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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-01-05
    Description: Bacterioform secondary gold deposits were discovered in tilloid overlaying archaean base rock (metagraywacke) in Sanvordem rock formation, at the depth of 65 metres in north Goa , India and were confirmed optically as microbiogenic Gold. Multiple and unique forms were seen. This is claimed to be first report of bacterioform Gold in deep cores in Goa, India and Asia.
    Electronic ISSN: 1756-0357
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General , Geosciences , Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Biology , Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-01-05
    Description: Bacterioform secondary gold deposits were discovered in tilloid overlaying archaean base rock (metagraywacke) in Sanvordem rock formation, at the depth of 65 metres in north Goa , India and were confirmed optically as microbiogenic Gold. Multiple and unique forms were seen. This is claimed to be first report of bacterioform Gold in deep cores in Goa, India and Asia.
    Electronic ISSN: 1756-0357
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General , Geosciences , Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Biology , Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-01-07
    Description: Globally, Giardia is one of the major cause of diarrheal illnesses and rapid diagnostic methods differentiating infectious cysts are critical for developing intervention strategies through contaminated surfaces, food and water. This is currently hampered by lack of an in vitro model. We evaluated mRNA expression in trophozoites and their attachment to a CaCo2 (C2bb) cell monolayer and changes in trans-cellular resistance as an indicator of Giardia viability and infectivity. Heat shock mRNA in Giardia cysts and variant specific protein (VSP) mRNA in trophozoites were quantified by RT-PCR. When compared with neonatal mice infectivity, the attachment of trophozoites to cell monolayers, expression of VSP, and changes in the trans-cellular resistance, the infectivity directly correlated with infectivity in neonatal mice. This study highlights the use of a molecular method combined with electrophysiological analysis of cell culture (ECC-rtPCR) post-trophozoite’s attachment for assessing viability and infectivity of environmental isolates of Giardial cysts.
    Electronic ISSN: 1756-0357
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General , Geosciences , Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Biology , Medicine
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  • 4
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2011-01-06
    Description: The Stanley Miller experiment suggests that amino acid-based life is ubiquitous in our universe, although its varieties are not likely to have followed the particular, highly contingent and path-dependent, evolutionary trajectory found on Earth. Are many alien organisms likely to be conscious in ways that we would recognize? Almost certainly. Will some develop high order technology? Less likely, but still fairly probable. If so, will we be able to communicate with them? Only on a basic level, and only with profound difficulty. The argument is fairly direct.
    Electronic ISSN: 1756-0357
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General , Geosciences , Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Biology , Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-01-06
    Description: Ants deserve a special place in the study of ecology, including behavior, given their species richness, social habits, and high densities, contributing to much of the animal biomes on earth (Gadagkar et.at. 1993). As ants can be studied virtually everywhere from forest interiors below ground, right up to the kitchen, we attempted a study to assess the ant species richness in a variety of habitats in and around Amravati city. The prime objective of this study is to prepare a partial checklist of ants of Amravati and to compare species richness between selected study sites. Eight study sites with different levels and types of vegetation were selected for the study.We employed an “all out search” method for collection in the months of June and July 2010. Ants were hand collected using a brush and forecep during the day time for 6 hrs at each study site. Collected samples were preserved in 70% alcohol in the Department of Zoology, Govt. Vidarbha Institute of Science & Humanities, Amravati.We identified Ants up to the genus level by using a Stemi DV4 Stereo microscope based on taxonomic keys of (Holldobles & Wilson, 1990; Bolton, 1994; Mathew & R.N. Tiwari, 2000).During the present study a total of 34 species of 20 genera have been recognized from Amravati city representing five subfamilies namely Myrmicinae, Formicinae, Ponerinae, Dolichoderinae and Pseudomyrmicinae. Out of this subfamily, Myrmicinae is the most abundant having 11 genera including the genus Rhoptromyrmex. It has been recorded for the first time in this region, followed by Formicinae with four genera for being recorded for the first time as genus Oecophylla. Subfamily Ponerinae and Dolichoderinae were recorded only with two genera each; while the subfamily Pseudomyrmicinae where recorded very poorly with only one genera from G.V.I.S.H. campus.Few ant genera such as Crematogaster and Myrmicaria of subfamily Myrmicinae, Camponotus and Polyrhachis of subfamily Formicinae and Leptogenys of subfamily Ponerinae were mostly found in all the habitats and most localities. Few genera are confined to few localities or habitat types, such as Rhoptromyrmex and Oecophylla recorded only from Pohara forests. Genus Tetraponera of subfamily Pseudomyrmicinae were collected from the tree trunk of Azadirakhta indica in the G.V.I.S.H. campus. Comparison of ant species distribution between the different study sites revealed that ant species richness was highest in Pohara forest with 28 species & lowest with 9 species around urban areas. Relatively high ant species richness was recorded at all the study sites such as the Agriculture field, Tree plantation area, and the Wadali and Chhatri Garden. On the other hand, ant species richness was low around urban houses compared to rural houses due to little or no vegetation and high levels of disturbance. The tree plantation site, roads, and pavement showed higher numbers of ant species compared to around urban areas probably due to road side richness of tree plantation.From this study we conclude that due to availability of food and shelter, richness of ant species increases in forest and tree plantation areas. The number of ant species declines in low vegetative areas including urban areas. It is possible to study the ecology and biodiversity of living faunas by the studying the habitats of ants. The environs of Amravati city are rich in Ant fauna which deserve further study.
    Electronic ISSN: 1756-0357
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General , Geosciences , Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Biology , Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-02-01
    Description: Influence of human and natural forcing on European seasonal temperatures Nature Geoscience 4, 99 (2011). doi:10.1038/ngeo1057 Authors: Gabriele Hegerl, Juerg Luterbacher, Fidel González-Rouco, Simon F. B. Tett, Thomas Crowley & Elena Xoplaki It is the regional and seasonal expression of climate change that determines the effect of greenhouse warming on ecosystemsand society. Whereas anthropogenic influences on European temperatures have been detected over the twentieth century, it has been suggested that the impact of external influences on European temperatures before 1900 is negligible. Here we use reconstructions of seasonal European land temperature and simulations with three global climate models to show that external influences on climate—such as the concentrations of stratospheric volcanic aerosols or greenhouse gases, other anthropogenic effects and possibly changes in total solar irradiance—have had a discernible influence on European temperatures throughout the past five centuries. In particular, we find that external forcing contributes significantly (p〈5%) to the reconstructed long-term variability of winter and spring temperatures and that it is responsible for a best guess of 75% of the observed winter warming since the late seventeenth century. This warming is largely attributable to greenhouse-gas forcing. Summer temperatures show detectable (p〈5%) interdecadal variations in response to external forcing before 1900 only. Finally, throughout the record we detect highly significant summer cooling and significant winter warming following volcanic eruptions.
    Print ISSN: 1752-0894
    Electronic ISSN: 1752-0908
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-02-01
    Description: Positive feedback and momentum growth during debris-flow entrainment of wet bed sediment Nature Geoscience 4, 116 (2011). doi:10.1038/ngeo1040 Authors: Richard M. Iverson, Mark E. Reid, Matthew Logan, Richard G. LaHusen, Jonathan W. Godt & Julia P. Griswold
    Print ISSN: 1752-0894
    Electronic ISSN: 1752-0908
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-02-01
    Description: Magmatic–hydrothermal origin of Nevada’s Carlin-type gold deposits Nature Geoscience 4, 122 (2011). doi:10.1038/ngeo1064 Authors: John L. Muntean, Jean S. Cline, Adam C. Simon & Anthony A. Longo
    Print ISSN: 1752-0894
    Electronic ISSN: 1752-0908
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 9
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2011-02-01
    Description: Flume in the forest Nature Geoscience 4, 128 (2011). doi:10.1038/ngeo1071 Richard Iverson and colleagues made enough of a din to scare the bears when sending large amounts of debris down a 95-m-long flume to find out what difference wet sediments make to an avalanche.
    Print ISSN: 1752-0894
    Electronic ISSN: 1752-0908
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-02-01
    Description: Generalized Darwinian evolutionary theory has emerged as central to the description of economic process (e.g., Aldrich et. al., 2008). Here we demonstrate that, just as Darwinian principles provide necessary, but not sufficient, conditions for understanding the dynamics of social entities, in a similar manner the asymptotic limit theorems of information theory provide another set of necessary conditions that constrain the evolution of socioeconomic process. These latter constraints can, however, easily be formulated as a statistics-like analytic toolbox for the study of empirical data that is consistent with a generalized Darwinism, and this is no small thing.
    Electronic ISSN: 1756-0357
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General , Geosciences , Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Biology , Medicine
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