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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ILP/M 06.0268
    In: Publication of the International Lithosphere Programme
    In: Journal of Petrology
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: xiv, 306 S. : Ill., graph. Darst.
    Series Statement: Publication of the International Lithosphere Programme 185
    Location: Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0819
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The 1983 hawaiite of Mount Etna was sampled and analyzed for groundmass and mineral compositions, rare-earth-element concentrations and Sr-Nd isotope ratios. Microprobe data for coexisting mineral phases and glass show crystallization temperatures of around 1100° C from a rather differentiated hawaiite magma at rather highfO2 (10−8 at 1100° C), well above the QFM buffer. The hawaiites are characterized by a marked enrichment in the light REE similar to other alkaline magmas: the (Ce)N/(Yb)N is greater than 10, a feature these hawaiites have in common with alkaline magmas erupted earlier on Mount Etna. Since the Ce/Yb ratio cannot be affected by fractionation of clinopyroxene and plagioclase, it is taken as an accurate reflection of the LREE-enriched nature of the hawaiites. From this point of view, the Etnean hawaiites are identical to within-plate alkaline magmas erupted on the Hawaiian islands. This similarity extends to the Nd-Sr isotope features. Two hawaiites have87Sr/86Sr=0.70346 and 0.70352 and143Nd/144Nd=0.51286 and 0.51284. These data indicate a source similar to oceanic-island basalts, a source depleted in Rb/Sr and Nd/Sm for some period of time. The Sr isotope data are identical to that previously reported for Mount Etna. Extraction of hawaiites from depleted source regions requires either recent enrichment events, mixing of asthenospheric and lithospheric melts, or variable degrees of melting. At present, the data do not allow a clear decision. The peculiar tectonic setting of Mount Etna, between the relatively undeformed African foreland and the active Aeolian volcanic islands, may suggest contributions to the source region from subduction and within-plate processes. Etnean lavas have a geochemical imprint of subduction-related enrichment processes, and they also share petrological and chemical features identical to oceanic-island basalts whose source region has been affected by within-palte enrichment processes.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0819
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The Aeolian volcanic arc displays a wide range of magmatic products. Mafic lavas range from hypersthene normative calc-alkaline basalts to silica-undersaturated potassic absarokites, although the former are spatially and temporally dominant, consistent with the subduction-zone tectonic setting. In addition, intermediate and acidic members of the various fractionation series may be recognised. Large variations in trace element and isotope ratios accompany the rapid calc-alkaline to potassic transition, and it is argued that these may be largely explained in terms of subduction-zone mantle enrichment involving components derived from both basaltic ocean crust and subducted sediments. In addition, it seems that the mantle wedge itself was substantially heterogeneous prior to the onset of subduction zone processes. Not only are these subduction components similar to those proposed in a number of island arcs, but they also resemble those recognised in the ultra-potassic lavas of the Roman province, supporting recent subduction-related petrogenetic models of the Roman magmatism. Although subducted sediment plays an important role in the generation of some potassic magmatism, it is not uniquely responsible for K2O-rich lavas, which are also produced without a large sediment contribution.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  Ultramafic xenoliths in Cenozoic alkali basalts from Yitong, northeast China comprise three types in terms of their modal mineralogy: lherzolite, pyroxenite and wehrlite. The wehrlite suite always contains interstitial pale/brown glass which occupies several per cent by volume of the whole rock. The texture of the wehrlites is porphyroclastic with some large strained grains of olivine (0.5–1 mm) scattered in a very fine grained matrix (0.1 mm), implying a metamorphic origin for the protolith rather than an igneous origin. The host minerals are compositionally zoned, showing evidence of reaction with a melt. Petrological evidence for resorption of spinel (lherzolite) and orthopyroxene (wehrlite) by infiltrating melt further supports the hypothesis that the wehrlites result from interaction between a partial melting residue and a melt, which preferentially replaced primary spinel, Cr-diopside and enstatite to produce secondary clinopyroxene (cpx) + olivine (ol) ± chromite ± feldspar (fd). The composition of the mineral phases supports this inference and, further indicates that, prior to melt impregnation, the protoliths of these wehrlites must have been subjected to at least one earlier Fe-enrichment event. This explanation is consistent with the restricted occurrence of glasses in the wehrlite suite. The glass is generally associated with fine-grained (0.1 mm) minerals (cpx+ol+chromite ±fd). Electron microprobe analyses of these glasses show them to have high SiO2 content (54–60 wt%), a high content of alkalis (Na2O, 5.6–8.0%; K2O, 6.3–9.0%), high Al2O3 (20–24%), and a depletion in CaO (0.13–2.83%), FeO (0.89–4.42%) and MgO (0.29–1.18%). Ion probe analyses reveal a light rare earth element-enrichment in these glasses with chondrite normalised (La)n = 268–480. The high K2O contents in these glasses and their mode of occurrence argue against an origin by in-situ melting of pre-existent phases. Petrographic characteristics and trace element data also exclude the possibility of percolation of host-basalt related melts for the origin of these glasses. Thus the glasses must have resulted from local penetration of mantle metasomatic melts which may have been produced by partial melting of peridotites with involvement of deep-seated fluids. Such melts may have been significantly modified by subsequent fractional crystallization of ol, cpx and sp, extensive reaction with the mantle conduit and the xenolith transport process.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Poikiloblastic harzburgite xenoliths (P-type) from Borée, France are characterised by large (>1 cm), essentially unstrained olivines and high equilibrium temperatures (>1200 °C). Mineralogical data, trace element abundances and Sr-Nd-O isotopes of the constituent minerals are consistent with formation as a result of melt percolation-reactions in a lherzolite precursor during lithospheric erosion by an upwelling plume. This petrogenetic model contrasts with previous models involving isochemical recrystallisation from a granular lherzolite precursor (G-type) or derivation as metacumulates from tholeiitic magmas. Numerical simulation of percolation reactions at the lithosphere-plume boundary using the plate model of Vernières et al. (1997) indicates that the different textured xenoliths may represent mantle from different levels in a percolation-reaction column. If correct then the P-type harzburgites resulted from pyroxene-dissolving and olivine-producing reactions at increasing melt fraction (>3%) at the lower part of column (base of the lithosphere), whereas the G-type lherzolites were located within the low-porosity domain (<0.1%) above a permeability barrier, and are formed through a melt-rock reaction at decreasing melt mass. Given the very low melt fraction, the REE fractionation in this zone is controlled by chromatographic effects coupled with source effects of reaction. The variations in porosity, melt/rock ratio and melt-rock reaction mechanism are believed to be responsible for the diversity of REE patterns and striking correlation between REE abundance and texture in Borée xenoliths.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Figure 2 illustrates the tectonic evolution of the southern Indian Ocean, and the development of tectono-magmatic features that may be attributable to the Kerguelen-Heard plume. The diagrams suggest that the plume has been involved in the development of several major features of the Indian Ocean ...
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Kerguelen and Heard Islands are built on the northern half of the older Kerguelen Plateau, above a geoid high which is indicative of upwelling mantle material8. Although there have been proposals that the plateau represents a continental remnant of the breakup of Gondwana9, recent drilling by the ...
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 311 (1984), S. 331-335 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] A review of Sr- and Nd-isotope and selected trace element data in both within-plate basalts and mantle xenoliths suggests that at least two enrichment processes are active within the upper mantle. One is consistent with the migration of small volume silicate melts with ‘basanitic’ trace ...
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1998-06-22
    Description: Poikiloblastic harzburgite xenoliths (P-type) from Borée, France are characterised by large (〉1 cm), essentially unstrained olivines and high equilibrium temperatures (〉1200 °C). Mineralogical data, trace element abundances and Sr-Nd-O isotopes of the constituent minerals are consistent with formation as a result of melt percolation-reactions in a lherzolite precursor during lithospheric erosion by an upwelling plume. This petrogenetic model contrasts with previous models involving isochemical recrystallisation from a granular lherzolite precursor (G-type) or derivation as metacumulates from tholeiitic magmas. Numerical simulation of percolation reactions at the lithosphere-plume boundary using the plate model of Vernières et al. (1997) indicates that the different textured xenoliths may represent mantle from different levels in a percolation-reaction column. If correct then the P-type harzburgites resulted from pyroxene-dissolving and olivine-producing reactions at increasing melt fraction (〉3%) at the lower part of column (base of the lithosphere), whereas the G-type lherzolites were located within the low-porosity domain (〈0.1%) above a permeability barrier, and are formed through a melt-rock reaction at decreasing melt mass. Given the very low melt fraction, the REE fractionation in this zone is controlled by chromatographic effects coupled with source effects of reaction. The variations in porosity, melt/rock ratio and melt-rock reaction mechanism are believed to be responsible for the diversity of REE patterns and striking correlation between REE abundance and texture in Borée xenoliths. ©1998 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
    Print ISSN: 0010-7999
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0967
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1996-11-26
    Description: Ultramafic xenoliths in Cenozoic alkali basalts from Yitong, northeast China comprise three types in terms of their modal mineralogy: lherzolite, pyroxenite and wehrlite. The wehrlite suite always contains interstitial pale/brown glass which occupies several per cent by volume of the whole rock. The texture of the wehrlites is porphyroclastic with some large strained grains of olivine (0.5–1 mm) scattered in a very fine grained matrix (0.1 mm), implying a metamorphic origin for the protolith rather than an igneous origin. The host minerals are compositionally zoned, showing evidence of reaction with a melt. Petrological evidence for resorption of spinel (lherzolite) and orthopyroxene (wehrlite) by infiltrating melt further supports the hypothesis that the wehrlites result from interaction between a partial melting residue and a melt, which preferentially replaced primary spinel, Cr-diopside and enstatite to produce secondary clinopyroxene (cpx) + olivine (ol) ± chromite ± feldspar (fd). The composition of the mineral phases supports this inference and, further indicates that, prior to melt impregnation, the protoliths of these wehrlites must have been subjected to at least one earlier Fe-enrichment event. This explanation is consistent with the restricted occurrence of glasses in the wehrlite suite. The glass is generally associated with fine-grained (0.1 mm) minerals (cpx+ol+chromite ±fd). Electron microprobe analyses of these glasses show them to have high SiO_2 content (54–60 wt%), a high content of alkalis (Na_2O, 5.6–8.0%; K_2O, 6.3–9.0%), high Al_2O_3 (20–24%), and a depletion in CaO (0.13–2.83%), FeO (0.89–4.42%) and MgO (0.29–1.18%). Ion probe analyses reveal a light rare earth element-enrichment in these glasses with chondrite normalised (La)_n = 268–480. The high K_2O contents in these glasses and their mode of occurrence argue against an origin by in-situ melting of pre-existent phases. Petrographic characteristics and trace element data also exclude the possibility of percolation of host-basalt related melts for the origin of these glasses. Thus the glasses must have resulted from local penetration of mantle metasomatic melts which may have been produced by partial melting of peridotites with involvement of deep-seated fluids. Such melts may have been significantly modified by subsequent fractional crystallization of ol, cpx and sp, extensive reaction with the mantle conduit and the xenolith transport process. ©1996 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
    Print ISSN: 0010-7999
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