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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A generalized model of the higher plant body is proposed in order to assemble the discrete knowledge of the actions, and sites of biosynthesis, of phytohormones. In this model, we attempt to explain the differential sensitivities of different tissues. With this model most effects of plant hormones appear to be reasonable, and even expected. The model is based on a new anatomical and physiological classification of plant tissue. In higher plants the integration of an outer-inner polarity and an upper-lower polarity plays a major role in phytohormone behaviour.Plant tissues and organs which are derived from the cortex of paleophytes (the bud, the mesophyll of the leaf, the cortex of the stem, and the root cap) are classified as the outer pole of the plant. On the other hand, tissues and organs which are derived from the stele of paleophytes (the root, the stele of the shoot, and the vein of the leaf), are classified as the inner pole. It is suggested that tissue sensitivities to phytohormones are mainly determined by the outer-inner polarity. Phytohormones which are synthesized from one pole act on the other, whereas they exert either much less or no effect, or an inverse effect on their own pole. This is shown for both promoters and inhibitors of the phytohormones for both cortical and stelar vegetative tissues of plants.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abastract Measurements of growth increments on the shaded and the irradiated sides of phototropically stimulated maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles, obtained over the entire fluence range of the first positive curvature, indicate that the curvature is induced by growth stimulation on the shaded side and compensating inhibition on the irradiated side (length increments on the coleoptile flanks were determined 100 min after 30 s phototropic induction with blue light). At high fluences of blue light, overall stimulation of growth takes place, but this tendency is largely eliminated when only the tip of the coleoptile is irradiated. Time courses for growth increments obtained for the maximum first positive response show that the growth stimulation on the shaded side and the growth inhibition on the irradiated side commence almost simultaneously 20-30 min after the phototropic induction. The growth on the irradiated side almost ceases, but the growth rate on the shaded side is doubled, relative to the control rate. The onset of differential growth migrates basipetally from the tip at a velocity similar to that for polar auxin transport. The first positive phototropic response of the coleoptile is concluded to be the consequence of lateral redistribution of growth, which is not necessarily accompanied by changes in the net growth. The results are consonant with the Cholodny-Went theory of tropisms, in which lateral redistribution of auxin is considered to be the cause of tropic responses.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Stem chlorenchymatous cells from well-watered and water-stressed plants of Cissus quadrangularis L. were examined to evaluate the effect of drying on cell structure and metabolism. At a stem relative water content as low as 52-58%, cellular integrity was maintained, but some qualitative and quantitative alterations occurred. Chlorophyll coment was higher in stressed plants, and the intact photosynthetic apparatus exhibited an increased degree of thylakoid stacking paralleled by a lower chlorophyll a/h ratio. Overnight malate accumulation was very low. Starch was retained but its day/night fluctuation was practically suppressed. Plastosomes were smaller and fewer, and the range of their daily fluctuation was very reduced. Vacuoles underwent fragmentation and accumulated osmiophilic deposits. The maintenance of the cellular integrity accounts for the ability of C. quadrangularis to recover rapidly from water stress.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. Plants of Pinus radiata of two physiological ages, juvenile (seedlings and micropropagated plantlets) and adult (rooted cuttings from mature trees), were grown under lighting fromthree combinations of metal halide (MH) and tungsten halogen (TH) lamps for up to 10 months in controlled environment rooms. The three lamp combinations, MH alone, 50: 50 MH: TH and 25:75 MH: TH by wattage, produced red: farred ratios of 4.59, 1.51, and 1.15, respectively. Photosynthetic photon flux density was 700 μmol m−2 s−1. An increase in proportion of TH lamps markedly increased shoot elongation and internode length, decreased numbers of fascicles per unit stem length and increased the proportion of stem weight in both juvenile and adult material. In addition, in adult material, it increased the number of fascicle initials and expanded fascicles per growth flush, reduced the duration of the ‘rest’ phase between growth flushes, accelerated the rate of elongation growth during each flush, and increased apical dominance. Tracheid length, but not diameter or wall thickness, was significantly affected by light quality and found to be associated with longer internodes. Any treatment effects on needle weight or length, stem diameter or root weight were non-significant or very small. Different clones from either the juvenile micro-propagated material or the mature rooted cuttings each showed similar patterns of response, although they often differed in the degree of response to light quality. The main response could be related solely to the red: far-red ratio and the calculated phytochrome photoequilibrium. This is the first report of phytochrome-controlled photomorphogenesis in older specimens of a woody perennial. Recommendations for artificial light sources for growing P. radiata and some ecological implications of the results are presented.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. In a highly saline environment high rates of ion uptake are required to generate sufficient osmotic pressure to maintain the turgor that is needed for the continued growth of plants. We estimate the rates of net uptake of Cl− and Na+ required by growing cells to sustain cell expansion at an external NaCl concentration of 500 mol m−3. We also estimate the ion fluxes required to regulate turgor of expanding and fully expanded cells during diurnal changes in transpiration. Passive fluxes could contribute significantly to osmotic regulation, but active fluxes are still essential and would consume a substantial amount of energy. We discuss whether a limitation to growth at high salinity would arise from lack of energy, or from insufficient capacity for ion uptake. There is insufficient evidence to choose between these possibilities.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The ultrastructural features of the abscisic-acid-induced turion of Spirodela polyrrhiza are briefly described and a comparison between turion and vegetative frond tissue was made by stereological analysis. The turion is characterized by its small size, reniform shape, and dark-brown coloration; the mesophyll is undifferentiated and totally lacking the substantial acrenchyma development found in the vegetative frond. The turion cells have a smaller vacuole and a denser cytoplasm than the cells of the vegetative frond. Stereological analysis showed that the tissues differed quantitatively only in three main respects: air space formation, vacuolation, and starch and cell wall material accumulation. During development, it is suggested that the cells of the turion, while reaching the same final size as the vegetative frond cells, accumulate numerous starch grains, thick cell walls, and large deposits of tannins and anthocyanin pigment at the expense of the vacuolar expansion characteristic of the normal maturity programme. Certain features of the turion ultrastructure indicate a differential cell sensitivity to ABA.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant, cell & environment 6 (1983), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Book reviewed in this article: MICROMOLECULAR EVOLUTION, SYSTEMATICS AND ECOLOGY. By O. R. Gottlieb OPPORTUNITIES FOR MANIPULATION OF CEREAL PRODUCTIVITY. Edited by A. F. Hawkins & B. Jeffcoat
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant, cell & environment 6 (1983), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. Peristomatal transpiration is defined as the relative high local rate of cuticular water loss from external and internal surfaces around the stomatal pore and its decisive role in the control of stomatal movement is re-emphasized. As the resistance towards changes in air humidity is low in the pore surroundings, the state of turgor is particularly unsteady there. Due to the inherent instability the guard cell ‘senses’ fluctuations in the supply-demand relationship of water and is thus the control unit proper. The environmental variables (supply and demand) are cross-correlated within the subsidiary cell and the information is transmitted to the guard cell through the water potential gradient between the two cells. A conceptual segregation of a ‘humidity response’ by ‘passive’ stomatal movements is rejected.As ions always accumulate at the most distant point of the liquid path and as this point varies with pore width according to the prevailing water potential gradients, it is felt that the water stream is causing the characteristic pattern of ion distribution within the epidermis. Passive import of ions is attributed to local concentration gradients which are steepened by continuous supply and by water uptake into the guard cell in response to starch hydrolysis. A mechanistic model supplements the discussion.
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