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  • American Meteorological Society  (86,496)
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  • 1
    Journal cover
    American Geophysical Union (AGU) | Association of American Geographers (AAG) | American Meteorological Society | Allen Press
    Online: 1(1).1997 –
    Publisher: American Geophysical Union (AGU) , Association of American Geographers (AAG) , American Meteorological Society , Allen Press
    Electronic ISSN: 1087-3562
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 2
    Journal cover
    American Meteorological Society | Allen Press | JSTOR
    Online: 1.1988 –
    Print: 5.1992 – 20.2007 (Location: A43, LZ 10-12 Mitte | RZ)
    Print: 4(9).1991 – 8(1).1995 (Location: A62, Keller, 39/2-3)
    Publisher: American Meteorological Society , Allen Press , JSTOR
    Corporation: American Meteorological Society, AMS
    Print ISSN: 0894-8755
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0442
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Acronym: JC
    Abbreviation: J Clim
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  • 3
    Journal cover
    American Meteorological Society | Allen Press | JSTOR
    Online: 45.2006 – (older than 3 years)
    Publisher: American Meteorological Society , Allen Press , JSTOR
    Print ISSN: 1558-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-8432
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 4
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    American Meteorological Society | Allen Press
    Online: 1.1962 – (older than 12 months)
    Print: 31.1992 – 32.1993 (Location: A43, LZ 10 Mitte)
    Formerly as: Journal of Applied Meteorology  (1988–2005)
    Publisher: American Meteorological Society , Allen Press
    Corporation: American Meteorological Society, AMS
    Print ISSN: 1558-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-8432
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Acronym: JAMC
    Abbreviation: J Appl Meteorol Climatol
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  • 5
    Journal cover
    American Meteorological Society | Allen Press
    Online: 1(1).1988 – (older than 12 months)
    Publisher: American Meteorological Society , Allen Press
    Print ISSN: 0894-8755
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0442
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 6
    Journal cover
    American Meteorological Society
    Print: 1.1944 – 18.1961 (Location: A62, Keller, 3/2 ; 46/2 (Vol. 11-13))
    Continued as: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences  (1962–)
    Publisher: American Meteorological Society
    Corporation: American Meteorological Society, AMS
    Print ISSN: 0095-9634
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 7
    Journal cover
    American Meteorological Society | Allen Press
    Online: 1.1971 – (older than 12 months)
    Publisher: American Meteorological Society , Allen Press
    Print ISSN: 0022-3670
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0485
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 8
    Journal cover
    American Meteorological Society
    Online: 1.2009 – (older than 12 months)
    Publisher: American Meteorological Society
    Print ISSN: 1948-8327
    Electronic ISSN: 1948-8335
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Keywords: Meteorologie〈/keyword〉 〈keyword〉Bioklimatologie ; Meteorologie〈/keyword〉 〈keyword〉Bioklimatologie
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  • 9
    Journal cover
    American Meteorological Society
    Online: 51.1970 –
    Print: 52.1971 – 81(2).1999 (Location: A62, Keller, 2/4-5)
    Publisher: American Meteorological Society
    Corporation: American Meteorological Society, AMS
    Print ISSN: 0003-0007
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0477
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Acronym: BAMS
    Abbreviation: Bull Am Meteorol Soc
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  • 10
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    American Meteorological Society | Allen Press
    Online: 1.1984 – (older than 12 months)
    Publisher: American Meteorological Society , Allen Press
    Corporation: American Meteorological Society, AMS
    Print ISSN: 0739-0572
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0426
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences , Physics
    Acronym: ATOT
    Abbreviation: J Atmospher Ocean Technol
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  • 11
    Journal cover
    American Meteorological Society | Allen Press | JSTOR
    Online: 1.2000 – (older than 3 years)
    Publisher: American Meteorological Society , Allen Press , JSTOR
    Print ISSN: 1525-755X
    Electronic ISSN: 1525-7541
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 12
    Journal cover
    American Meteorological Society | Allen Press
    Online: 1.2000 – (older than 12 months)
    Print: 3.2002 – 6.2005 (Location: A43, LZ 14 Mitte)
    Publisher: American Meteorological Society , Allen Press
    Corporation: American Meteorological Society, AMS
    Print ISSN: 1525-755X
    Electronic ISSN: 1525-7541
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Acronym: JH
    Abbreviation: J Hydrometeorol
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  • 13
    Journal cover
    American Meteorological Society | Allen Press
    Online: 1.1944 –
    Print: 50.1993 – 64.2007 (Location: A43, LZ 10 Unten -12 Unten)
    Print: 19.1962 – 30.1973 (Location: A62, Keller, 3/2)
    Formerly as: Journal of Meteorology  (1944–1961)
    Publisher: American Meteorological Society , Allen Press
    Corporation: American Meteorological Society, AMS
    Print ISSN: 0022-4928 , 0095-9634
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0469
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences , Physics
    Acronym: JAS
    Abbreviation: J Atmos Sci
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  • 14
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    American Meteorological Society
    Online: 2002 –
    Publisher: American Meteorological Society
    Topics: Geography , Physics
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  • 15
    Journal cover
    American Meteorological Society | Allen Press
    Online: 1.1986 – (older than 12 months)
    Print: 1.1986 – 15(1).2000 (Location: A62, Keller, 38/5)
    Publisher: American Meteorological Society , Allen Press
    Corporation: American Meteorological Society, AMS
    Print ISSN: 0882-8156
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Acronym: WF
    Abbreviation: Weather Forecast
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  • 16
    Journal cover
    American Meteorological Society | JSTOR
    Online: 1.2009 – (older than 3 years)
    Publisher: American Meteorological Society , JSTOR
    Print ISSN: 1948-8327
    Electronic ISSN: 1948-8335
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics , Sociology
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  • 17
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    American Meteorological Society | JSTOR
    Online: 1.1920 – (older than 3 years)
    Publisher: American Meteorological Society , JSTOR
    Print ISSN: 0003-0007
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0477
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 18
    Journal cover
    American Meteorological Society | Allen Press
    Online: 1.1971 –
    Print: 23.1993 – 41.2011 (Location: A17, Kompaktmagazin, 42/7 - 43/2)
    Publisher: American Meteorological Society , Allen Press
    Corporation: American Meteorological Society, AMS
    Print ISSN: 0022-3670
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0485
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Acronym: JPO
    Abbreviation: J Phys Oceanogr
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  • 19
    Journal cover
    American Meteorological Society | Allen Press
    Online: 1.1944 – (older than 12 months)
    Publisher: American Meteorological Society , Allen Press
    Print ISSN: 0022-4928 , 0095-9634
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0469
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 20
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    American Meteorological Society | Allen Press
    Online: 1.1873 –
    Print: 121.1993 – 136.2008 (Location: A43, LZ 9-11 Unten)
    Print: 2.1874 – 122.1994 (Location: A62, Konferenzraum, 2OG)
    Publisher: American Meteorological Society , Allen Press
    Corporation: American Meteorological Society, AMS
    Print ISSN: 0027-0644
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0493
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences , Physics
    Acronym: MWR
    Abbreviation: Month Weather Rev
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  • 21
    Journal cover
    American Meteorological Society | Allen Press
    Online: 1.1873 – (older than 12 months)
    Publisher: American Meteorological Society , Allen Press
    Print ISSN: 0027-0644
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0493
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 22
    Notes: This monograph provides the history of the birth and growth of the ARM Program. While ARM-funded scientists and others using ARM data have published many hundreds of papers in scientific journals, only three previously published papers provide any broad overview of the Program. Gerry Stokes and Steve Schwartz discussed the original conception and birth of the Program in an early paper that appeared shortly after the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site started collecting data, Tom Ackerman and Gerry Stokes provided a high-level overview of some of the main accomplishments of Program in its first decade, and Jim Mather and Jimmy Voyles described more recent activities that have greatly broadened the scope of the Program near the end of its second decade. However, these three papers only provide snapshots and are unable to delve into myriad of accomplishments, challenges, and decision points that the Program has faced and overcome along the way. This monograph aims to provide those details. To tell the story of ARM, a collection of ARM scientists and infrastructure members were solicited to provide their thoughts on various components of the Program. The first four chapters provide a high-level view of the origin, birth, and maturation of the ARM Program. Chapters 5 through 12 cover different components of the ARM infrastructure, including how the sites were selected, an overview of each of the sites including how the ARM Mobile Facility came to be, the history of airborne observations in the Program, a synopsis of the ARM data system and its evolution, and the Program’s data quality program. Chapters 13 through 30 capture the progress ARM has made on various scientific topics.
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  • 23
    Notes: This volume consists of some papers presented at the AMS Symposium held to honor the memory of the late Professor Michio Yanai as well as additional works inspired by his research. By the nature of this volume, many of the contributed papers describe the development of tropical meteorology over the past half-century or so in connection with Professor Yanai’s influence on it. While most of the chapters address specific areas and discuss timely issues, in this prologue I will describe some of Professor Yanai’s contributions during the early period of his career from my own point of view. As this is a personal reminiscence, I would like to emphasize how Professor Yanai influenced me. Both Professor Yanai and I became graduate students at the University of Tokyo to begin our career as meteorologists in 1956 and 1957, respectively. Since we studied and worked together so closely for a long time, in this article I will call him Yanai-san as I have done in our personal interactions.
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2017-08-24
    Description: Historical hydrographic data (1940s–2010) show a distinct cross-slope difference of the lower halocline water (LHW) over the Laptev Sea continental margins. Over the slope, the LHW is on average warmer and saltier by 0.2°C and 0.5 psu, respectively, relative to the off-slope LHW. The LHW temperature time series constructed from the on-slope historical records are related to the temperature of the Atlantic Water (AW) boundary current transporting warm water from the North Atlantic Ocean. In contrast, the on-slope LHW salinity is linked to the sea ice and wind forcing over the potential upstream source region in the Barents and northern Kara Seas, as also indicated by hydrodynamic model results. Over the Laptev Sea continental margin, saltier LHW favors weaker salinity stratification that, in turn, contributes to enhanced vertical mixing with underlying AW.
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2015-04-27
    Description: Vertical mixing in the bottom boundary layer and pycnocline of the Laptev Sea is evaluated from a rapidly sampled 12-h time series of microstructure temperature, conductivity, and shear observations collected under 100% sea ice during October 2008. The bottom boundary turbulent kinetic energy dissipation was observed to be enhanced (ϵ ∼ 10−4 W m−3) beyond background levels (ϵ ∼ 10−6 W m−3), extending up to 10 m above the seabed when simulated tidal currents were directed on slope. Upward heat fluxes into the halocline-class waters along the Laptev Sea seabed peaked at ∼4–8 W m−2, averaging out to ∼2 W m−2 over the 12-h sampling period. In the Laptev Sea pycnocline, an isolated 2-h episode of intense dissipation (ϵ ∼ 10−3 W m−3) and vertical diffusivities was observed that was not due to a localized wind event. Observations from an acoustic Doppler current meter moored in the central Laptev Sea near the M2 critical latitude are consistent with a previous model in which mixing episodes are driven by an enhancement of the pycnocline shear resulting from the alignment of the rotating pycnocline shear vector with the under-ice stress vector. Upward cross-pycnocline heat fluxes from the Arctic halocline peaked at ∼54 W m−2, resulting in a 12-h average of ∼12 W m−2. These results highlight the intermittent nature of Arctic shelf sea mixing processes and how these processes can impact the transformation of Arctic Ocean water masses. The observations also clearly demonstrate that absence or presence of sea ice profoundly affects the availability of near-inertial kinetic energy to drive vertical mixing on the Arctic shelves.
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  • 26
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 44 (9). pp. 2524-2546.
    Publication Date: 2015-05-28
    Description: In this study, the authors discuss two different parameterizations for the effect of mixed layer eddies, one based on ageostrophic linear stability analysis (ALS) and the other one based on a scaling of the potential energy release by eddies (PER). Both parameterizations contradict each other in two aspects. First, they predict different functional relationships between the magnitude of the eddy fluxes and the Richardson number (Ri) related to the background state. Second, they also predict different vertical structure functions for the horizontal eddy fluxes. Numerical simulations for two different configurations and for a large range of different background conditions are used to evaluate the parameterizations. It turns out that PER is better suited to capture the Ri dependency of the magnitude of the eddy fluxes. On the other hand, the vertical structure of the meridional eddy fluxes predicted by ALS is more accurate than that of PER, while the vertical structure of the vertical eddy fluxes is well predicted by both parameterizations. Therefore, this study suggests the use of the magnitude of PER and the vertical structure functions of ALS for an improved parameterization of mixed layer eddy fluxes.
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2018-04-16
    Description: Atmospheric deposition contributes potentially significant amounts of the nutrients iron, nitrogen and phosphorus (via mineral dust and anthropogenic aerosols) to the oligotrophic tropical North Atlantic Ocean. Transport pathways, deposition processes and source strengths contributing to this atmospheric flux are all highly variable in space and time. Atmospheric sampling was conducted during 28 research cruises through the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic (ETNA) over a 12 year period and a substantial dataset of measured concentrations of nutrients and trace metals in aerosol and rainfall over the region was acquired. This database was used to quantify (on a spatial- and seasonal-basis) the atmospheric input of ammonium, nitrate, soluble phosphorus and soluble and total iron, aluminium and manganese to the ETNA. The magnitude of atmospheric input varies strongly across the region, with high rainfall rates associated with the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone contributing to high wet deposition fluxes in the south, particularly for soluble species. Dry deposition fluxes of species associated with mineral dust exhibited strong seasonality, with highest fluxes associated with winter-time low-level transport of Saharan dust. Overall (wet plus dry) atmospheric inputs of soluble and total trace metals were used to estimate their soluble fractions. These also varied with season and were generally lower in the dry north than in the wet south. The ratio of ammonium plus nitrate to soluble iron in deposition to the ETNA was lower than the N:Fe requirement for algal growth in all cases, indicating the importance of the atmosphere as a source of excess iron.
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  • 28
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 32 . pp. 2305-2317.
    Publication Date: 2017-12-19
    Description: We investigated the effect of hydrostatic pressure of up to 6000 dbar on Aanderaa and Sea-Bird oxygen optodes both in the laboratory and in the field. The overall pressure response is a reduction in the O2 reading by 3 – 4 % per 1000 dbar which is closely linear with pressure and increases with temperature. Closer inspection reveals two superimposed processes with opposite effect: an O2-independent pressure response on the luminophore which increases optode O2 readings and an O2-dependent change in luminescence quenching which decreases optode O2 readings. The latter process dominates and is mainly due to a shift in the equilibrium between sensing membrane and sea water under elevated pressures. If only the dominant O2-dependent process is considered, Aanderaa and Sea-Bird optodes differ in their pressure response. Compensation of the O2-independent process, however, yields a uniform O2 dependence for Aanderaa optodes with standard foil and fast-response foil as well as Sea-Bird optodes. A new scheme to calculate optode O2 from raw data is proposed to account for the two processes. The overall uncertainty of the optode pressure correction amounts to 0.3 % per 1000 dbar, mainly due to variability between sensors.
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  • 29
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 28 (11). pp. 2250-2274.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: In the present paper a hydrostatic “reduced gravity” model, generally used to simulate transient bottom-arrested gravity plumes, was coupled with a sediment transport model. The coupled model considers the respective contribution of suspended sediment particles on the buoyancy of a plume and allows one to simulate autosuspension and size-differential deposition of sediments based on the local turbulence and settling velocities. Simulations using the coupled model reveal that sediment-enriched plumes are able to inject both entrained and original shelf water masses into intermediate and bottom layers of an adjacent ocean basin in an ageostrophic dynamical balance. Hence the mechanism described here is more rapid than classic, “seawater” plumes, which are solely driven by surplus density of the water masses. Results suggest that “turbidity” plumes may constitute an important process in the formation and renewal of deep waters in the Arctic Ocean. In case a turbidity plume reaches its level of equilibrium density, deposition of suspended particles causes the density of the interstitial fluid to be lower than the density of the ambient fluid. This initiates upward convection within the water column. The substantial difference between TS- and turbidity plumes is described by model experiments that utilize idealized slope and sediment distributions. A realistic simulation of a turbidity plume cascading down the continental slope of the western Barents Sea is presented. The computed distribution of deposited sediments agrees well with observations in an area of high accumulation of shelf-derived sediments. The frequency of occurrence of sediment-enriched gravity plumes originating from the Barents Sea shelf is estimated from the various geological variables (thickness of sediments at the bottom, grain size composition) measured from bottom sediments samples.
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2017-05-04
    Description: Downward wave coupling occurs when an upward propagating planetary wave from the troposphere decelerates the flow in the upper stratosphere, and forms a downward reflecting surface that redirects waves back to the troposphere. To test this mechanism and potential factors influencing the downward wave coupling, three 145-year sensitivity simulations with NCAR’s Community Earth System Model (CESM-WACCM), a state-of-the-art high-top chemistry-climate model, are analyzed. The results show that the QBO and SST variability significantly impact downward wave coupling. Without the QBO, the occurrence of downward wave coupling is significantly suppressed. In contrast, stronger and more persistent downward wave coupling occurs when SST variability is excluded. The above influence on the occurrence of downward wave coupling is mostly due to a direct influence of the QBO and SST variability on stratospheric planetary wave source and propagation. The strengths of the tropospheric circulation and surface responses to a given downward wave coupling event, however, behave differently. The surface anomaly is significantly weaker (stronger) in the experiment with fixed SSTs (without QBO), even though the statistical signal of downward coupling is strongest (weakest) in this experiment. This apparent mismatch is explained by the differences in the strength of the synoptic-scale eddy-mean flow feedback and the possible contribution of SST anomalies in the North Atlantic during DWC event. The weaker synoptic-scale eddy-mean flow feedback, and the absence of the positive NAO-related SST-tripole pattern in the fixed SST experiment are consistent with a weaker tropospheric response in this experiment. The results highlight the importance of synoptic-scale eddies in setting the tropospheric response to downward wave coupling.
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  • 31
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 24 (10). pp. 2129-2141.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: In this study a scenario is developed of two adjacent Mediterranean Water eddies (meddies) as they were observed merging and drifting through the Iberian Basin. Observations are based on four RAFOS floats (at 850–1050 dbar), two hydrographic surveys (centered roughly at 38°N, 24°W), and trajectories of surface drifters (drogued at 100 m). In April 1991, the meddy A was identified and labeled by surface drifters. During the revisit one month later two meddies were encountered, B1 and B2, in the vicinity of the former meddy A. The coalescence of B1 (subsequently identified as A, one month older) and B2 is inferred from a simple kinematic model describing the observed movement of the RAFOS floats for up to three months after the second CTD survey. The deduced vorticity front, radius ∼15 km, within B1 was of insufficient strength to keep the core waters of B1 isolated and prevent the absorption of B1 by B2. The resulting meddy (B1 + B2) showed a clear near-surface dynamical signal. Its deep root (1800 m) could explain the expulsion from the meddy of the remaining RAFOS float and surface drifter at the time of the meddy's collision with the Josephine Seamount. For the first time, a set of Lagrangian and hydrographic observations give direct evidence that neighboring meddies can merge as predicted by theoretical considerations.
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  • 32
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 23 (12). pp. 2667-2682.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: The total transport of Antarctic Bottom Water across the Rio Grande Rise, including the western boundary, the Vema Channel, and the Hunter Channel is estimated from hydrographic measurements across these pathways. The contribution of the Vema Channel is greatest at 3.9 × 106 m3 s−1, which is very close to earlier estimates. The western boundary current contribution is 2.0 × 106 m3 s−1 and that of the Hunter Channel 0.7 × 106 m3 s−1. The lower values outside the Vema Channel are offset by the important source of mass they form to the lower density classes of bottom water. About 40% of the flow is concentrated in the highest density class representing the source of Weddell Sea Deep Water to the Brazil Basin. The flow structure is characterized by horizontal and vertical recirculation.
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  • 33
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 3 (1). pp. 75-83.
    Publication Date: 2016-05-10
    Description: An XBT interface is described for use with Commodore and other 6502 based microprocessors. This interface takes the form of a single circuit board mounted inside the microcomputer and is completely software controlled. The application of this digital XBT system to the real-time computation of density and dynamic height, using historical or recent temperature-salinity relationships, is also described. Comparison between XBT and CTD measured temperatures from the Northeast Atlantic yield a mean temperature difference of −0.08°C and an rms temperature difference of 0.33°C for the upper 800 m. Examples of dynamic topography maps and a temperature section computed using this technique are also presented and comparison between objectively analyzed XBT and CTD dynamic topographies demonstrates the reliability of the method for mapping the baroclinic flow.
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  • 34
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 14 (10). pp. 1560-1576.
    Publication Date: 2016-05-10
    Description: Isolated compact anticyclonic eddies or salt lenses were found in the Canary Basin. Hydrographic surveys of three such lenses show large anomalies of salinity and temperature (∼0.8, 2.5°C). They are centered at ∼1100 m, have a vertical extent of up to 900 m and radii of ∼50 km. Current meter records indicate anticyclonic velocities up to 29 cm s−1. Fine structure with vertical scales of ∼20 m and less, possibly due to intrusive decay, appears at the outer edges of the lenses whereas the centers are free of such structure. The probability of finding a salt lens at any station in the Canary Basin is fairly high (∼0.08).
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2016-11-01
    Description: One of the most remarkable features of the reproductive systems of eubrachyuran crabs is the presence of specialized organs for sperm storage, the seminal receptacles. Descriptions of seminal receptacle morphology, sperm storage time, sperm retention across molts, and the capacity to store multiple ejaculates from different males can help in understanding crab mating strategies as well as in preventing negative effects of male-biased fisheries of heavily harvested species. Metacarcinus edwardsii is the most harvested crab in Chile, but its reproductive biology is largely unstudied. In this study, the morphology of the seminal receptacles of M. edwardsii is characterized from the macroscopic to the microscopic level, during key points in the reproductive cycle. The receptacles of experimentally mated and wild-caught females were included in this analysis. Metacarcinus edwardsii has ventral-type seminal receptacles that are able to retain sperm after molting, and even after extrusion of the eggs. Stratification of multiple ejaculates is clearly observed. In general, the pattern of sperm storage indicates that populations of this species, like those of other cancrid crabs, could have high resilience to the negative effects of the selective harvest of males, principally because females have a great sperm storage capacity.
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2017-12-19
    Description: Well-known problems trouble coupled general circulation models of the eastern Atlantic and Pacific Ocean basins. Model climates are significantly more symmetric about the equator than is observed. Model sea surface temperatures are biased warm south and southeast of the equator, and the atmosphere is too rainy within a band south of the equator. Near-coastal eastern equatorial SSTs are too warm, producing a zonal SST gradient in the Atlantic opposite in sign to that observed. The U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability Program (CLIVAR) Eastern Tropical Ocean Synthesis Working Group (WG) has pursued an updated assessment of coupled model SST biases, focusing on the surface energy balance components, on regional error sources from clouds, deep convection, winds, and ocean eddies; on the sensitivity to model resolution; and on remote impacts. Motivated by the assessment, the WG makes the following recommendations: 1) encourage identification of the specific parameterizations contributing to the biases in individual models, as these can be model dependent; 2) restrict multimodel intercomparisons to specific processes; 3) encourage development of high-resolution coupled models with a concurrent emphasis on parameterization development of finer-scale ocean and atmosphere features, including low clouds; 4) encourage further availability of all surface flux components from buoys, for longer continuous time periods, in persistently cloudy regions; and 5) focus on the eastern basin coastal oceanic upwelling regions, where further opportunities for observational–modeling synergism exist.
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2017-10-24
    Description: This study examines the role of processes transporting tracers across the Polar Front (PF) in the depth interval between the surface and major topographic sills, which this study refers to as the “PF core.” A preindustrial control simulation of an eddying climate model coupled to a biogeochemical model [GFDL Climate Model, version 2.6 (CM2.6)– simplified version of the Biogeochemistry with Light Iron Nutrients and Gas (miniBLING) 0.1° ocean model] is used to investigate the transport of heat, carbon, oxygen, and phosphate across the PF core, with a particular focus on the role of mesoscale eddies. The authors find that the total transport across the PF core results from a ubiquitous Ekman transport that drives the upwelled tracers to the north and a localized opposing eddy transport that induces tracer leakages to the south at major topographic obstacles. In the Ekman layer, the southward eddy transport only partially compensates the northward Ekman transport, while below the Ekman layer, the southward eddy transport dominates the total transport but remains much smaller in magnitude than the near-surface northward transport. Most of the southward branch of the total transport is achieved below the PF core, mainly through geostrophic currents. This study finds that the eddy-diffusive transport reinforces the southward eddy-advective transport for carbon and heat, and opposes it for oxygen and phosphate. Eddy-advective transport is likely to be the leading-order component of eddy-induced transport for all four tracers. However, eddy-diffusive transport may provide a significant contribution to the southward eddy heat transport due to strong along-isopycnal temperature gradients.
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  • 38
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 26 . pp. 2251-2266.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: A simple point-vortex “heton” model is used to study localized ocean convection. In particular, the statistically steady state that is established when lateral buoyancy transfer, effected by baroclinic instability, offsets the localized surface buoyancy loss is investigated. Properties of the steady state, such as the statistically steady density anomaly of the convection region, are predicted using the hypothesis of a balance between baroclinic eddy transfer and the localized surface buoyancy loss. These predictions compare favorably with the values obtained through numerical integration of the heton model. The steady state of the heron model can be related to that in other convection scenarios considered in several recent studies by means of a generalized description of the localized convection. This leads to predictions of the equilibrium density anomalies in these scenarios, which concur with those obtained by other authors. Advantages of the heton model include its inviscid nature, emphasizing the independence of the fluxes affected by the baroclinic eddies from molecular processes, and its extreme economy, allowing a very large parameter space to be covered. This economy allows us to examine more complicated forcing scenarios: for example, forcing regions of varying shape. By increasing the ellipticity of the forcing region, the instability is modified by the shape and, as a result, no increase in lateral fluxes occurs despite the increased perimeter length. The parameterization of convective mixing by a redistribution of potential vorticity, implicit in the heton model, is corroborated; the heton model equilibrium state has analogous quantitative scaling behavior to that in models or laboratory experiments that resolve the vertical motions. The simplified dynamics of the heton model therefore allows the adiabatic advection resulting from baroclinic instability to be examined in isolation from vertical mixing and diffusive processes. These results demonstrate the importance of baroclinic instability in controlling the properties of a water mass generated by localized ocean convection. A complete parameterization of this process must therefore account for the fluxes induced by horizontal variations in surface buoyancy loss and affected by baroclinic instability.
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  • 39
    facet.materialart.
    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 34 . pp. 772-792.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-11
    Description: The Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) spreading pathways and time scales in the Indian Ocean are investigated using both observational data and two numerical tracer experiments, one being a three-dimensional Lagrangian trajectory experiment and the other a transit-time probability density function (PDF) tracer experiment, in an ocean general circulation model. The model climatology is in agreement with observations and other model results except that speeds of boundary currents are lower. Upon reaching the western boundary within the South Equatorial Current (SEC), the trajectories of the ITF tracers within the thermocline exhibit bifurcation. The Lagrangian trajectory experiment shows that at the western boundary about 38%±5% thermocline ITF water flows southward to join the Agulhas Current, consequently exiting the Indian Ocean, and the rest, about 62%±5%, flows northward to the north of SEC. In boreal summer, ITF water penetrates into the Northern Hemisphere within the Somali Current. The primary spreading pathway of the thermocline ITF water north of SEC is upwelling to the surface layer with subsequent advection southward within the surface Ekman layer toward the southern Indian Ocean subtropics. There it is subducted and advected northward in the upper thermocline to rejoin the SEC. Both the observations and the trajectory experiment suggest that the upwelling occurs mainly along the coast of Somalia during boreal summer and in the open ocean within a cyclonic gyre in the Tropics south of the equator throughout the year. All the ITF water eventually exits the Indian Ocean along the western boundary within the Mozambique Channel and the east coast of Madagascar and, farther south, the Agulhas Current region. The advective spreading time scales, represented by the elapsed time corresponding to the maximum of transit- time PDF, show that in the upper thermocline the ITF crosses the Indian Ocean, from the Makassar Strait to the east coast of the African continent, on a time scale of about 10 yr and reaches the Arabian Sea on a time scale of over 20 yr.
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  • 40
    facet.materialart.
    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 39 . pp. 2417-2435.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-12
    Description: The Agulhas Current system has been analyzed in a nested high-resolution ocean model and compared to observations. The model shows good performance in the western boundary current structure and the transports off the South African coast. This includes the simulation of the northward-flowing Agulhas Undercurrent. It is demonstrated that fluctuations of the Agulhas Current and Undercurrent around 50–70 days are due to Natal pulses and Mozambique eddies propagating downstream. A sensitivity experiment that excludes those upstream perturbations significantly reduces the variability as well as the mean transport of the undercurrent. Although the model simulates undercurrents in the Mozambique Channel and east of Madagascar, there is no direct connection between those and the Agulhas Undercurrent. Virtual float releases demonstrate that topography is effectively blocking the flow toward the north.
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  • 41
    facet.materialart.
    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 31 (2). pp. 616-636.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Transient eddies in the atmosphere induce a poleward transport of heat and moisture. A moist static energy budget of the surface layer is determined from the NCEP reanalysis data to evaluate the impact of the storm track. It is found that the transient eddies induce a cooling and drying of the surface layer with a monthly mean maximum of 60 W m−2. The cooling in the midlatitudes extends zonally over the entire basin. The impact of this cooling and drying on surface heat fluxes, sea surface temperature (SST), water mass transformation, and vertical structure of the Pacific is investigated using an ocean model coupled to an atmospheric mixed layer model. The cooling by atmospheric storms is represented by adding an eddy-induced transfer velocity to the mean velocity in an atmospheric mixed layer model. This is based on a parameterization of tracer transport by eddies in the ocean. When the atmospheric mixed layer model is coupled to an ocean model, realistic SSTs are simulated. The SST is up to 3 K lower due to the cooling by storms. The additional cooling leads to enhanced transformation rates of water masses in the midlatitudes. The enhanced shallow overturning cells affect even tropical regions. Together with realistic SST and deep winter mixed layer depths, this leads to formation of homogeneous water masses in the upper North Pacific, in accordance to observations.
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: Comparisons are made between a time series of meteorological surface layer observational data taken on board the R/V Knorr, and model analysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The observational data were gathered during a winter cruise of the R/V Knorr, from 6 February to 13 March 1997, as part of the Labrador Sea Deep Convection Experiment. The surface layer observations generally compare well with both model representations of the wintertime atmosphere. The biases that exist are mainly related to discrepancies in the sea surface temperature or the relative humidity of the analyses. The surface layer observations are used to generate bulk estimates of the surface momentum flux, and the surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. These are then compared with the model-generated turbulent surface fluxes. The ECMWF surface sensible and latent heat flux time series compare reasonably well, with overestimates of only 13% and 10%, respectively. In contrast, the NCEP model overestimates the bulk fluxes by 51% and 27%, respectively. The differences between the bulk estimates and those of the two models are due to different surface heat flux algorithms. It is shown that the roughness length formula used in the NCEP reanalysis project is inappropriate for moderate to high wind speeds. Its failings are acute for situations of large air–sea temperature difference and high wind speed, that is, for areas of high sensible heat fluxes such as the Labrador Sea, the Norwegian Sea, the Gulf Stream, and the Kuroshio. The new operational NCEP bulk algorithm is found to be more appropriate for such areas. It is concluded that surface turbulent flux fields from the ECMWF are within the bounds of observational uncertainty and therefore suitable for driving ocean models. This is in contrast to the surface flux fields from the NCEP reanalysis project, where the application of a more suitable algorithm to the model surface-layer meteorological data is recommended
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The Eurofloat experiment was a joint initiative to examine the large-scale spreading of Mediterranean Water (MW) and Labrador Sea Water in the northeast North Atlantic. RAFOS float data from the southern (MW) portion of the Eurofloat experiment have been examined in conjunction with historical float data in order to calculate quasi-Eulerian means in an effort to separate and quantify the constituents of the spreading of the MW tongue east of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. While recent studies focussed chiefly on the role of meddies in the shaping of the MW tongue, this analysis also examines the tongue's second constituent, that is, the “background” (non-meddy advective and diffusive) flow. The results suggest the existence of two regimes approximately to the north and south of the 36°N parallel (i.e., the latitude of the Gulf of Cadiz), which are distinguished by different types of dominant spreading mechanisms for MW. To the south of the Gulf of Cadiz, the background flow shows an incoherent and weak mean, whereas the mean velocity of the salt enhanced meddies is strong and to the southwest. In contrast, to the north of 36°N the mean velocity of the meddies seems to be less pronounced and the background flow is shown to be a major component in the northwestward spreading of the MW tongue. The two regimes are separated by the Azores Current, which previously has been hypothesized to act as a dynamic barrier to the southward advective spreading of the background regime, which the meddies are able to penetrate because of their high kinetic energy. Overall, the meddies are calculated to contribute to approximately half of the total salinity anomaly flux.
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  • 44
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 33 (12). pp. 2719-2737.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: A new type of ocean general circulation model with simplified physics is described and tested for various simple wind-driven circulation problems. The model consists of the vorticity balance of the depth-averaged flow and a hierarchy of equations for “vertical moments” of density and baroclinic velocity. The first vertical density moment is the (vertically integrated) potential energy, which is used to describe the predominant link between the barotropic and the baroclinic oceanic flow in the presence of sloping topography. Tendency equations for the vertical moments of density and baroclinic velocity and an appropriate truncation of the coupled hierarchy of moments are derived that, together with the barotropic vorticity balance, yield a closed set of equations describing the barotropic–baroclinic interaction (BARBI) model of the oceanic circulation. Idealized companion experiments with a numerical implementation of the BARBI model and a primitive equation model indicate that wave propagation properties and baroclinic adjustments are correctly represented in BARBI in midlatitudes as well as in equatorial latitudes. Furthermore, a set of experiments with a realistic application to the Atlantic/Southern Ocean system reproduces important aspects that have been previously reported by studies of gyre circulations and circumpolar currents using full primitive equation models
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2018-04-11
    Description: Aspects of the sea level changes in the western Mediterranean Sea are investigated using a numerical tidal model of the Strait of Gibraltar. As a prerequisite, the performance of this model, that is, a two-dimensional, nonlinear, two-layer, boundary-fitted coordinate numerical model based on the hydrostatic approximation on an f plane, is assessed in the simulation of mean and tidal circulation of the Strait of Gibraltar. The model is forced by imposing mean interface and surface displacements as well as M2, S2, O1, and K1 tidal components along the Atlantic and Mediterranean model open boundaries. Model results are compared with observations and with results obtained from a tidal inverse model for the eastern entrance of the Strait of Gibraltar. In general, good agreement is found. A sensitivity study performed by varying different model parameters shows that the model behaves reasonably well in the simulation of the averaged circulation. The model is then used to investigate the climatological sensitivity of the simulated dynamics in the Strait of Gibraltar to changes in the density difference between Atlantic and Mediterranean waters. For this purpose, given a certain density difference between Atlantic and Mediterranean waters, the authors iteratively searched for that sea level drop between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean that fulfills the mass balance of the Mediterranean. It is found that an increase of the density difference leads to an increase of the exchange flow and to an increase of the sea level drop between the two basins. A trend in the sea level drop of O(1 cm yr−1), such as the one observed between 1994 and 1997, is explained by the model as the result of a trend of O(10−4 yr−1) in the relative density difference between the Mediterranean and Atlantic waters. The observed north–south asymmetry in this trend is also captured by the model, and it is found to arise from changes in the along-strait velocity. Results suggest that the dynamics within the Strait of Gibraltar cannot be neglected when sea level changes in the western Mediterranean basin are investigated.
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  • 46
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 39 . pp. 1486-1494.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-12
    Description: For the first time, an analytical theory and a very high-resolution, frontal numerical model, both based on the unsteady, nonlinear, reduced-gravity shallow water equations on a beta plane, have been used to investigate aspects of the migration of homogeneous surface, frontal warm-core eddies on a beta plane. Under the assumption that, initially, such vortices are surface circular anticyclones of paraboloidal shape and having both radial and azimuthal velocities that are linearly dependent on the radial coordinate (i.e., circular pulsons of the first order), approximate analytical expressions are found that describe the nonstationary trajectories of their centers of mass for an initial stage as well as for a mature stage of their westward migration. In particular, near-inertial oscillations are evident in the initial migration stage, whose amplitude linearly increases with time, as a result of the unbalanced vortex initial state on a beta plane. Such an initial amplification of the vortex oscillations is actually found in the first stage of the evolution of warm-core frontal eddies simulated numerically by means of a frontal numerical model initialized using the shape and velocity fields of circular pulsons of the first order. In the numerical simulations, this stage is followed by an adjusted, complex nonstationary state characterized by a noticeable asymmetry in the meridional component of the vortex's horizontal pressure gradient, which develops to compensate for the variations of the Coriolis parameter with latitude. Accordingly, the location of the simulated vortex's maximum depth is always found poleward of the location of the simulated vortex's center of mass. Moreover, during the adjusted stage, near-inertial oscillations emerge that largely deviate from the exactly inertial ones characterizing analytical circular pulsons: a superinertial and a subinertial oscillation in fact appear, and their frequency difference is found to be an increasing function of latitude. A comparison between vortex westward drifts simulated numerically at different latitudes for different vortex radii and pulsation strengths and the corresponding drifts obtained using existing formulas shows that, initially, the simulated vortex drifts correspond to the fastest predicted ones in many realistic cases. As time elapses, however, the development of a beta-adjusted vortex structure, together with the effects of numerical dissipation, tend to slow down the simulated vortex drift.
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  • 47
    facet.materialart.
    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 37 . pp. 1445-1454.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-11
    Description: The depth of winter convection in the central Labrador Sea is strongly influenced by the prevailing stratification in late summer. For this late summer stratification salinity is as important as temperature, and in the upper water layers salinity even dominates. To analyze the source of the spring and summer freshening in the central region, seasonal freshwater cycles have been constructed for the interior Labrador Sea, the West Greenland Current, and the Labrador Current. It is shown that none of the local freshwater sources is responsible for the spring–summer freshening in the interior, which appears to occur in two separate events in April to May and July to September. Comparing the timing and volume estimates of the seasonal freshwater cycles of the boundary currents with the central Labrador Sea helps in understanding the origin of the interior freshwater signals. The first smaller pulse cannot be attributed clearly to either of the boundary currents. The second one is about three times stronger and supplies 60% of the seasonal summer freshwater. Transport estimates and calculated mixing properties provide evidence that its source is the West Greenland Current. The finding implies a connection also on interannual time scales between Labrador Sea surface salinity and freshwater sources in the West Greenland Current and farther upstream in the East Greenland Current. The freshwater input from the West Greenland Current thus also is the likely pathway for the known modulation of Labrador Sea Water mass formation by freshwater export from the Arctic (via the East Greenland Current), which implies some predictability on longer time scales.
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  • 48
    facet.materialart.
    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 28 . pp. 999-1002.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: New analytical, circular eddy solutions of the nonlinear, reduced-gravity, shallow-water equations in a rotating system are presented. While previous analytical solutions were limited to the description of pulsons, which are oscillating, frontal, warm-core eddies with paraboloidic shape and linear velocity components, the new solutions describe more general radial structures of eddy shape and azimuthal velocity. In particular, the new solutions, which contain as a subset the circular pulson solution, also allow for the description of circular, frontal, warm-core eddies with small azimuthal velocities at their periphery and/or with motionless cores, which are frequently observed characteristics of warm-core eddies in the World Ocean.
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  • 49
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 18 . pp. 5382-5389.
    Publication Date: 2017-08-23
    Description: The dominant pattern of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic sector is the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Since the 1970s the NAO has been well characterized by a trend toward its positive phase. Recent atmospheric general circulation model studies have linked this trend to a progressive warming of the Indian Ocean. Unfortunately, a clear mechanism responsible for the change of the NAO could not be given. This study provides further details of the NAO response to Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. This is done by conducting experiments with a coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model (OAGCM). The authors develop a hypothesis of how the Indian Ocean impacts the NAO.
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  • 50
    facet.materialart.
    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 28 (10). pp. 1904-1928.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The mean warm water transfer toward the equator along the western boundary of the South Atlantic is investigated, based on a number of ship surveys carried out during 1990–96 with CTD water mass observations and current profiling by shipboard and lowered (with the CTD/rosette) acoustic Doppler current profiler and with Pegasus current profiler. The bulk of the northward warm water flow follows the coast in the North Brazil Undercurrent (NBUC) from latitudes south of 10°S, carrying 23 Sv (Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1) above 1000 m. Out of this, 16 Sv are waters warmer than 7°C that form the source waters of the Florida Current. Zonal inflow from the east by the South Equatorial Current enters the western boundary system dominantly north of 5°S, adding transport northwest of Cape San Roque, and transforming the NBUC along its way toward the equator into a surface-intensified current, the North Brazil Current (NBC). From the combination of moored arrays and shipboard sections just north of the equator along 44°W, the mean NBC transport was determined at 35 Sv with a small seasonal cycle amplitude of only about 3 Sv. The reason for the much larger near-equatorial northward warm water boundary current than what would be required to carry the northward heat transport are recirculations by the zonal current system and the existence of the shallow South Atlantic tropical–subtropical cell (STC). The STC connects the subduction zones of the eastern subtropics of both hemispheres via equatorward boundary undercurrents with the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC), and the return flow is through upwelling and poleward Ekman transport. The persistent existence of a set of eastward thermocline and intermediate countercurrents on both sides of the equator was confirmed that recurred throughout the observations and carry ventilated waters from the boundary regime into the tropical interior. A strong westward current underneath the EUC, the Equatorial Intermediate Current, returns low-oxygen water westward. Consistent evidence for the existence of a seasonal variation in the warm water flow south of the equator could not be established, whereas significant seasonal variability of the boundary regime occurs north of the equator: northwestward alongshore throughflow of about 10 Sv of waters with properties from the Southern Hemisphere was found along the Guiana boundary in boreal spring when the North Equatorial Countercurrent is absent or even flowing westward, whereas during June–January the upper NBC is known to connect with the eastward North Equatorial Countercurrent through a retroflection zone that seasonally migrates up and down the coast and spawns eddies. The equatorial zone thus acts as a buffer and transformation zone for cross-equatorial exchanges, but knowledge of the detailed pathways in the interior including the involved diapycnal exchanges is still a problem.
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2017-03-21
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2017-07-20
    Description: Sea surface temperature (SST) observations in the North Atlantic indicate the existence of strong multidecadal variability with a unique spatial structure. It is shown by means of a new global climate model, which does not employ flux adjustments, that the multidecadal SST variability is closely related to variations in the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). The close correspondence between the North Atlantic SST and THC variabilities allows, in conjunction with the dynamical inertia of the THC, for the prediction of the slowly varying component of the North Atlantic climate system. It is shown additionally that past variations of the North Atlantic THC can be reconstructed from a simple North Atlantic SST index and that future, anthropogenically forced changes in the THC can be easily monitored by observing SSTs. The latter is confirmed by another state-of-the-art global climate model. Finally, the strong multidecadal variability may mask an anthropogenic signal in the North Atlantic for some decades.
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2018-04-11
    Description: This study focuses on an important aspect of air–sea interaction in models, namely, large-scale, spurious heat fluxes due to false pathways of the Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Current (NAC) in the “storm formation region” south and east of Newfoundland. Although high-resolution eddy-resolving models show some improvement in this respect, results are sensitive to poorly understood, subgrid-scale processes for which there is currently no complete, physically based parameterization. A simple method to correct an ocean general circulation model (OGCM), acting as a practical substitute for a physically based parameterization, is explored: the recently proposed “semiprognostic method,” a technique for adiabatically adjusting flow properties of a hydrostatic OGCM. The authors show that application of the method to an eddy-permitting model of the North Atlantic Ocean yields more realistic flow patterns and watermass characteristics in the Gulf Stream and NAC regions; in particular, spurious surface heat fluxes are reduced. Four simple modifications to the method are proposed, and their benefits are demonstrated. The modifications successfully account for three drawbacks of the original method: reduced geostrophic wave speeds, damped mesoscale eddy activity, and spurious interaction with topography. It is argued that use of a corrected (eddy permitting) OGCM in a coupled modeling system for simulating present climate (as now becomes possible because of increasing computer power) should lead to a more realistic simulation in regions of strong air–sea interaction as compared with that obtained with an uncorrected model. The method is also well suited for the simulation of the uptake and transport of passive tracers, such as anthropogenic carbon dioxide or components of ecosystem models.
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  • 54
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 14 (5). pp. 676-691.
    Publication Date: 2017-07-20
    Description: In contrast to the atmosphere, knowledge about interdecadal variability of the North Atlantic circulation is relatively restricted. It is the objective of this study to contribute to understanding how the North Atlantic circulation responds to a forcing by the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) on interdecadal timescales. For this purpose, the authors analyze observed atmospheric and sea surface temperature (SST) data along with the response of an ocean general circulation model to a realistic monthly surface flux forcing that is solely associated with the NAO for the period 1865–1997. In agreement with previous studies, it is shown that the relationship between the local forcing by the NAO and observed SST anomalies on interdecadal timescales points toward the importance of oceanic dynamics in generating SST anomalies. A comparison between observed and modeled SST anomalies reveals that the model results can be used to assess interdecadal variability of the North Atlantic circulation. The observed/modeled developments of interdecadal SST anomalies during the periods 1915–39 and 1960–84 against the local damping influence from the NAO can be traced back to the lagged response (10–20 yr) of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation and the subpolar gyre strength to interdecadal variability of the NAO. Additional sensitivity experiments suggest that primarily interdecadal variability in the surface net heat flux forcing associated with the NAO governs interdecadal changes of the North Atlantic circulation
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2017-08-23
    Description: An empirical model for the temperature of subsurface water entrained into the ocean mixed layer (Te) is presented and evaluated to improve sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) simulations in an intermediate ocean model (IOM) of the tropical Pacific. An inverse modeling approach is adopted to estimate Te from an SSTA equation using observed SST and simulated upper-ocean currents. A relationship between Te and sea surface height (SSH) anomalies is then obtained by utilizing a singular value decomposition (SVD) of their covariance. This empirical scheme is able to better parameterize Te anomalies than other local schemes and quite realistically depicts interannual variability of Te, including a nonlocal phase lag relation of Te variations relative to SSH anomalies over the central equatorial Pacific. An improved Te parameterization naturally leads to better depiction of the subsurface effect on SST variability by the mean upwelling of subsurface temperature anomalies. As a result, SSTA simulations are significantly improved in the equatorial Pacific; a comparison with other schemes indicates that systematic errors of the simulated SSTAs are significantly small—apparently due to the optimized empirical Teparameterization. Cross validation and comparisons with other model simulations are made to illustrate the robustness and effectiveness of the scheme. In particular it is demonstrated that the empirical Te model constructed from one historical period can be successfully used to improve SSTA simulations in another.
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  • 56
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 37 . pp. 727-742.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-11
    Description: Output from an eddy-resolving model of the North Atlantic Ocean is used to estimate values for the thickness diffusivity κ appropriate to the Gent and McWilliams parameterization. The effect of different choices of rotational eddy fluxes on the estimated κ is discussed. Using the raw fluxes (no rotational flux removed), large negative values (exceeding −5000 m2 s−1) of κ are diagnosed locally, particularly in the Gulf Stream region and in the equatorial Atlantic. Removing a rotational flux based either on the suggestion of Marshall and Shutts or the more general theory of Medvedev and Greatbatch leads to a reduction of the negative values, but they are still present. The regions where κ < 0 correspond to regions where eddies are acting to increase, rather than decrease (as in baroclinic instability) the mean available potential energy. In the subtropical gyre, κ ranges between 500 and 2000 m2 s−1, rapidly decreasing to zero below the thermocline in all cases. Rotational fluxes and κ are also estimated using an optimization technique. In this case, |κ| can be reduced or increased by construction, but the regions where κ < 0 are still present and the optimized rotational fluxes also remain similar to a priori values given by the theoretical considerations. A previously neglected component (ν) of the bolus velocity is associated with the horizontal flux of buoyancy along, rather than across, the mean buoyancy contours. The ν component of the bolus velocity is interpreted as a streamfunction for eddy-induced advection, rather than diffusion, of mean isopycnal layer thickness, showing up when the lateral eddy fluxes cannot be described by isotropic diffusion only. All estimates show a similar large-scale pattern for ν, implying westward advection of isopycnal thickness over much of the subtropical gyre. Comparing ν with a mean streamfunction shows that it is about 10% of the mean in midlatitudes and even larger than the mean in the Tropics.
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  • 57
    facet.materialart.
    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 34 (11). pp. 2398-2412.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-11
    Description: In the eastern South Pacific Ocean, at a depth of about 200 m, a salinity minimum is found. This minimum is associated with a particular water mass, the “Shallow Salinity Minimum Water” (SSMW). SSMW outcrops in a fresh tongue (Smin) centered at about 45°S. The Smin appears to emanate from the eastern boundary, against the mean flow. The watermass transformation that creates SSMW and Smin is investigated here. The Smin and SSMW are transformed from saltier and warmer waters originating from the western South Pacific. The freshening and cooling occur when the water is advected eastward at the poleward side of the subtropical gyre. Sources of freshening and cooling are air–sea exchange and advection of water from south of the subtropical gyre. A freshwater and heat budget for the mixed layer reveals that both sources equally contribute to the watermass transformation in the mixed layer. The freshened and cooled mixed layer water is subducted into the gyre interior along the southern rim of the subtropical gyre. Subduction into the zonal flow restricts the transformation of interior properties to diffusion only. A simple advection/diffusion balance reveals diffusion coefficients of order 2000 m2 s−1. The tongue shape of the Smin is explained from a dynamical viewpoint because no relation to a positive precipitation–evaporation balance was found. Freshest Smin values are found to coincide with slowest eastward mixed layer flow that accumulates the largest amounts of freshwater in the mixed layer and creates the fresh tongue at the sea surface. Although the SSMW is the densest and freshest mode of water subducted along the South American coast, the freshening and cooling in the South Pacific affect a whole range of densities (25.0–26.8 kg m−3). The transformed water turns northward with the gyre circulation and contributes to the hydrographic structure of the gyre farther north. Because the South Pacific provides most of the source waters that upwell along the equatorial Pacific, variability in South Pacific hydrography may influence equatorial Pacific hydrography. Because one-half of the transformation is found to be controlled through Ekman transport, variability in wind forcing at the southern rim of the subtropical gyre may be a source for variability of the equatorial Pacific.
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  • 58
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 24 . pp. 91-107.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: The annual cycle of meridional heat transport in the North and equatorial Atlantic Ocean is studied by means of the high-resolution numerical model that had been developed in recent years as a Community Modeling Effort for the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. Similar to previous model studies, there is a winter maximum in northward heat transport in the equatorial Atlantic and a summer maximum in midlatitudes. The seasonal variation in heat transport in the equatorial Atlantic, with a maximum near 8°N, is associated with the out-of-phase changes in heat content to the north and south of that latitude in connection with the seasonal reversal of the North Equatorial Countercurrent. The amplitude of the heat transport variation at 8°N depends on model resolution: forcing with the monthly mean wind stresses of Hellerman–Rosenstein (HR) gives an annual range of 2.1 PW in the case of a 1/3° meridional grid, and 1.7 PW in the case of a 1° grid, compared to 1.4 PW in a previous 2° model. Forcing with the wind stresses of Isemer–Hasse (IH) gives 2.5 PW in the 1/3° and 2.2 PW in the 1° model case. The annual range of heat transport in the subtropical North Atlantic is much less dependent on resolution but sensitive to the wind stress: it increases from 0.5 PW in the case of HR forcing to almost 0.8 PW with IH forcing. The annual cycle of heat transport can be understood in terms of wind-driven variations in the meridional overturning; variations in horizontal gyre transport have only little effect both in the equatorial and in the subtropical Atlantic. In all model solutions the seasonal variations in the near-surface meridional Ekman transport are associated with deep seasonal overturning cells. The weak shear of the deep response suggests that the large variations in heat transport on seasonal and shorter time scales should be of little consequence for observational estimates of mean oceanic heat transports relying on one-time hydrographic surveys.
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: During December 1991 to April 1992 measurements with moored acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) stations and shipboard surveys were carried out in the convection regime of the Gulf of Lions, northwestern Mediterranean. First significant mixed layer deepening and generation of internal waves in the stratified intermediate layer occurred during a mistral cooling phase in late December. Mixed layer deepening to about 400 m, eroding the salinity maximum layer of saltier and warmer Levantine Intermediate Water and causing temporary surface-layer warming, followed during a second cooling period of late January. During a mistral cooling period from 18 to 23 February 1992, convection to 1500-m depth was observed, where the size of the convection regime was 50–100 km extent. Vertical velocities 40–640 m deep, recorded by four ADCPs of a triangular moored array of 2 km sidelength in the center of the convection regime, exceeded 5 cm s−1 and were not correlated over the separation of the moorings. Horizontal scales estimated from event duration and advection velocity were only around 500 m, in agreement with scaling arguments for convective plumes. Plume activity during nighttime cooling was larger than daytime daytime. Significant evidence for rotation of the plumes could not be found. Overall, plume energy, and the degree of mixing accomplished by them, was much lower than observed during a stronger mistral in February 1987. The mean vertical velocity over the mistral period, determined from the four ADCPs, was near zero, confirming the role of plumes as mixing agents rather than as part of a mean downdraft in a convection regime. The cyclonic rim current around the convection regime was confined to a strip of <20 km width with an average velocity of about 10 cm s−1, which is in agreement with near-zero vertical mean velocity in the interior based on potential vorticity conservation. A relation between variations of the larger-scale cyclonic North Mediterranean Current along the boundary and the deep convection could not be identified. An unexplained feature still is the cover of the convection regime by a shallow layer of light water that moves in rather quickly from the sides after the cooling ends.
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  • 60
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 32 (2). pp. 401-410.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: Turbulent fluxes of momentum and sensible heat were estimated from sonic anemometer measurements gathered over the Labrador Sea during a winter cruise of the R/V Knorr. The inertial dissipation method was used to calculate turbulent fluxes of momentum. The resulting drag coefficients agree well with earlier findings. Sensible heat fluxes were computed using both cross-correlation and inertial dissipation techniques. There is good agreement between results from both methods, although there is more scatter in the correlation fluxes than the dissipation fluxes. The inertial dissipation method gives reasonable results even under conditions of high wind speeds and low air temperatures, which combined with the relatively warm sea surface temperatures lead to sensible heat fluxes of several hundred watts per square meter. Sensible heat fluxes obtained from the sonic anemometer measurements agree well with bulk turbulent fluxes according to the formulation of Isemer and Hasse.
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2017-08-24
    Description: The western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) is closely related to Asian climate. Previous examination of changes in the WPSH found a westward extension since the late 1970s, which has contributed to the inter-decadal transition of East Asian climate. The reason for the westward extension is unknown, however. The present study suggests that this significant change of WPSH is partly due to the atmosphere's response to the observed Indian Ocean-western Pacific (IWP) warming. Coordinated by a European Union's Sixth Framework Programme, Understanding the Dynamics of the Coupled Climate System (DYNAMITE), five AGCMs were forced by identical idealized sea surface temperature patterns representative of the IWP warming and cooling. The results of these numerical experiments suggest that the negative heating in the central and eastern tropical Pacific and increased convective heating in the equatorial Indian Ocean/ Maritime Continent associated with IWP warming are in favor of the westward extension of WPSH. The SST changes in IWP influences the Walker circulation, with a subsequent reduction of convections in the tropical central and eastern Pacific, which then forces an ENSO/Gill-type response that modulates the WPSH. The monsoon diabatic heating mechanism proposed by Rodwell and Hoskins plays a secondary reinforcing role in the westward extension of WPSH. The low-level equatorial flank of WPSH is interpreted as a Kelvin response to monsoon condensational heating, while the intensified poleward flow along the western flank of WPSH is in accord with Sverdrup vorticity balance. The IWP warming has led to an expansion of the South Asian high in the upper troposphere, as seen in the reanalysis.
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2017-08-23
    Description: This paper describes the mean ocean circulation and the tropical variability simulated by the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M) coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation model (AOGCM). Results are presented from a version of the coupled model that served as a prototype for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) simulations. The model does not require flux adjustment to maintain a stable climate. A control simulation with present-day greenhouse gases is analyzed, and the simulation of key oceanic features, such as sea surface temperatures (SSTs), large-scale circulation, meridional heat and freshwater transports, and sea ice are compared with observations. A parameterization that accounts for the effect of ocean currents on surface wind stress is implemented in the model. The largest impact of this parameterization is in the tropical Pacific, where the mean state is significantly improved: the strength of the trade winds and the associated equatorial upwelling weaken, and there is a reduction of the model’s equatorial cold SST bias by more than 1 K. Equatorial SST variability also becomes more realistic. The strength of the variability is reduced by about 30% in the eastern equatorial Pacific and the extension of SST variability into the warm pool is significantly reduced. The dominant El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) period shifts from 3 to 4 yr. Without the parameterization an unrealistically strong westward propagation of SST anomalies is simulated. The reasons for the changes in variability are linked to changes in both the mean state and to a reduction in atmospheric sensitivity to SST changes and oceanic sensitivity to wind anomalies.
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  • 63
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 18 (1). pp. 58-70.
    Publication Date: 2017-08-23
    Description: This study explores the influence of phytoplankton on the tropical Pacific heat budget. A hybrid coupled model for the tropical Pacific that is based on a primitive equation reduced-gravity multilayer ocean model, a dynamic ocean mixed layer, an atmospheric mixed layer, and a statistical atmosphere is used. The statistical atmosphere relates deviations of the sea surface temperature from its mean to wind stress anomalies and allows for the rectification of the annual cycle and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon through the positive Bjerknes feedback. Furthermore, a nine-component ecosystem model is coupled to the physical variables of the ocean. The simulated chlorophyll concentrations can feed back onto the ocean heat budget by their optical properties, which modify solar light absorption in the surface layers. It is shown that both the surface layer concentration as well as the vertical profile of chlorophyll have a significant effect on the simulated mean state, the tropical annual cycle, and ENSO. This study supports a previously suggested hypothesis (Timmermann and Jin) that predicts an influence of phytoplankton concentration of the tropical Pacific climate mean state and its variability. The bioclimate feedback diagnosed here works as follows: Maxima in the subsurface chlorophyll concentrations lead to an enhanced subsurface warming due to the absorption of photosynthetically available shortwave radiation. This warming triggers a deepening of the mixed layer in the eastern equatorial Pacific and eventually a reduction of the surface ocean currents (Murtugudde et al.). The weakened south-equatorial current generates an eastern Pacific surface warming, which is strongly enhanced by the Bjerknes feedback. Because of the deepening of the mixed layer, the strength of the simulated annual cycle is also diminished. This in turn leads to an increase in ENSO variability.
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  • 64
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 33 . pp. 431-435.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: Aspects of the dynamics of warm-core eddies evolving in a deep ocean are investigated using the results of laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. The vortices, produced experimentally in a system brought to solid body rotation by rapidly lifting a bottomless cylinder containing freshwater immersed in a salty ambient fluid, show clearly the presence of inertial oscillations: deepenings and contractions, shoalings and expansions, alternate during an exact inertial period. These pulsations, though predicted analytically and simulated numerically, had never been measured before for surface eddies having aspect ratios, as well as Rossby and Burger numbers, typical of geophysical warm-core eddies. The spatial structure of the vortex radial and tangential velocity components is analyzed using the experimental results and numerical simulations carried out by means of a layered, nonlinear, reduced-gravity frontal model. It is found that, while the dependence of the vortex radial velocity on the vortex radius evolves toward linearity as time elapses, different spatial structures seem to be possible for the vortex tangential velocity dependence. This behavior, which strongly differs from the “pulson” dynamics, is instead consistent with recently found analytical solutions of the nonlinear, reduced-gravity shallow-water equations describing the dynamics of warm-core eddies on an f plane.
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  • 65
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 18 . pp. 320-338.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: We examine the diffusive behavior of the flow field in an eddy-resolving, primitive equation circulation model. Analysis of fluid particle trajectories illustrates the transport mechanisms, which are leading to uniform tracer and potential vorticity distributions in the interior of the subtropical thermocline. In contrast to the assumption of weak mixing in recent analytical theories, the numerical model indicates the alternative of tracer and potential vorticity homogenization on isopycnal surfaces taking place in a nonideal fluid with strong, along-isopycnal eddy mixing. The eastern, ventilated portion of the gyre appears to be sufficiently homogeneous to allow the concept of an eddy diffusivity to apply. A break in a random walk behavior of particle statistics occurs after about 100 days when along-flow dispersion sharply increases, indicative of mean shear effects. During the first months of particle spreading, eddy dispersal and mean advection are of similar magnitude. Eddy kinetic energy is of O(60–80 cm2 s−2) in the model thermocline, comparable to the pool of weak eddy intensity found in the eastern parts of the subtropical oceans. Eddy diffusivity in the model thermocline (Kxx = 8 × 107, Kyy = 3 × 107 cm2 s−1) seems to be higher by a factor of about 3 than oceanic values estimated for these area. Below the thermocline, model diffusivity decreases substantially and becomes much more anisotropic, with particle dispersal preferentially in the zonal direction. The strong nonisotropic behavior, prominent also in all other areas of water eddy intensity, appears as the major discrepancy when compared with the observed behavior of SOFAR floats and surface drifters in the ocean.
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  • 66
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 28 . pp. 1410-1424.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: In the Gulf of Lions, observations of deep convection have been sporadically carried out over the past three decades, showing significant interannual variability of convection activity. As long time series of meteorological observations of the region are available from coastal stations, heat flux time series for the Gulf of Lions for the individual winters from 1969 to 1994 are derived by calibrating these observations against direct measurements obtained over the convection site. These heat fluxes are also compared against heat fluxes obtained by the French PERIDOT weather model for the winter of 1991/92. A Kraus–Turner one-dimensional mixed layer model is initialized by climatological mean temperature and salinity profiles and then driven by the heat flux time series of the individual years. Resulting convection depths are in satisfactory agreement with existing observational evidence, showing the dominance of interannual variability of local forcing on convection variability. The interannual variability of convection depth causes interannual variations in deep-water properties, and these are also compared with the hydrographic database.
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  • 67
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 39 (11). pp. 3040-3045.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-12
    Description: Wind-induced near-inertial energy has been believed to be an important source for generating the ocean mixing required to maintain the global meridional overturning circulation. In the present study, the near-inertial energy budget in a realistic (1)/(12)degrees model of the North Atlantic Ocean driven by synoptically varying wind forcing is examined. The authors find that nearly 70% of the wind-induced near-inertial energy at the sea surface is lost to turbulent mixing within the top 200 m and, hence, is not available to generate diapycnal mixing at greater depth. Assuming this result can be extended to the global ocean, it is estimated that the wind-induced near-inertial energy available for ocean mixing at depth is, at most, 0.1 TW. This confirms a recent suggestion that the role of wind-induced near-inertial energy in sustaining the global overturning circulation might have been overemphasized.
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2018-04-11
    Description: The authors present the first quantitative comparison between new velocity datasets and high-resolution models in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre [1/10° Parallel Ocean Program model (POPNA10), Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM), ° Atlantic model (ATL6), and Family of Linked Atlantic Ocean Model Experiments (FLAME)]. At the surface, the model velocities agree generally well with World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) drifter data. Two noticeable exceptions are the weakness of the East Greenland coastal current in models and the presence in the surface layers of a strong southwestward East Reykjanes Ridge Current. At depths, the most prominent feature of the circulation is the boundary current following the continental slope. In this narrow flow, it is found that gridded float datasets cannot be used for a quantitative comparison with models. The models have very different patterns of deep convection, and it is suggested that this could be related to the differences in their barotropic transport at Cape Farewell. Models show a large drift in watermass properties with a salinization of the Labrador Sea Water. The authors believe that the main cause is related to horizontal transports of salt because models with different forcing and vertical mixing share the same salinization problem. A remarkable feature of the model solutions is the large westward transport over Reykjanes Ridge [10 Sv (Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1) or more]
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  • 69
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 32 . pp. 1567-1573.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: The analysis of high-resolution oceanographic data referring to velocity measurements carried out by means of a vessel-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler on 12 November 2000 in the equatorial Atlantic, at 44°W between 4.5° and 6°N, reveals the presence of three large-amplitude internal solitary waves superimposed on the velocity field associated with the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC). These waves were found in the deep ocean, more than 500 km off the continental shelf and far from regions of topographic variations. They propagated toward the north-northeast, strongly inclined with respect to the main axis of the NECC and perpendicular to the Brazilian shelf, as well as to the North Brazil Current, and were characterized by maximum horizontal velocities of about 2 m s−1 and maximum vertical velocities of about 20 cm s−1. The large magnitudes of the measured velocities indicate that the observed waves represent disturbances evolving in a strongly stratified ocean. The distance separating the waves (about 70 km) indicates that the observed features cannot be considered as elements of a single train of internal solitary waves. The waves consist, instead, of truly disconnected, pulselike intense solitary disturbances. This behavior, which strongly differs from that typically observed for trains of tidally generated internal solitary waves, indicates that different mechanisms were possibly involved in their generation and/or evolution.
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  • 70
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 60 . pp. 152-165.
    Publication Date: 2016-09-07
    Description: A new mechanism is proposed that explains two key features of the observed El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon—its irregularity and decadal amplitude changes. Using a low-order ENSO model, the authors show that the nonlinearities in the tropical heat budget can lead to bursting behavior characterized by decadal occurrences of strong El Niño events. La Niña events are not affected, a feature that is also seen in ENSO observations. One key result of this analysis is that decadal variability in the Tropics can be generated without invoking extratropical processes or stochastic forcing. The El Niño bursting behavior simulated by the low-order ENSO model can be understood in terms of the concept of homoclinic and heteroclinic connections. It is shown that this new model for ENSO amplitude modulations and irregularity, although difficult to prove, might explain some features of ENSO dynamics seen in more complex climate models and the observations.
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  • 71
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29 (6). pp. 1251-1264.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: A dynamic–thermodynamic sea ice–mixed layer model for the Weddell Sea is complemented by a simple, diagnostic model to account for local sea ice–atmosphere interaction. To consider the atmospheric influence on the oceanic mixed layer, the pycnocline upwelling velocity is calculated using the theory of Ekman pumping. In several experiments, formation and conservation of a polynya in the Weddell Sea are investigated. Intrusion of heat into the lower atmosphere above the polynya area is assumed to cause a thermal perturbation and a cyclonic thermal wind field. Superposed with daily ECMWF surface winds, this modified atmospheric forcing field intensifies oceanic upwelling and induces divergent ice drift. Simulation results indicate that in case of a weak atmospheric cross-polynya flow the formation of a thermal wind field can significantly extend the lifetime of a large polynya. The repeated occurrence of the Weddell polynya in the years 1974–76 thus appears to be an effect of feedback mechanisms between sea ice, atmosphere, and oceanic mixed layer.
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2016-09-07
    Description: The interaction of clouds with solar and terrestrial radiation is one of the most important topics of climate research. In recent years it has been recognized that only a full three-dimensional (3D) treatment of this interaction can provide answers to many climate and remote sensing problems, leading to the worldwide development of numerous 3D radiative transfer (RT) codes. The international Intercomparison of 3D Radiation Codes (I3RC), described in this paper, sprung from the natural need to compare the performance of these 3D RT codes used in a variety of current scientific work in the atmospheric sciences. I3RC supports intercomparison and development of both exact and approximate 3D methods in its effort to 1) understand and document the errors/limits of 3D algorithms and their sources; 2) provide “baseline” cases for future code development for 3D radiation; 3) promote sharing and production of 3D radiative tools; 4) derive guidelines for 3D radiative tool selection; and 5) improve atmospheric science education in 3D RT. Results from the two completed phases of I3RC have been presented in two workshops and are expected to guide improvements in both remote sensing and radiative energy budget calculations in cloudy atmospheres.
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  • 73
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Applied Meteorology, 36 . pp. 919-930.
    Publication Date: 2017-07-03
    Description: A neural network is used to calculate the longwave net radiation (Lnet) at the sea surface from measurements of the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I). The neural network applied in this study is able to account largely for the nonlinearity between Lnet and the satellite-measured brightness temperatures (TB). The algorithm can be applied for instantaneous measurements over oceanic regions with the area extent of satellite passive microwave observations (30–60 km in diameter). Comparing with a linear regression method the neural network reduces the standard error for Lnet from 17 to 5 W m−2 when applied to model results. For clear-sky cases, a good agreement with an error of less than 5 W m−2 for Lnet between calculations from SSM/I observations and pyrgeometer measurements on the German research vessel Poseidon during the International Cirrus Experiment (ICE) 1989 is obtained. For cloudy cases, the comparison is problematic due to the inhomogenities of clouds and the low and different spatial resolutions of the SSM/I data. Global monthly mean values of Lnet for October 1989 are computed and compared to other sources. Differences are observed among the climatological values from previous studies by H.-J. Isemer and L. Hasse, the climatological values from R. Lindau and L. Hasse, the values of W. L. Darnell et al., and results from this study. Some structures of Lnet are similar for results from W. L. Darnell et al. and the present authors. The differences between both results are generally less than 15 W m−2. Over the North Atlantic Ocean the authors found a poleward increase for Lnet, which is contrary to the results of H.-J. Isemer and L. Hasse.
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