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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Cellular slime molds ; Animals ; Fungi ; Plantae ; Maximum-likelihood method ; Evolution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The phylogenetic position of Dictyostelium inferred from 18S rRNA data contradicts that from protein data. Protein trees always show the close affinity of Dictyostelium with animals, fungi, and plants, whereas in 18S rRNA trees the branching of Dictyostelium is placed at a position before the massive radiation of protist groups including the divergence of the three kingdoms. To settle this controversial issue and to determine the correct position of Dictyostelium, we inferred the phylogenetic relationship among Dictyostelium and the three kingdoms Animalia, Fungi, and Plantae by a maximum-likelihood method using 19 different protein data sets. It was shown at the significance level of 1 SE that the branching of Dictyostelium antedates the divergence of Animalia and Fungi, and Plantae is an outgroup of the Animalia-Fungi-Dictyostelium clade.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Small-subunit ribosomal RNA ; Phylogeny ; Animals ; Fungi ; Plants ; Alveolates ; Heterokonts ; Stramenopiles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The evolutionary relationships of four eukaryotic kingdoms—Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, and Protista—remain unclear. In particular, statistical support for the closeness of animals to fungi rather than to plants is lacking, and a preferred branching order of these and other eukaryotic lineages is still controversial even though molecular sequences from diverse eukaryotic taxa have been analyzed. We report a statistical analysis of 214 sequences of nuclear small-subunit ribosomal RNA (srRNA) gene undertaken to clarify these evolutionary relationships. We have considered the variability of substitution rates and the nonindependence of nucleotide substitution across sites in the srRNA gene in testing alternative hypotheses regarding the branching patterns of eukaryote phylogeny. We find that the rates of evolution among sites in the srRNA sequences vary substantially and are approximately gamma distributed with size and shape parameter equal to 0.76. Our results suggest that (1) the animals and true fungi are indeed closer to each other than to any other “crown” group in the eukaryote tree, (2) red algae are the closest relatives of animals, true fungi, and green plants, and (3) the heterokonts and alveolates probably evolved prior to the divergence of red algae and animal-fungus-green-plant lineages. Furthermore, our analyses indicate that the branching order of the eukaryotic lineages that diverged prior to the evolution of alveolates may be generally difficult to resolve with the srRNA sequence data.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1769
    Keywords: Tracking ; Segmentation ; Pigs ; Animals ; Computer vision
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract An algorithm was developed for the segmentation and tracking of piglets and tested on a 200-image sequence of 10 piglets moving on a straw background. The image-capture rate was 1 image/140 ms. The segmentation method was a combination of image differencing with respect to a median background and a Laplacian operator. The features tracked were blob edges in the segmented image. During tracking, the piglets were modelled as ellipses initialised on the blobs. Each piglet was tracked by searching for blob edges in an elliptical window about the piglet's position, which was predicted from its previous two positions.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-322X
    Keywords: Animals ; Asia ; consciousness ; Australia ; Hong Kong ; India ; Israel ; Japan ; New Zealand ; The Philippines ; Russia ; Singapore ; Thailand
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Philosophy
    Notes: Abstract The interactions between humans, animals and the environment have shaped human values and ethics, not only the genes that we are made of. The animal rights movement challenges human beings to reconsider interactions between humans and other animals, and maybe connected to the environmental movement that begs us to recognize the fact that there are symbiotic relationships between humans and all other organisms. The first part of this paper looks at types of bioethics, the implications of autonomy and the value of being alive. Then the level of consciousness of these relationships are explored in survey results from Asia and the Pacific, especially in the 1993 International Bioethics Survey conducted in Australia, Hong Kong, India, Israel, Japan, New Zealand, The Philippines, Russia, Singapore and Thailand. Very few mentioned animal consciousness in the survey, but there were more biocentric comments in Australia and Japan; and more comments with the idea of harmony including humans in Thailand. Comparisons between questions and surveys will also be made, in an attempt to describe what people imagine animal consciousness to be, and whether this relates to human ethics of the relationships.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: Animals ; Indicators ; Air pollution ; Ecosystem responses
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract With existing and proposed air-quality regulations, ecological disasters resulting from air emissions such as those observed at Copperhill, Tennessee, and Sudbury, Ontario, are unlikely. Current air-quality standards, however, may not protect ecosystems from subacute and chronic exposure to air emissions. The encouragement of the use of coal for energy production and the development of the fossil-fuel industries, including oil shales, tar sands, and coal liquification, point to an increase and spread of fossil-fuel emissions and the potential to influence a number of natural ecosystems. This paper reviews the reported responses of ecosystems to air-borne pollutants and discusses the use of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to these pollutants. Animal species and populations can act as important indicators of biotic and abiotic responses of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. These responses can indicate long-term trends in ecosystem health and productivity, chemical cycling, genetics, and regulation. For short-term trends, fish and wildlife also serve as monitors of changes in community structure, signaling food-web contamination, as well as providing a measure of ecosystem vitality. Information is presented to show not only the importance of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to air-quality degradation, but also their value as air-pollution indices, that is, as air-quality-related values (AQRV), required in current air-pollution regulation.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Hypophysis ; Rostral pars distalis ; Mugil platanus ; Animals ; Prolactin hormone secretion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The rostral pars distalis (RPD) of the teleost Mugil platanus from animals pretreated with reserpine or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-HODA) were assayed for dopamine (DA) or noradrenaline (NA) or for prolactin hormone. Such determinations were coupled with electron microscopy. It was found that reserpine and 6-HODA produced a significant decrease in the content of DA, NA, and prolactin. Electron microscope studies revealed that prolactin cells became activated as judged by ultrastructural criteria. After 6-HODA treatment type “B” neurosecretory fibers entering the RPD became selectively destroyed. These observations lead us to suggest that prolactin secretion is under inhibitory control by type “B” neurosecretory fibers of adrenergic nature.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0303-2647
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell nucleus ; Evolution ; Plants ; Protoctista ; Taxonomy
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1995-06-09
    Description: In mice lacking the interleukin-2 receptor beta chain (IL-2R beta), T cells were shown to be spontaneously activated, resulting in exhaustive differentiation of B cells into plasma cells and the appearance of high serum concentrations of immunoglobulins G1 and E as well as autoantibodies that cause hemolytic anemia. Marked infiltrative granulocytopoiesis was also apparent, and the animals died after about 12 weeks. Depletion of CD4+ T cells in mutant mice rescued B cells without reversion of granulocyte abnormalities. T cells did not proliferate in response to polyclonal activators, nor could antigen-specific immune responses be elicited. Thus, IL-2R beta is required to keep the activation programs of T cells under control, to maintain homeostasis, and to prevent autoimmunity.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Suzuki, H -- Kundig, T M -- Furlonger, C -- Wakeham, A -- Timms, E -- Matsuyama, T -- Schmits, R -- Simard, J J -- Ohashi, P S -- Griesser, H -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Jun 9;268(5216):1472-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Amgen Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7770771" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Autoantibodies/blood ; *Autoimmunity ; B-Lymphocytes/immunology ; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology ; Female ; Heterozygote ; Homozygote ; Lymph Nodes/immunology ; *Lymphocyte Activation ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Nude ; Mutagenesis, Insertional ; Myeloproliferative Disorders/immunology ; Receptors, Interleukin-2/genetics/*physiology ; Signal Transduction ; T-Lymphocytes/*immunology ; T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1995-04-07
    Description: Shock due to Gram-negative bacterial sepsis is a consequence of acute inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or endotoxin released from bacteria. LPS is a major constituent of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, and its terminal disaccharide phospholipid (lipid A) portion contains the key structural features responsible for toxic activity. Based on the proposed structure of nontoxic Rhodobacter capsulatus lipid A, a fully stabilized endotoxin antagonist E5531 has been synthesized. In vitro, E5531 demonstrated potent antagonism of LPS-mediated cellular activation in a variety of systems. In vivo, E5531 protected mice from LPS-induced lethality and, in cooperation with an antibiotic, protected mice from a lethal infection of viable Escherichia coli.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Christ, W J -- Asano, O -- Robidoux, A L -- Perez, M -- Wang, Y -- Dubuc, G R -- Gavin, W E -- Hawkins, L D -- McGuinness, P D -- Mullarkey, M A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Apr 7;268(5207):80-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Elsai Research Institute, Andover, MA 01810-2441, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7701344" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; BCG Vaccine/immunology ; Cytokines/secretion ; Drug Design ; Endotoxins/*antagonists & inhibitors ; Escherichia coli Infections/immunology ; Gram-Negative Bacteria/immunology ; Humans ; In Vitro Techniques ; Lipid A/*analogs & derivatives/chemical synthesis/chemistry/pharmacology ; Lipopolysaccharides/antagonists & inhibitors ; Macrophages/immunology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Monocytes/immunology ; Moxalactam/pharmacology ; Nitric Oxide/metabolism ; Rhodobacter capsulatus/immunology ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/secretion
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1995-11-24
    Description: Opioid analgesia, the selective suppression of pain without effects on other sensations, also distinguishes between different types of pain: severe, persistent pain is potently inhibited by opioids, but they fail to cohceal the sensation of a pinprick. The cellular basis for this specificity was analyzed by means of patch-clamp experiments performed on fluorescently labeled nociceptive neurons (nociceptors) that innervate rat tooth pulp. Activation of the mu opioid receptor inhibited calcium channels on almost all small nociceptors but had minimal effect on large nociceptors. Somatostatin had the opposite specificity, preferentially inhibiting calcium channels on the large cells. Because persistent pain is mediated by slow-conducting, small nociceptors, opioids are thus likely to inhibit neurotransmitter release only at those primary synapses specialized for persistent pain.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Taddese, A -- Nah, S Y -- McCleskey, E W -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Nov 24;270(5240):1366-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7481826" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Analgesics/*pharmacology ; Animals ; Calcium Channels/drug effects ; Cells, Cultured ; Dental Pulp/innervation ; Enkephalin, Ala(2)-MePhe(4)-Gly(5)- ; Enkephalins/*pharmacology ; Male ; Neurons, Afferent/*drug effects/physiology ; Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism ; Nociceptors/*drug effects/physiology ; Patch-Clamp Techniques ; Presynaptic Terminals/drug effects/metabolism ; Rats ; Rats, Sprague-Dawley ; Receptors, Opioid, mu/*physiology ; Receptors, Somatostatin/physiology ; Sodium Channel Blockers ; Somatostatin/pharmacology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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