 17;508(7496):402-5. doi: 10.1038/nature13027. Epub 2014 Mar 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Molecular and Translational Sciences, Therapeutic Discovery Center, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702, USA. ; BioCryst Pharmaceuticals Inc., Durham, North Carolina 27703, USA. ; 1] BioCryst Pharmaceuticals Inc., Durham, North Carolina 27703, USA [2] Wilco Consulting, LLC, Durham, North Carolina 27712, USA. ; MedExpert Consulting, Inc., Indialantic, Florida 32903, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24590073" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenosine/*analogs & derivatives ; Administration, Oral ; Animals ; Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage/chemistry/pharmacokinetics/*pharmacology ; DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Disease Models, Animal ; Ebolavirus/drug effects ; Filoviridae/*drug effects/enzymology ; Filoviridae Infections/*prevention & control/*virology ; Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control/virology ; Humans ; Injections, Intramuscular ; Macaca fascicularis/virology ; Marburg Virus Disease/prevention & control/virology ; Marburgvirus/drug effects ; Purine Nucleosides/administration & ; dosage/chemistry/pharmacokinetics/*pharmacology ; RNA/biosynthesis ; Time Factors
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2011-07-22
    Description: Most proteins must fold into defined three-dimensional structures to gain functional activity. But in the cellular environment, newly synthesized proteins are at great risk of aberrant folding and aggregation, potentially forming toxic species. To avoid these dangers, cells invest in a complex network of molecular chaperones, which use ingenious mechanisms to prevent aggregation and promote efficient folding. Because protein molecules are highly dynamic, constant chaperone surveillance is required to ensure protein homeostasis (proteostasis). Recent advances suggest that an age-related decline in proteostasis capacity allows the manifestation of various protein-aggregation diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Interventions in these and numerous other pathological states may spring from a detailed understanding of the pathways underlying proteome maintenance.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hartl, F Ulrich -- Bracher, Andreas -- Hayer-Hartl, Manajit -- England -- Nature. 2011 Jul 20;475(7356):324-32. doi: 10.1038/nature10317.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cellular Biochemistry, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, 82152 Martinsried, Germany. uhartl@biochem.mpg.de〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21776078" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging ; Animals ; Disease ; Humans ; Molecular Chaperones/classification/*metabolism ; *Protein Folding ; Proteins/*metabolism ; Proteome/metabolism ; Ribosomes/metabolism
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2011-04-22
    Description: Genetic methods of manipulating or eradicating disease vector populations have long been discussed as an attractive alternative to existing control measures because of their potential advantages in terms of effectiveness and species specificity. The development of genetically engineered malaria-resistant mosquitoes has shown, as a proof of principle, the possibility of targeting the mosquito's ability to serve as a disease vector. The translation of these achievements into control measures requires an effective technology to spread a genetic modification from laboratory mosquitoes to field populations. We have suggested previously that homing endonuclease genes (HEGs), a class of simple selfish genetic elements, could be exploited for this purpose. Here we demonstrate that a synthetic genetic element, consisting of mosquito regulatory regions and the homing endonuclease gene I-SceI, can substantially increase its transmission to the progeny in transgenic mosquitoes of the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. We show that the I-SceI element is able to invade receptive mosquito cage populations rapidly, validating mathematical models for the transmission dynamics of HEGs. Molecular analyses confirm that expression of I-SceI in the male germline induces high rates of site-specific chromosomal cleavage and gene conversion, which results in the gain of the I-SceI gene, and underlies the observed genetic drive. These findings demonstrate a new mechanism by which genetic control measures can be implemented. Our results also show in principle how sequence-specific genetic drive elements like HEGs could be used to take the step from the genetic engineering of individuals to the genetic engineering of populations.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3093433/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3093433/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Windbichler, Nikolai -- Menichelli, Miriam -- Papathanos, Philippos Aris -- Thyme, Summer B -- Li, Hui -- Ulge, Umut Y -- Hovde, Blake T -- Baker, David -- Monnat, Raymond J Jr -- Burt, Austin -- Crisanti, Andrea -- CA133831/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- RL1 CA133831/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- RL1 CA133831-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- RL1 CA133831-02/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- RL1 CA133831-03/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- RL1 CA133831-04/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- RL1 CA133831-05/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- RL1 GM084433/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- RL1 GM084433-01/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- RL1 GM084433-02/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- RL1 GM084433-03/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- RL1 GM084433-04/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- RL1 GM084433-05/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA080416/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 May 12;473(7346):212-5. doi: 10.1038/nature09937. Epub 2011 Apr 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Imperial College London, Department of Life Sciences, South Kensington Campus, London, SW7 2AZ, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21508956" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Animals, Genetically Modified ; Anopheles gambiae/*genetics ; Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific/genetics ; Female ; Genes, Reporter/genetics ; *Genetic Engineering ; Genotype ; Insect Vectors/*genetics ; Male ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mosquito Control/*methods ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/genetics
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2010-12-24
    Description: In the mouse, each class of olfactory receptor neurons expressing a given odorant receptor has convergent axonal projections to two specific glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, thereby creating an odour map. However, it is unclear how this map is represented in the olfactory cortex. Here we combine rabies-virus-dependent retrograde mono-trans-synaptic labelling with genetics to control the location, number and type of 'starter' cortical neurons, from which we trace their presynaptic neurons. We find that individual cortical neurons receive input from multiple mitral cells representing broadly distributed glomeruli. Different cortical areas represent the olfactory bulb input differently. For example, the cortical amygdala preferentially receives dorsal olfactory bulb input, whereas the piriform cortex samples the whole olfactory bulb without obvious bias. These differences probably reflect different functions of these cortical areas in mediating innate odour preference or associative memory. The trans-synaptic labelling method described here should be widely applicable to mapping connections throughout the mouse nervous system.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3073090/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3073090/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Miyamichi, Kazunari -- Amat, Fernando -- Moussavi, Farshid -- Wang, Chen -- Wickersham, Ian -- Wall, Nicholas R -- Taniguchi, Hiroki -- Tasic, Bosiljka -- Huang, Z Josh -- He, Zhigang -- Callaway, Edward M -- Horowitz, Mark A -- Luo, Liqun -- R01 MH063912/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS050835/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Apr 14;472(7342):191-6. doi: 10.1038/nature09714. Epub 2010 Dec 22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉HHMI/Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21179085" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amygdala/anatomy & histology/cytology/physiology ; Animals ; Axons/physiology ; Bias (Epidemiology) ; Brain Mapping ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; *Neuroanatomical Tract-Tracing Techniques ; Odors/analysis ; Olfactory Bulb/anatomy & histology/cytology/physiology ; Olfactory Pathways/anatomy & histology/*cytology/*physiology ; Olfactory Perception/genetics/*physiology ; Olfactory Receptor Neurons/cytology/physiology ; Rabies virus/physiology ; Synapses/genetics/*metabolism
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2014-07-11
    Description: Emerging fungal pathogens pose a greater threat to biodiversity than any other parasitic group, causing declines of many taxa, including bats, corals, bees, snakes and amphibians. Currently, there is little evidence that wild animals can acquire resistance to these pathogens. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a pathogenic fungus implicated in the recent global decline of amphibians. Here we demonstrate that three species of amphibians can acquire behavioural or immunological resistance to B. dendrobatidis. Frogs learned to avoid the fungus after just one B. dendrobatidis exposure and temperature-induced clearance. In subsequent experiments in which B. dendrobatidis avoidance was prevented, the number of previous exposures was a negative predictor of B. dendrobatidis burden on frogs and B. dendrobatidis-induced mortality, and was a positive predictor of lymphocyte abundance and proliferation. These results suggest that amphibians can acquire immunity to B. dendrobatidis that overcomes pathogen-induced immunosuppression and increases their survival. Importantly, exposure to dead fungus induced a similar magnitude of acquired resistance as exposure to live fungus. Exposure of frogs to B. dendrobatidis antigens might offer a practical way to protect pathogen-naive amphibians and facilitate the reintroduction of amphibians to locations in the wild where B. dendrobatidis persists. Moreover, given the conserved nature of vertebrate immune responses to fungi and the fact that many animals are capable of learning to avoid natural enemies, these results offer hope that other wild animal taxa threatened by invasive fungi might be rescued by management approaches based on herd immunity.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4464781/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4464781/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McMahon, Taegan A -- Sears, Brittany F -- Venesky, Matthew D -- Bessler, Scott M -- Brown, Jenise M -- Deutsch, Kaitlin -- Halstead, Neal T -- Lentz, Garrett -- Tenouri, Nadia -- Young, Suzanne -- Civitello, David J -- Ortega, Nicole -- Fites, J Scott -- Reinert, Laura K -- Rollins-Smith, Louise A -- Raffel, Thomas R -- Rohr, Jason R -- R01 GM109499/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01GM109499/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jul 10;511(7508):224-7. doi: 10.1038/nature13491.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] University of South Florida, Department of Integrative Biology, Tampa, Florida 33620, USA [2] University of Tampa, Department of Biology, Tampa, Florida 33606, USA [3]. ; University of South Florida, Department of Integrative Biology, Tampa, Florida 33620, USA. ; Allegheny College, Department of Biology, Meadville, Pennsylvania 16335, USA. ; Vanderbilt University, Biological Sciences Department, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. ; Vanderbilt University, School of Medicine, Departments of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology and Pediatrics, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. ; 1] Vanderbilt University, Biological Sciences Department, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA [2] Vanderbilt University, School of Medicine, Departments of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology and Pediatrics, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. ; Oakland University, Department of Biology, Rochester, Michigan 48309, USA. ; 1] University of South Florida, Department of Integrative Biology, Tampa, Florida 33620, USA [2].〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25008531" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amphibians/*immunology/*microbiology ; Animals ; Antigens, Fungal/immunology ; Cell Proliferation ; Chytridiomycota/*immunology ; Lymphocyte Count ; Lymphocytes/cytology ; Mycoses/*immunology/prevention & control ; Population Density ; Survival Analysis
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2011-03-04
    Description: The evolution of sex chromosomes has resulted in numerous species in which females inherit two X chromosomes but males have a single X, thus requiring dosage compensation. MSL (Male-specific lethal) complex increases transcription on the single X chromosome of Drosophila males to equalize expression of X-linked genes between the sexes. The biochemical mechanisms used for dosage compensation must function over a wide dynamic range of transcription levels and differential expression patterns. It has been proposed that the MSL complex regulates transcriptional elongation to control dosage compensation, a model subsequently supported by mapping of the MSL complex and MSL-dependent histone 4 lysine 16 acetylation to the bodies of X-linked genes in males, with a bias towards 3' ends. However, experimental analysis of MSL function at the mechanistic level has been challenging owing to the small magnitude of the chromosome-wide effect and the lack of an in vitro system for biochemical analysis. Here we use global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq) to examine the specific effect of the MSL complex on RNA Polymerase II (RNAP II) on a genome-wide level. Results indicate that the MSL complex enhances transcription by facilitating the progression of RNAP II across the bodies of active X-linked genes. Improving transcriptional output downstream of typical gene-specific controls may explain how dosage compensation can be imposed on the diverse set of genes along an entire chromosome.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3076316/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3076316/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Larschan, Erica -- Bishop, Eric P -- Kharchenko, Peter V -- Core, Leighton J -- Lis, John T -- Park, Peter J -- Kuroda, Mitzi I -- GM082798/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM45744/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HG4845/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004845/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004845-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004845-02/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R37 GM045744/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Mar 3;471(7336):115-8. doi: 10.1038/nature09757.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21368835" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; Animals ; Cell Line ; Chromosomes, Insect/*genetics/metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Dosage Compensation, Genetic/*genetics ; Drosophila Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Drosophila melanogaster/enzymology/*genetics ; Genes, Insect/genetics ; Genes, X-Linked/genetics ; Histones/chemistry/metabolism ; Male ; Nuclear Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; RNA Polymerase II/metabolism ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Transcription Factors/genetics/metabolism ; *Transcription, Genetic/genetics ; X Chromosome/*genetics/metabolism
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2011-01-05
    Description: During mitosis, adherent animal cells undergo a drastic shape change, from essentially flat to round. Mitotic cell rounding is thought to facilitate organization within the mitotic cell and be necessary for the geometric requirements of division. However, the forces that drive this shape change remain poorly understood in the presence of external impediments, such as a tissue environment. Here we use cantilevers to track cell rounding force and volume. We show that cells have an outward rounding force, which increases as cells enter mitosis. We find that this mitotic rounding force depends both on the actomyosin cytoskeleton and the cells' ability to regulate osmolarity. The rounding force itself is generated by an osmotic pressure. However, the actomyosin cortex is required to maintain this rounding force against external impediments. Instantaneous disruption of the actomyosin cortex leads to volume increase, and stimulation of actomyosin contraction leads to volume decrease. These results show that in cells, osmotic pressure is balanced by inwardly directed actomyosin cortex contraction. Thus, by locally modulating actomyosin-cortex-dependent surface tension and globally regulating osmotic pressure, cells can control their volume, shape and mechanical properties.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stewart, Martin P -- Helenius, Jonne -- Toyoda, Yusuke -- Ramanathan, Subramanian P -- Muller, Daniel J -- Hyman, Anthony A -- England -- Nature. 2011 Jan 13;469(7329):226-30. doi: 10.1038/nature09642. Epub 2011 Jan 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉ETH Zurich, Department of Biosystems Science and Engineering, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21196934" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Actomyosin/*metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Shape/drug effects/*physiology ; Cell Size/drug effects ; Cytochalasin D/pharmacology ; Cytoskeleton/drug effects/*metabolism ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Hydrostatic Pressure ; Microscopy, Atomic Force ; *Mitosis ; Models, Biological ; Osmolar Concentration ; Osmotic Pressure ; Prophase
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wittemyer, George -- Daballen, David -- Douglas-Hamilton, Iain -- England -- Nature. 2011 Aug 17;476(7360):282-3. doi: 10.1038/476282c.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21850090" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Commerce/*economics/legislation & jurisprudence/*statistics & numerical data ; Conservation of Natural Resources ; Crime/*economics/legislation & jurisprudence/prevention & control/*statistics & ; numerical data ; Elephants/*anatomy & histology ; Female ; *Horns ; Kenya ; Male ; Population Density ; Sex Ratio
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2014-11-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Weil, Anne -- England -- Nature. 2014 Nov 27;515(7528):495-6. doi: 10.1038/nature13940. Epub 2014 Nov 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74107, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25383538" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Fossils ; *Mammals ; *Phylogeny ; Skull/*anatomy & histology
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2014-02-11
    Description: The reorganization of patterns of species diversity driven by anthropogenic climate change, and the consequences for humans, are not yet fully understood or appreciated. Nevertheless, changes in climate conditions are useful for predicting shifts in species distributions at global and local scales. Here we use the velocity of climate change to derive spatial trajectories for climatic niches from 1960 to 2009 (ref. 7) and from 2006 to 2100, and use the properties of these trajectories to infer changes in species distributions. Coastlines act as barriers and locally cooler areas act as attractors for trajectories, creating source and sink areas for local climatic conditions. Climate source areas indicate where locally novel conditions are not connected to areas where similar climates previously occurred, and are thereby inaccessible to climate migrants tracking isotherms: 16% of global surface area for 1960 to 2009, and 34% of ocean for the 'business as usual' climate scenario (representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5) representing continued use of fossil fuels without mitigation. Climate sink areas are where climate conditions locally disappear, potentially blocking the movement of climate migrants. Sink areas comprise 1.0% of ocean area and 3.6% of land and are prevalent on coasts and high ground. Using this approach to infer shifts in species distributions gives global and regional maps of the expected direction and rate of shifts of climate migrants, and suggests areas of potential loss of species richness.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Burrows, Michael T -- Schoeman, David S -- Richardson, Anthony J -- Molinos, Jorge Garcia -- Hoffmann, Ary -- Buckley, Lauren B -- Moore, Pippa J -- Brown, Christopher J -- Bruno, John F -- Duarte, Carlos M -- Halpern, Benjamin S -- Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove -- Kappel, Carrie V -- Kiessling, Wolfgang -- O'Connor, Mary I -- Pandolfi, John M -- Parmesan, Camille -- Sydeman, William J -- Ferrier, Simon -- Williams, Kristen J -- Poloczanska, Elvira S -- England -- Nature. 2014 Mar 27;507(7493):492-5. doi: 10.1038/nature12976. Epub 2014 Feb 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Ecology, Scottish Association for Marine Science, Scottish Marine Institute, Oban, Argyll, PA37 1QA, Scotland, UK. ; School of Science and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Queensland QLD 4558, Australia. ; 1] Climate Adaptation Flagship, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Ecosciences Precinct, GPO Box 2583, Brisbane, Queensland 4001, Australia [2] Centre for Applications in Natural Resource Mathematics (CARM), School of Mathematics and Physics, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia. ; Department of Genetics, University of Melbourne, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia. ; Department of Biology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3280, USA. ; 1] Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3DA, UK [2] Centre for Marine Ecosystems Research, Edith Cowan University, Perth 6027, Australia. ; The Global Change Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. ; 1] The UWA Oceans Institute, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley 6009, Australia [2] Department of Global Change Research, IMEDEA (UIB-CSIC), Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados, Esporles 07190, Spain [3] Department of Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, PO Box 80207, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia. ; 1] Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA [2] Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Buckhurst Road, Ascot SL5 7PY, UK. ; Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA. ; 1] GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Palaoumwelt, Universitat Erlangen-Nurnberg, Loewenichstrasse 28, 91054 Erlangen, Germany [2] Museum fur Naturkunde, Invalidenstr asse 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany. ; Department of Zoology and Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V6T 1Z4, Canada. ; School of Biological Sciences, Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. ; 1] Integrative Biology, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712, USA [2] Marine Institute, Drake Circus, University of Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA, UK. ; Farallon Institute for Advanced Ecosystem Research, 101 H Street, Suite Q, Petaluma, California 94952, USA. ; Climate Adaptation Flagship, CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, GPO Box 1700, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2601, Australia. ; Climate Adaptation Flagship, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Ecosciences Precinct, GPO Box 2583, Brisbane, Queensland 4001, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24509712" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Animal Migration ; Animals ; Australia ; Biodiversity ; *Climate ; *Climate Change ; *Ecosystem ; *Geographic Mapping ; *Geography ; Models, Theoretical ; Population Dynamics ; Seawater ; Temperature ; Time Factors ; Uncertainty
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2014-08-01
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mecke, Sven -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jul 31;511(7511):534. doi: 10.1038/511534c.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Philipps-Universitat Marburg, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25079546" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biodiversity ; Bufonidae/*physiology ; *Conservation of Natural Resources ; Humans ; *Introduced Species
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  • 28
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-04-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉England -- Nature. 2014 Apr 10;508(7495):150.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24724184" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Carbon Dioxide/*chemistry ; Catalysis ; Chelating Agents/therapeutic use ; Copper/*chemistry ; Ethanol/*chemical synthesis/chemistry ; Hepatolenticular Degeneration/drug therapy/metabolism ; Humans ; Mice ; Neoplasms/*drug therapy/genetics/*metabolism/pathology ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics ; Renewable Energy
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2014-02-28
    Description: Commitment to and completion of sexual development are essential for malaria parasites (protists of the genus Plasmodium) to be transmitted through mosquitoes. The molecular mechanism(s) responsible for commitment have been hitherto unknown. Here we show that PbAP2-G, a conserved member of the apicomplexan AP2 (ApiAP2) family of DNA-binding proteins, is essential for the commitment of asexually replicating forms to sexual development in Plasmodium berghei, a malaria parasite of rodents. PbAP2-G was identified from mutations in its encoding gene, PBANKA_143750, which account for the loss of sexual development frequently observed in parasites transmitted artificially by blood passage. Systematic gene deletion of conserved ApiAP2 genes in Plasmodium confirmed the role of PbAP2-G and revealed a second ApiAP2 member (PBANKA_103430, here termed PbAP2-G2) that significantly modulates but does not abolish gametocytogenesis, indicating that a cascade of ApiAP2 proteins are involved in commitment to the production and maturation of gametocytes. The data suggest a mechanism of commitment to gametocytogenesis in Plasmodium consistent with a positive feedback loop involving PbAP2-G that could be exploited to prevent the transmission of this pernicious parasite.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4105895/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4105895/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sinha, Abhinav -- Hughes, Katie R -- Modrzynska, Katarzyna K -- Otto, Thomas D -- Pfander, Claudia -- Dickens, Nicholas J -- Religa, Agnieszka A -- Bushell, Ellen -- Graham, Anne L -- Cameron, Rachael -- Kafsack, Bjorn F C -- Williams, April E -- Llinas, Manuel -- Berriman, Matthew -- Billker, Oliver -- Waters, Andrew P -- 083811/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 083811/Z/07/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 085349/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 104111/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- G0501670/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P50 GM071508/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50GM071508/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI076276/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007388/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Mar 13;507(7491):253-7. doi: 10.1038/nature12970. Epub 2014 Feb 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Parasitology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK [2]. ; 1] Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK [2]. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. ; Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Parasitology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK. ; Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-1014, USA. ; 1] Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-1014, USA [2] Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA. ; 1] Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-1014, USA [2] Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA [3] Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania 16802, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24572359" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Culicidae/parasitology ; DNA-Binding Proteins/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Feedback, Physiological ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Germ Cells/cytology/*growth & development/metabolism ; Malaria/*parasitology ; Male ; Mutation/genetics ; Plasmodium berghei/cytology/*genetics/*physiology ; Protein Transport ; Protozoan Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Reproduction, Asexual ; Sexual Development/*genetics ; Transcription, Genetic
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2014-01-28
    Description: The tissue-resident macrophages of barrier organs constitute the first line of defence against pathogens at the systemic interface with the ambient environment. In the lung, resident alveolar macrophages (AMs) provide a sentinel function against inhaled pathogens. Bacterial constituents ligate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on AMs, causing AMs to secrete proinflammatory cytokines that activate alveolar epithelial receptors, leading to recruitment of neutrophils that engulf pathogens. Because the AM-induced response could itself cause tissue injury, it is unclear how AMs modulate the response to prevent injury. Here, using real-time alveolar imaging in situ, we show that a subset of AMs attached to the alveolar wall form connexin 43 (Cx43)-containing gap junction channels with the epithelium. During lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, the AMs remained sessile and attached to the alveoli, and they established intercommunication through synchronized Ca(2+) waves, using the epithelium as the conducting pathway. The intercommunication was immunosuppressive, involving Ca(2+)-dependent activation of Akt, because AM-specific knockout of Cx43 enhanced alveolar neutrophil recruitment and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage. A picture emerges of a novel immunomodulatory process in which a subset of alveolus-attached AMs intercommunicates immunosuppressive signals to reduce endotoxin-induced lung inflammation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4117212/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4117212/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Westphalen, Kristin -- Gusarova, Galina A -- Islam, Mohammad N -- Subramanian, Manikandan -- Cohen, Taylor S -- Prince, Alice S -- Bhattacharya, Jahar -- HL57556/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL64896/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL73989/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL78645/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL057556/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL064896/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL073989/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL078645/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL079395/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Feb 27;506(7489):503-6. doi: 10.1038/nature12902. Epub 2014 Jan 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Lung Biology Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Division of Molecular Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; 1] Lung Biology Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA [2] Department of Physiology & Cellular Biophysics, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24463523" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology ; Calcium/metabolism ; Cell Adhesion ; *Cell Communication ; Connexin 43/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Cytokines/immunology/secretion ; Female ; Gap Junctions/metabolism ; Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology ; Macrophages, Alveolar/*cytology/*immunology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Neutrophil Infiltration ; Neutrophils/immunology ; Pneumonia/chemically induced/immunology/pathology ; Pulmonary Alveoli/*cytology/*immunology ; Respiratory Mucosa/*cytology/*immunology
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2014-09-19
    Description: Efficient catalytic reactions that can generate C-C bonds enantioselectively, and ones that can produce trisubstituted alkenes diastereoselectively, are central to research in organic chemistry. Transformations that accomplish these two tasks simultaneously are in high demand, particularly if the catalysts, substrates and reagents are inexpensive and if the reaction conditions are mild. Here we report a facile multicomponent catalytic process that begins with a chemoselective, site-selective and diastereoselective copper-boron addition to a monosubstituted allene; the resulting boron-substituted organocopper intermediates then participate in a similarly selective allylic substitution. The products, which contain a stereogenic carbon centre, a monosubstituted alkene and an easily functionalizable Z-trisubstituted alkenylboron group, are obtained in up to 89 per cent yield, with more than 98 per cent branch-selectivity and stereoselectivity and an enantiomeric ratio greater than 99:1. The copper-based catalyst is derived from a robust heterocyclic salt that can be prepared in multigram quantities from inexpensive starting materials and without costly purification procedures. The utility of the approach is demonstrated through enantioselective synthesis of gram quantities of two natural products, namely rottnestol and herboxidiene (also known as GEX1A).〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4267680/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4267680/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Meng, Fanke -- McGrath, Kevin P -- Hoveyda, Amir H -- GM-47480/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM047480/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM057212/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Sep 18;513(7518):367-74. doi: 10.1038/nature13735.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry, Merkert Chemistry Center, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25230659" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alkenes/*chemical synthesis/chemistry ; Animals ; Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemical synthesis/chemistry ; Antineoplastic Agents/chemical synthesis/chemistry ; Biological Products/*chemical synthesis/chemistry ; Boron/chemistry ; Catalysis ; Copper/chemistry ; Fatty Alcohols/*chemical synthesis/chemistry ; Monosaccharides/*chemical synthesis/chemistry ; Porifera/chemistry ; Pyrans/*chemical synthesis/chemistry ; Stereoisomerism
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  • 32
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-03-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kraus, Virginia Byers -- England -- Nature. 2014 Mar 27;507(7493):441-2. doi: 10.1038/507441a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina 27701-2047, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24670760" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Humans ; Male ; Osteoarthritis/*metabolism/*pathology ; *Signal Transduction
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2014-06-13
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mescher, Mark C -- De Moraes, Consuelo M -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jun 12;510(7504):221-2. doi: 10.1038/510221a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24919917" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Hexanols/*metabolism ; Lycopersicon esculentum/*metabolism/*parasitology ; *Odors ; Spodoptera/*growth & development
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2013-12-07
    Description: Excavations of a complex of caves in the Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain have unearthed hominin fossils that range in age from the early Pleistocene to the Holocene. One of these sites, the 'Sima de los Huesos' ('pit of bones'), has yielded the world's largest assemblage of Middle Pleistocene hominin fossils, consisting of at least 28 individuals dated to over 300,000 years ago. The skeletal remains share a number of morphological features with fossils classified as Homo heidelbergensis and also display distinct Neanderthal-derived traits. Here we determine an almost complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a hominin from Sima de los Huesos and show that it is closely related to the lineage leading to mitochondrial genomes of Denisovans, an eastern Eurasian sister group to Neanderthals. Our results pave the way for DNA research on hominins from the Middle Pleistocene.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Meyer, Matthias -- Fu, Qiaomei -- Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer -- Glocke, Isabelle -- Nickel, Birgit -- Arsuaga, Juan-Luis -- Martinez, Ignacio -- Gracia, Ana -- de Castro, Jose Maria Bermudez -- Carbonell, Eudald -- Paabo, Svante -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jan 16;505(7483):403-6. doi: 10.1038/nature12788. Epub 2013 Dec 4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. ; 1] Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany [2] Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, China. ; 1] Centro de Investigacion Sobre la Evolucion y Comportamiento Humanos, Universidad Complutense de Madrid-Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain [2] Departamento de Paleontologia, Facultad de Ciencias Geologicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain. ; 1] Centro de Investigacion Sobre la Evolucion y Comportamiento Humanos, Universidad Complutense de Madrid-Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain [2] Area de Paleontologia, Depto. de Geografia y Geologia, Universidad de Alcala, Alcala de Henares, 28871 Madrid, Spain. ; Centro Nacional de Investigacion sobre la Evolucion Humana, Paseo Sierra de Atapuerca, 09002 Burgos, Spain. ; 1] Institut Catala de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolucio Social, C/Marcel.li Domingo s/n (Edifici W3), Campus Sescelades, 43007 Tarragona, Spain [2] Area de Prehistoria, Dept. d'Historia i Historia de l'Art, Univ. Rovira i Virgili, Fac. de Lletres, Av. Catalunya, 35, 43002 Tarragona, Spain.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24305051" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bayes Theorem ; Consensus Sequence/genetics ; Cytosine/metabolism ; DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics ; Deamination ; Femur/anatomy & histology/metabolism ; *Fossils ; Genome, Mitochondrial/*genetics ; Hominidae/anatomy & histology/*classification/*genetics ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Neanderthals/genetics ; *Phylogeny ; Spain
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2013-11-22
    Description: The origins of the First Americans remain contentious. Although Native Americans seem to be genetically most closely related to east Asians, there is no consensus with regard to which specific Old World populations they are closest to. Here we sequence the draft genome of an approximately 24,000-year-old individual (MA-1), from Mal'ta in south-central Siberia, to an average depth of 1x. To our knowledge this is the oldest anatomically modern human genome reported to date. The MA-1 mitochondrial genome belongs to haplogroup U, which has also been found at high frequency among Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic European hunter-gatherers, and the Y chromosome of MA-1 is basal to modern-day western Eurasians and near the root of most Native American lineages. Similarly, we find autosomal evidence that MA-1 is basal to modern-day western Eurasians and genetically closely related to modern-day Native Americans, with no close affinity to east Asians. This suggests that populations related to contemporary western Eurasians had a more north-easterly distribution 24,000 years ago than commonly thought. Furthermore, we estimate that 14 to 38% of Native American ancestry may originate through gene flow from this ancient population. This is likely to have occurred after the divergence of Native American ancestors from east Asian ancestors, but before the diversification of Native American populations in the New World. Gene flow from the MA-1 lineage into Native American ancestors could explain why several crania from the First Americans have been reported as bearing morphological characteristics that do not resemble those of east Asians. Sequencing of another south-central Siberian, Afontova Gora-2 dating to approximately 17,000 years ago, revealed similar autosomal genetic signatures as MA-1, suggesting that the region was continuously occupied by humans throughout the Last Glacial Maximum. Our findings reveal that western Eurasian genetic signatures in modern-day Native Americans derive not only from post-Columbian admixture, as commonly thought, but also from a mixed ancestry of the First Americans.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4105016/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4105016/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Raghavan, Maanasa -- Skoglund, Pontus -- Graf, Kelly E -- Metspalu, Mait -- Albrechtsen, Anders -- Moltke, Ida -- Rasmussen, Simon -- Stafford, Thomas W Jr -- Orlando, Ludovic -- Metspalu, Ene -- Karmin, Monika -- Tambets, Kristiina -- Rootsi, Siiri -- Magi, Reedik -- Campos, Paula F -- Balanovska, Elena -- Balanovsky, Oleg -- Khusnutdinova, Elza -- Litvinov, Sergey -- Osipova, Ludmila P -- Fedorova, Sardana A -- Voevoda, Mikhail I -- DeGiorgio, Michael -- Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas -- Brunak, Soren -- Demeshchenko, Svetlana -- Kivisild, Toomas -- Villems, Richard -- Nielsen, Rasmus -- Jakobsson, Mattias -- Willerslev, Eske -- R01 HG003229/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jan 2;505(7481):87-91. doi: 10.1038/nature12736. Epub 2013 Nov 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark [2]. ; 1] Department of Evolutionary Biology, Uppsala University, Norbyvagen 18D, Uppsala 752 36, Sweden [2]. ; Center for the Study of the First Americans, Texas A&M University, TAMU-4352, College Station, Texas 77845-4352, USA. ; 1] Estonian Biocentre, Evolutionary Biology group, Tartu 51010, Estonia [2] Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA [3] Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. ; The Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaloes Vej 5, Copenhagen 2200, Denmark. ; 1] The Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaloes Vej 5, Copenhagen 2200, Denmark [2] Department of Human Genetics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby 2800, Denmark. ; 1] Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark [2] AMS 14C Dating Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade 120, Aarhus DK-8000, Denmark. ; Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark. ; Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. ; 1] Estonian Biocentre, Evolutionary Biology group, Tartu 51010, Estonia [2] Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. ; Estonian Biocentre, Evolutionary Biology group, Tartu 51010, Estonia. ; Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. ; Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moskvorechie Street 1, Moscow 115479, Russia. ; 1] Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moskvorechie Street 1, Moscow 115479, Russia [2] Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gubkina Street 3, Moscow 119991, Russia. ; 1] Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ufa Scientific Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, Bashkorostan 450054, Russia [2] Biology Department, Bashkir State University, Ufa, Bashkorostan 450074, Russia. ; 1] Estonian Biocentre, Evolutionary Biology group, Tartu 51010, Estonia [2] Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ufa Scientific Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, Bashkorostan 450054, Russia. ; The Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Center for Brain Neurobiology and Neurogenetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Lavrentyeva Avenue, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia. ; Department of Molecular Genetics, Yakut Research Center of Complex Medical Problems, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences and North-Eastern Federal University, Yakutsk, Sakha (Yakutia) 677010, Russia. ; 1] The Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Center for Brain Neurobiology and Neurogenetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Lavrentyeva Avenue, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia [2] Institute of Internal Medicine, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Borisa Bogatkova 175/1, Novosibirsk 630089, Russia. ; Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; 1] Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby 2800, Denmark [2] Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby 2800, Denmark. ; The State Hermitage Museum, 2, Dvortsovaya Ploshchad, St. Petersberg 190000, Russia. ; 1] Estonian Biocentre, Evolutionary Biology group, Tartu 51010, Estonia [2] Department of Biological Anthropology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QH, UK. ; 1] Estonian Biocentre, Evolutionary Biology group, Tartu 51010, Estonia [2] Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia [3] Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn 10130, Estonia. ; 1] Department of Evolutionary Biology, Uppsala University, Norbyvagen 18D, Uppsala 752 36, Sweden [2] Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Norbyvagen 18D, 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24256729" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Asia/ethnology ; Asian Continental Ancestry Group/*genetics ; Chromosomes, Human, Y/genetics ; DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics ; Emigration and Immigration ; European Continental Ancestry Group/*genetics ; Gene Flow/genetics ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Genome, Mitochondrial/genetics ; Haplotypes/genetics ; Humans ; Indians, North American/classification/*ethnology/*genetics ; Male ; *Phylogeny ; Phylogeography ; Siberia/ethnology ; Skeleton
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2014-12-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Krug, Robert M -- England -- Nature. 2014 Dec 18;516(7531):338-9. doi: 10.1038/516338a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Biosciences, Center for Infectious Disease, Institute of Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25519129" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/*chemistry/metabolism ; Humans ; Influenza A virus/*enzymology ; Influenza B virus/*enzymology ; RNA/biosynthesis ; Virus Replication
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2014-08-08
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Grune, Barbara -- Hensel, Andreas -- Schonfelder, Gilbert -- England -- Nature. 2014 Aug 7;512(7512):28. doi: 10.1038/512028c.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Berlin, Germany. ; BfR; and Charite-Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25100475" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Welfare/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Animals ; *Animals, Laboratory/genetics/physiology ; European Union ; Organisms, Genetically Modified/genetics/physiology ; Pain/diagnosis/genetics/physiopathology/*veterinary ; Pain Measurement/veterinary
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2014-07-06
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Butler, Declan -- Maher, Brendan -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jul 3;511(7507):13-4. doi: 10.1038/511013a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24990722" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Genetic Engineering ; Humans ; Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/*genetics/*pathogenicity ; Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/genetics/pathogenicity ; Influenza, Human/transmission/*virology ; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (U.S.)/legislation & ; jurisprudence ; Risk Assessment ; United States ; Universities
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2014-12-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Driscoll, Don -- Catford, Jane -- England -- Nature. 2014 Dec 4;516(7529):37. doi: 10.1038/516037e.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25471871" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Animal Husbandry ; Animals ; *Crops, Agricultural ; *Government Regulation ; *Introduced Species ; *Plant Weeds ; Weed Control/*methods
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2014-03-05
    Description: Recognition of modified histones by 'reader' proteins plays a critical role in the regulation of chromatin. H3K36 trimethylation (H3K36me3) is deposited onto the nucleosomes in the transcribed regions after RNA polymerase II elongation. In yeast, this mark in turn recruits epigenetic regulators to reset the chromatin to a relatively repressive state, thus suppressing cryptic transcription. However, much less is known about the role of H3K36me3 in transcription regulation in mammals. This is further complicated by the transcription-coupled incorporation of the histone variant H3.3 in gene bodies. Here we show that the candidate tumour suppressor ZMYND11 specifically recognizes H3K36me3 on H3.3 (H3.3K36me3) and regulates RNA polymerase II elongation. Structural studies show that in addition to the trimethyl-lysine binding by an aromatic cage within the PWWP domain, the H3.3-dependent recognition is mediated by the encapsulation of the H3.3-specific 'Ser 31' residue in a composite pocket formed by the tandem bromo-PWWP domains of ZMYND11. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing shows a genome-wide co-localization of ZMYND11 with H3K36me3 and H3.3 in gene bodies, and its occupancy requires the pre-deposition of H3.3K36me3. Although ZMYND11 is associated with highly expressed genes, it functions as an unconventional transcription co-repressor by modulating RNA polymerase II at the elongation stage. ZMYND11 is critical for the repression of a transcriptional program that is essential for tumour cell growth; low expression levels of ZMYND11 in breast cancer patients correlate with worse prognosis. Consistently, overexpression of ZMYND11 suppresses cancer cell growth in vitro and tumour formation in mice. Together, this study identifies ZMYND11 as an H3.3-specific reader of H3K36me3 that links the histone-variant-mediated transcription elongation control to tumour suppression.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4142212/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4142212/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wen, Hong -- Li, Yuanyuan -- Xi, Yuanxin -- Jiang, Shiming -- Stratton, Sabrina -- Peng, Danni -- Tanaka, Kaori -- Ren, Yongfeng -- Xia, Zheng -- Wu, Jun -- Li, Bing -- Barton, Michelle C -- Li, Wei -- Li, Haitao -- Shi, Xiaobing -- CA016672/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA016672/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM090077/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG007538/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01GM090077/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01HG007538/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Apr 10;508(7495):263-8. doi: 10.1038/nature13045. Epub 2014 Mar 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [2] Center for Cancer Epigenetics, Center for Genetics and Genomics, and Center for Stem Cell and Developmental Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [3]. ; 1] MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Sciences, Center for Structural Biology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China [2] Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China [3]. ; 1] Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [2]. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; 1] MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Sciences, Center for Structural Biology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China [2] Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA. ; 1] Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [2] Center for Cancer Epigenetics, Center for Genetics and Genomics, and Center for Stem Cell and Developmental Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [3] Genes and Development Graduate Program, The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, Teaxs 77030, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24590075" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Breast Neoplasms/*genetics/metabolism/*pathology ; Carrier Proteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Chromatin/genetics/metabolism ; Co-Repressor Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Disease-Free Survival ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics ; Histones/chemistry/*metabolism ; Humans ; Lysine/*metabolism ; Methylation ; Mice ; Mice, Nude ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Oncogenes/genetics ; Prognosis ; Protein Binding ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; RNA Polymerase II/*metabolism ; Substrate Specificity ; *Transcription Elongation, Genetic
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2013-12-24
    Description: Mitochondrial ribosomes synthesize a number of highly hydrophobic proteins encoded on the genome of mitochondria, the organelles in eukaryotic cells that are responsible for energy conversion by oxidative phosphorylation. The ribosomes in mammalian mitochondria have undergone massive structural changes throughout their evolution, including ribosomal RNA shortening and acquisition of mitochondria-specific ribosomal proteins. Here we present the three-dimensional structure of the 39S large subunit of the porcine mitochondrial ribosome determined by cryo-electron microscopy at 4.9 A resolution. The structure, combined with data from chemical crosslinking and mass spectrometry experiments, reveals the unique features of the 39S subunit at near-atomic resolution and provides detailed insight into the architecture of the polypeptide exit site. This region of the mitochondrial ribosome has been considerably remodelled compared to its bacterial counterpart, providing a specialized platform for the synthesis and membrane insertion of the highly hydrophobic protein components of the respiratory chain.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Greber, Basil J -- Boehringer, Daniel -- Leitner, Alexander -- Bieri, Philipp -- Voigts-Hoffmann, Felix -- Erzberger, Jan P -- Leibundgut, Marc -- Aebersold, Ruedi -- Ban, Nenad -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jan 23;505(7484):515-9. doi: 10.1038/nature12890. Epub 2013 Dec 22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Biology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Schafmattstrasse 20, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland [2]. ; Department of Biology, Institute of Molecular Systems Biology, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 16, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland. ; Department of Biology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Schafmattstrasse 20, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland. ; 1] Department of Biology, Institute of Molecular Systems Biology, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 16, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland [2] Faculty of Science, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24362565" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cattle ; Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions ; Mass Spectrometry ; Mitochondria/*chemistry/ultrastructure ; Mitochondrial Proteins/chemistry/ultrastructure ; Models, Molecular ; Nucleic Acid Conformation ; Protein Conformation ; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/chemistry/ultrastructure ; Ribosomal Proteins/chemistry/ultrastructure ; Ribosome Subunits/*chemistry/ultrastructure ; Swine
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2014-07-06
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Smith, Kirk R -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jul 3;511(7507):31. doi: 10.1038/511031c.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of California, Berkeley, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24990733" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Air Pollution, Indoor/*prevention & control ; Animals ; *Biomass ; Cooking/*instrumentation ; *Fires ; Humans ; Public Health/*methods
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2014-05-09
    Description: PTEN encodes a lipid phosphatase that is underexpressed in many cancers owing to deletions, mutations or gene silencing. PTEN dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate, thereby opposing the activity of class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases that mediate growth- and survival-factor signalling through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase effectors such as AKT and mTOR. To determine whether continued PTEN inactivation is required to maintain malignancy, here we generate an RNA interference-based transgenic mouse model that allows tetracycline-dependent regulation of PTEN in a time- and tissue-specific manner. Postnatal Pten knockdown in the haematopoietic compartment produced highly disseminated T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Notably, reactivation of PTEN mainly reduced T-cell leukaemia dissemination but had little effect on tumour load in haematopoietic organs. Leukaemia infiltration into the intestine was dependent on CCR9 G-protein-coupled receptor signalling, which was amplified by PTEN loss. Our results suggest that in the absence of PTEN, G-protein-coupled receptors may have an unanticipated role in driving tumour growth and invasion in an unsupportive environment. They further reveal that the role of PTEN loss in tumour maintenance is not invariant and can be influenced by the tissue microenvironment, thereby producing a form of intratumoral heterogeneity that is independent of cancer genotype.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4165899/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4165899/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Miething, Cornelius -- Scuoppo, Claudio -- Bosbach, Benedikt -- Appelmann, Iris -- Nakitandwe, Joy -- Ma, Jing -- Wu, Gang -- Lintault, Laura -- Auer, Martina -- Premsrirut, Prem K -- Teruya-Feldstein, Julie -- Hicks, James -- Benveniste, Helene -- Speicher, Michael R -- Downing, James R -- Lowe, Scott W -- P01 CA013106/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA087497/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA008748/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA021765/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA045508/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- S10 OD016282/OD/NIH HHS/ -- U01 CA105388/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jun 19;510(7505):402-6. doi: 10.1038/nature13239. Epub 2014 May 4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA [2] Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA [3] Department of Medicine I, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, 79106 Freiburg, Germany. ; Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA. ; Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; 1] Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA [2] Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA. ; Department of Pathology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; 1] Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Institute of Human Genetics, Medical University of Graz, A-8010 Graz, Austria. ; Departments of Anesthesiology and Radiology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA. ; 1] Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA [2] Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA [3] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, New York, New York 10065, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24805236" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chemokines/metabolism ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Leukemia/*enzymology/genetics/*physiopathology ; Mice, Transgenic ; PTEN Phosphohydrolase/*genetics/*metabolism ; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism ; RNA Interference ; Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Tumor Microenvironment/*physiology
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2014-12-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2014 Dec 4;516(7529):18-9. doi: 10.1038/516018a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25471860" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; *Birds/anatomy & histology/classification ; Body Size ; *Dinosaurs/anatomy & histology/classification ; Fossils/*anatomy & histology/radiography
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2014-10-23
    Description: Morphogenesis is the process whereby cell collectives are shaped into differentiated tissues and organs. The self-organizing nature of morphogenesis has been recently demonstrated by studies showing that stem cells in three-dimensional culture can generate complex organoids, such as mini-guts, optic-cups and even mini-brains. To achieve this, cell collectives must regulate the activity of secreted signalling molecules that control cell differentiation, presumably through the self-assembly of microenvironments or niches. However, mechanisms that allow changes in tissue architecture to feedback directly on the activity of extracellular signals have not been described. Here we investigate how the process of tissue assembly controls signalling activity during organogenesis in vivo, using the migrating zebrafish lateral line primordium. We show that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) activity within the tissue controls the frequency at which it deposits rosette-like mechanosensory organs. Live imaging reveals that FGF becomes specifically concentrated in microluminal structures that assemble at the centre of these organs and spatially constrain its signalling activity. Genetic inhibition of microlumen assembly and laser micropuncture experiments demonstrate that microlumina increase signalling responses in participating cells, thus allowing FGF to coordinate the migratory behaviour of cell groups at the tissue rear. As the formation of a central lumen is a self-organizing property of many cell types, such as epithelia and embryonic stem cells, luminal signalling provides a potentially general mechanism to locally restrict, coordinate and enhance cell communication within tissues.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Durdu, Sevi -- Iskar, Murat -- Revenu, Celine -- Schieber, Nicole -- Kunze, Andreas -- Bork, Peer -- Schwab, Yannick -- Gilmour, Darren -- England -- Nature. 2014 Nov 6;515(7525):120-4. doi: 10.1038/nature13852. Epub 2014 Oct 22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉European Molecular Biology Laboratory Heidelberg, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25337877" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cell Communication ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Movement ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; Extracellular Space/metabolism ; Fibroblast Growth Factors/metabolism/secretion ; *Organogenesis ; *Signal Transduction ; Time Factors ; Zebrafish/*embryology/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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