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  • 1
    Call number: G 6447
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 102 S. + 4 Kt.-Beil.
    Language: Hungarian
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Call number: 1.1/M 92.0747
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 447 S.
    Edition: 13. Aufl.
    ISBN: 346818381X
    Classification: E.5.
    Language: Hungarian
    Location: Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
    Series available for loan
    Budapest : : Kiadja a Magyar Földtani és Geofizikai Intézet,
    Call number: M 17.90900
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 314 Seiten : , Illustrationen ; , 1 Karte (gefaltet 29.5 x 17 cm) , 31 cm +
    ISBN: 9789636713041 , 9636713049
    Classification: A.3.3.
    Language: Hungarian , English
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 4
    facet.materialart.
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2016-03-30
    Description: Macroeconomic modelling is a recent development within the rapidly advancing field of agentbased modelling. Like older macromodels macro ABMs must also feature a well-designed consumption-savings block. As the microeconomic ABM literature on savings is non-existent researchers had to resort to the traditional literature to borrow ideas about how to model agents' savings behaviour. They adopted certain simple consumption rules as simplifications of the (implicit) decision rules derived from maximizing models. In this paper we set up an agentbased macromodel where households belong to one of three types of savers (prudent, myopic, permanent income based), but allow for adaptation, learning and selection. We are interested in establishing the relative fitness of the three savings types, and determine their impact on the overall performance of the economy. Through running simulations we find that the prudent type alone prevails when the selection pressure is very high, but at intermediate levels of evolutionary competition the two other types can survive as well. At customary levels of relative capital efficiency prudent agents tend to overaccumulate capital, and the presence of the other types is like a socially useful antidote, driving the long-run savings rate towards the golden rule. On the other hand low selection pressure raises substantially the volatility of capital. In this model relaxing borrowing constraints is conducive to even more excessive investments, as if owners of capital were exploited by wage-earners.
    Keywords: E03 ; E14 ; E27 ; ddc:330 ; savings types ; bounded rationality ; evolutionary learning ; agent-based macromodel
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
    facet.materialart.
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2016-03-30
    Description: One of the intriguing questions of our times is the importance of the centralization and nationalization campaigns of the 2nd and 3rd Orbán-government carried out since 2010. In an earlier working paper - Mihalyi (2015) - I demonstrated that similar policy steps were occasionally taken in other post-socialist countries, too. It is also a known fact, that the subsequent Hungarian governments in the 1990-2010 period were also forced in some cases to renationalize already privatized firms - although the main trend of policies was privatization. However, in my earlier work a logical question was ignored, namely why this U-turn has been so far so easily accepted by the Hungarian society at large and many opinion leaders both on the political left and political right. One conceivable answer is that this is what the Hungarian people have been accustomed to. The history of the past 300 years was nothing else but a sequence of nationalizations and confiscations, and the milestones of this have been taught with proud already in the elementary schools for generations. From the perspective of the present paper, it doesn't matter whether the nationalizing governments could have made different decisions; whether they were pressed by outside forces or acted independently. It will be shown that the decision-makers were both prisoners of their own epoch and the ideology of their social classes, but at the same time they were also authoritative diffusers of their own ideologies through politics, education and the media. The subsequent asset redistributions in the modern economic history of Hungary aimed at accelerating the country's economic development and catching up with the more advanced economies. Unfortunately the decision-makers didn't realize that these measures - nolens volens - undermined the idea of private property, the rule of law and the trust vis-à-vis the state itself.
    Keywords: N4 ; P20 ; P26 ; P31 ; P51 ; ddc:330 ; economic history ; nationalization ; socialization ; restitution ; land reform ; retroactive legislation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The outcome of the economic performance of individuals is utilised in the form of consumption and consequent welfare. Despite this truism, there is relatively little information available on household consumption behaviour in Hungary stemming from investigations based on economic theory. The study sets out to fill the gap with an estimate based on the now-basic demand model. The authors apply the results of the estimate to verifying the robustness of the theoretical assumptions and then show how this framework can be used to quantify the effects of price changes and to calculate household consumption units. Within limits, the model proves applicable to the situation in Hungary. The results are comparable to those in international literature. The most instructive finding in practice is the one obtained from the examination of welfare; the model can correct significantly the results obtainable from a naive estimate of the effect of price changes that ignores adjustment by consumers. Additionally, it can be concluded from the consumption unit calculations that applying the widely used equivalence scales in Hungary may lead to over-estimation of the relative income position of families with children, especially those with several children.
    Keywords: D12 ; ddc:330 ; consumption theory ; consumer behaviour ; demand system ; price index ; consumption unit ; Konsumentenverhalten ; Konsumtheorie ; Preisindex ; Schätzung ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Keywords: H26 ; H31 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; hidden economy ; undeclared employment ; tax evasion ; corruption ; Schattenwirtschaft ; Schwarzarbeit ; Steuervermeidung ; Steuermoral ; Korruption
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 8
    facet.materialart.
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: By introducing simplified enterprise tax or eva in 2003, the government had a double aim: it wanted to relieve administrative and tax burdens on micro and small enterprises, while at the same time it wanted to improve their tax compliance, thus increasing tax revenues received from such enterprises. Mainly enterprises with a rather low (typically below 60 per cent) cost ratio opted for eva. Our research is based on 33 structured interviews with enterprises paying their taxes under the eva rules, and it focuses on changes in their tax behavior due to switching over to eva. Our results suggest that tax evasion and avoidance has diminished in this segment of the enterprise sector. 65 % of the interviewed enterprises reported complete tax compliance and legitimate operations, which can be considered a rather high rate given the high involvement of smaller enterprises in the hidden economy. Tax evasion has decreased even among the remaining part of the interviewed enterprises under the eva: although enterprises in this group reported some minor violations of the tax laws, nevertheless even these were mainly prompted by their buyers' demand for purchasing tax free and with no invoice. The share of unreported sales remained below 1/4 of sales revenues even within this group. The empirical evidence gathered from our interviews does not support the frequently hold belief that eva after all has increased the scope of the underground economy by the emission of fictive invoices or by converting lawful employment into (pretended) subcontracting to former employees. The positive overall effect of eva on tax compliance is due to two main reasons according to our findings: most taxpayers under the eva find their tax burden fair and acceptable, while at the same time the simplicity and transparency of record-keeping and tax rules for enterprises under the eva increases the expected costs of tax evasion within this group of enterprises.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; underground economy ; business tax ; presumptive taxation ; tax compliance ; tax evasion ; firm behavior ; economic sociology ; social norms ; KMU ; Unternehmensbesteuerung ; Steuermoral ; Steuervermeidung ; Schattenwirtschaft ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The paper presents survey results regarding opinions and attitudes of the 18-60 y. o. Hungarian population concerning tax evasion and corruption, while it also examines the actual and intended behavior of the economically most active segment of the population concerning these matters, and explores the socio-demographic factors determining this behavior. After presenting some basic sample characteristics, we investigate the scope and prevalence of hidden employment (both unreported employment and employment masked as contract with a subcontractor), its underlying social and economic factors and the main reasons behind accepting or turning down work offers in the hidden economy. Our results suggest that the selection of the particular form of tax sparing employment, i.e. the choice between accepting unreported employment (receiving unreported wage directly into one's own pocket) and employment masked as pretended subcontracting” is determined by the worker's socio-economic background to a great extent. Accepting unreported employment (unreported wage) is more prevalent amongst those on the periphery of the labor market, while pretended subcontracting” occurs more frequently amongst graduates and those working in public administration, health care, education and culture. We also investigate to what extent the respondents engage in purchasing products and services form the hidden economy. Men purchase from the black economy more often then women, and those living in Budapest also buy products and services there (thus evading VAT payments) more frequently than the rest of the population. Although one would probably expect that members of families with low income engage in unreported transactions more frequently than the others, our results do not support this hypothesis. We also look at the reactions of respondents to hypothetical situations in which reliance on tax evasion and/or corruption seemingly offer a relatively easy and favorable solution. Answers to questions on such hypothetic situations can serve as a control to our results on actual behavior. Those who estimate the share of population receiving income from the hidden economy higher in their neigborhood would be more likely to rely on illegal but economically favorable solutions (such as tax evasion or corruption).
    Keywords: H26 ; H31 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; hidden economy ; unreported employment ; tax evasion ; corruption ; population survey ; Schattenwirtschaft ; Schwarzarbeit ; Steuerstrafrecht ; Korruption ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 10
    facet.materialart.
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The current downturn in the American and Western European economies, combined with increasing regulatory pressure on private equity throughout the developed world, made emerging markets an attractive destination for private equity. As part of the emerging markets, Central and Eastern Europe's (CEE) private equity industry was an accidental beneficiary of this development. The attractiveness of the CEE markets was also boosted by the fact that value added resulted from the organic growth of the companies, rather than from leverage utilisation. As a result of the crisis in autumn 2008, the growth financed by loans itself became a synonym of the risk. Consequently the CEE countries as parts of emerging markets were handicapped, irrespective of the already applied greatest cautiousness of investors and the relatively deteriorated availability and higher interest rates of provided loans in the region. Since the majority of high volume capital raised recently by private equity funds in the CEE region still expected to be invested, it is not likely that the cutback of private equity financing in the CEE countries will be as radical as it was in the developed markets. The Golden Age of the private equity investments in the CEE region, however, ended in the autumn of 2008. The paper forecasts the future developments of the private equity industry in the CEE region, based on a detailed analysis of the five years' tendencies. The paper reviews within an international surrounding the changes in the volume and structure of raised regional funds, as well as the actual investment trends by the related countries and sectors. The study provides several examples for the applied individual corporate level investments strategies of private equity investors in the CEE region. The chosen exit routes and returns received by regional private equity investors are also illustrated with actual examples. The final part of the analysis speculates on the future effects of the global financial crisis and recession on the private equity industry of the CEE region.
    Keywords: G23 ; G24 ; G34 ; M13 ; ddc:330 ; Venture Capital ; Private Equity ; Central Eastern Europe (CEE) ; International Asset Allocation ; Institutional Investors ; Merger & Acquisition ; Corporate Restructuring ; Risikokapital ; Private Equity ; Osteuropa
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Az UNIDO nemzetközi fejlesztési szervezet szerint az eladó-vevõi kapcsolatok jellemzõen két okból bomlanak fel: 1) az eladó (termelõ) nem kellõen informált a vásárló igényeirõl, 2) az eladó (termelõ) nem képes teljesíteni ezeket az igényeket. Ennek az elvnek megfelelõen a nagyvevõi igények és követelmények alapján vizsgáljuk a mezõgazdasági kisárutermelõk nagy kereskedelmi láncoknak történõ beszállítását a zöldség-gyümölcs ágazatban. A kisárutermelésen belüli problémák és azok kisárutermelésen belüli okainak feltárásával arra törekedtünk, hogy hozzájáruljunk a marketingszemléletû alkalmazkodáshoz és azon belül a kisárutermelõk nagy kereskedelmi láncoknak történõ beszállításának bõvüléséhez.
    Keywords: F14 ; ddc:330 ; kereskedelem ; koncentráció ; kisárutermelés ; zöldség-gyümölcs ; Kleinbauern ; Lebensmittelhandel ; Obst ; Gemüse ; Lieferantenmanagement ; Konsumentenverhalten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 12
    facet.materialart.
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Az új EU tagállamok gazdasági folyamatainak szembeötlõ jellegzetessége az egy fõre jutó GDP-ben mutatkozó felzárkózásuk, illetve az ezzel kapcsolatos árszínvonalbeli konvergencia. Amennyiben ez a jövõben is folytatódni fog, akkor az inflációra és árfolyamra vonatkozó Maastricht-i kritériumok együttes teljesítése nehézséget okozhat ezen országoknak, illetve az euróövezetbe való belépésük után várhatóan magasabb inflációval kell majd szembenézniük. Tanulmányunkban ezen hatást számszerûsítjük egy panelmodell segítségével. A becslések alapján megvizsgálunk különbözõ forgatókönyveket a lehetséges jövõbeli árszínvonalkonvergenciáravonatkozóan.
    Keywords: C16 ; E31 ; E60 ; ddc:330 ; reál-konvergencia ; árszínvonal-konvergencia ; panel modellek ; Wirtschaftliche Konvergenz ; Preiskonvergenz ; Preisniveau ; Wechselkurssystem ; Schätzung ; EU-Mitgliedschaft
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 13
    facet.materialart.
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Some of the enterprises providing messenger services in Budapest radically decreased their involvement in hidden economy in Summer 2006 which provides for a unique opportunity to study the dynamics of private decisions concerning tax evasion and hidden employment. Through interviews with CEOs of major companies on the market and a few of their employees, the study focuses on from which motivations, according to what conditions and based on which strategies did the enterprises change their tax paying behaviour. Furthermore, the success and downsides of such strategies were examined. According to the results, the key ingredients for changing the involvement in hidden economy are: the moral costs of the CEO stemming from illegal tax paying practices, the subjective appraisal of operating in the hidden economy. Nevertheless, these factors can only lead to alterations in the degree of tax evasion if the financial situation, market position of the enterprise, and its relations towards costumers and employees can provide a solid basis for covering the additional costs of fulfilling all legal obligations. These factors, in turn, determine the slices of these extra costs each involved actor has to bear. The main findigs suggest, firstly, that governments can successfully fight hidden economy through targeted state intervention on certain points of the cost-benefit relations in hidden economy. Secondly, decreasing asministrative burden of enterprises and clear communication of regulatory intentions motivate economic actors to reveal their hidden economic activity. Lastly, tax amnesties entail relatively low long-run costs in an economic environment where following norms is not well established.
    Keywords: H26 ; H32 ; M14 ; ddc:330 ; hidden economy ; tax evasion ; tax amnesty ; legalization ; messenger services provider ; Schattenwirtschaft ; Steuerflucht ; Steuerstrafrecht ; Straffreiheit ; Steuerstrafrecht ; Budapest
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 14
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Ákos Navratil (1875-1952) is an outstanding theoretical economist from the first half of the 20th century. A selection of his works was published as volume 8 in the series Classics in Hungarian Economics (Old truths and new theories in economics by Ákos Navratil, (int., ed. by M. Hild)). The study focuses on one element from his wide array of interests in economic theory: his evaluation of the physiocracy. The main topics addressed include a historical evaluation of the physiocrats in terms of their relationship to Adam Smith, the connection of their views to (contemporary) philosophy, and the change in judgment of them in the last third of the 18th century. The study's approach results in a slightly different view than that expressed by Navratil.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Ákos Navratil ; Physiocracy ; Adam Smith ; Philosophy ; History of Economic Thought ; Wirtschaftswissenschaft ; Ökonomische Ideengeschichte ; Physiokratie ; Ökonomen ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 15
    facet.materialart.
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Several decades of market opening has become a characteristic of network industries. Its main hindrances and aids has come into sight during this period. There is a need now to evaluate the process of market opening and to assess the steps to be taken. Market opening is usually measured by changes in competition, market structure, entry conditions, separation of vertically integrated firms and in cost and prices. British, Australian, US and EU experiences are covered in this study followed by the measures of Hungarian market opening.
    Keywords: K23 ; L16 ; L43 ; L51 ; L97 ; ddc:330 ; market opening ; network industries ; regulation ; Markteintritt ; Netzinfrastruktur
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The study provides a brief summary of the theoretical and empirical considerations related to the possible determinants of firm growth. With a special focus on small and medium-sized firms, we investigate the role of the availability of internal and external finance. After examining the key factors influencing the decision on a company's capital structure, we present some facts on the situation of SMEs in Europe and especially Hungary, in order to see what type of governmental programs seem to be reasonable on economic grounds in fostering the growth of small firms. We present recent empirical evidence on the relationship between firm growth and its determinants, and show how the evolution of the firm size distribution can be explained by taking into account the financial constraints faced by small firms.
    Keywords: L25 ; G32 ; H81 ; ddc:330 ; small and medium-sized enterprises ; firm growth ; capital structure ; Unternehmenswachstum ; Kapitalstruktur ; KMU ; Ungarn ; Europa
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 17
    facet.materialart.
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The traditional voting games are special transferable utility cooperative games, so-called simple games, where the players are the parties and the value of a coalition may be 1 or 0 depending on the ability of the coalition to pass a motion or not. In this paper we introduce general weighted voting games, where the value of a coalition is a random variable. We illustrate the use of this model on examples from Hungary.
    Keywords: C71 ; D72 ; ddc:330 ; weighted voting ; Hungarian National Assembly ; absent voters ; Shapley-Shubik index ; Spieltheorie ; Wahlverhalten ; Koalition ; Shapley-Wert ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Due to the 2008 global financial crisis the position of the private equity sector has weakened. The number and the value of new transactions have dropped together with the volume of the raised funds. Credit shares have also decreased in the financing of the transactions. Exiting from the portfolio companies became more difficult, which slowed down the capital reimbursement to the private equity investors. However in spite of the crisis, the attractiveness of the private equity investments remain positive among investors, since they produced better returns than public markets. While Hungary became less attractive from the standpoint of the regional private equity funds specialized in high-value buyouts, the country remained the leader in setting up Jeremie funds, and in the liberal regulation of the private pension funds until the autumn of 2010, which can boost the private equity investments. This could support the development of small- and medium-cap enterprises, suffering from shrinking resources due to the crisis. The prospected "nationalization" of private pension funds may put this process on hold.
    Keywords: G23 ; G24 ; ddc:330 ; venture capital ; private equity ; institutional investors ; pension funds ; Risikokapital ; Private Equity ; Institutioneller Investor ; Pensionskasse ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 19
    facet.materialart.
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Keywords: M13 ; G24 ; ddc:330 ; Venture Capital ; Private Equity ; Buyout ; Merger & Acquisition ; Corporate Restructuring ; Risikokapital ; Private Equity ; Übernahme ; Organisatorischer Wandel ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 20
    facet.materialart.
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Economists and lawyers are badly divided on issues concerning tying and bundling. Permissivie and prohibitive attitudes are changing radically in the literature and in the legal practice. After a short discurse on the notions, we introduce the basic ideas, theories and debates according to schools in economics and market structures. Based on relevant cases of the US and EU we finally summarize the changes in economic theory and their impact on the rule of reason in these cases.
    Keywords: K21 ; L12 ; L21 ; ddc:330 ; tying ; bundling ; antitrust ; competition policy ; economic theory ; cases ; Leistungsbündel ; Wirtschaftstheorie
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 21
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The paper analyses small and medium firms' perceptions on contract enforcement along food chain in central region of Hungary using survey data. We find that 59 per cent of respondents believe that they could use court to enforce contracts with their partner. However we do not find significant differences along food chain. Our estimations suggest that contractual specificity and firm attributes, external linkages, efficiency of legal systems factors, buyer and seller specifc factors significantly influence the opinion on contract enforcement. Interestingly, the impact of branch specific characteristics has, no impacts. Acceptance of financial loss can be explained by contractual specificity, external linkages, efficiency of legal systems. Buyer, seller and industry characteristics has not played role in the explanation of financial losses.
    Keywords: D2 ; Q13 ; ddc:330 ; contract enforcement ; small and medium size enterprises ; agri-food chain ; Vertrag ; Rechtsdurchsetzung ; Lieferkette ; Lebensmittel ; KMU ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 22
    facet.materialart.
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The paper deals with the story of the cumulative risks of a successful research concluded in China in which I both participated and was its leader. The topic of the research was the impact of the global crisis on government, enterprises and migrant behavior. The fieldwork included in the two projects was carried out in the first case in 16 cities and in the second one in 2 cities during 2009 and 2012.
    Keywords: C42 ; C81 ; C93 ; ddc:330 ; research methodology ; fieldwork in foreign country ; China ; Feldforschung ; Wissenschaftliche Methode ; Regionalstudien ; China
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 23
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The pressures to accommodate to the global standards of corporate governance (CG) for Japanese public companies had grown strong since the mid-1990s. A series of legal reforms has led to the formal imitation of the market oriented Anglo-American model which, however, was not accompanied by the functional convergence of the CG practices of the Japanese companies. Deeply rooted social norms, insider business culture and industry specific conditions had a strong effect on the course of CG reforms in Japan. A hybrid model of corporate governance has been emerging in which companies selectively combine the features of the traditional stakeholder based approach with those of the shareholder oriented system.
    Keywords: G34 ; P50 ; ddc:330 ; Japan ; corporate governance ; shareholder value ; Corporate Governance ; Shareholder Value ; Japan
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 24
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The aim of this article is to analyse the technical efficiency of Hungarian crop farms between 2001 and 2009 using panel data. We employ both standard stochastic frontier analysis and latent class model (LCM) to estimate technical efficiency. Our results suggest that technological heterogeneity plays important role in crop sector which traditionally is assumed by homogeneous technology. The comparison of standard SFA models assuming that the technology is common to all farms and LCM estimates highlights that the efficiency of crop farms may be underestimated using traditional SFA models.
    Keywords: Q12 ; ddc:330 ; heterogeneity ; latent class models ; crop farms ; Technische Effizienz ; Multivariate Analyse ; Pflanzenbau ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 25
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: One of the aims of the new electoral law of Hungary has been to define a fairer apportionment into voting districts. This is ensured by a set of rules slightly more premissive than those laid out in the Code of Good Practice in Electoral Matters of the Venice Commission. These rules fix the average size of the voting districts, require voting districts not to split smaller towns and villages and not to cross county borders. We show that such an apportionment is mathematically impossible. We make suggestions both to the theoretical approach to resolve this problem, study the properties of our approach and using our efficient algorithm and the data of the 2010 national elections we determine the optimal apportionment. We also study the expected effect of demographic changes and formulate recommendations to adhere to the rules over the long term: increase the number of voting districts to about 130, allow the number of voting districts to change flexibly at each revision of the districts and base the districts on regions rather than counties.
    Keywords: D72 ; D78 ; D62 ; ddc:330 ; social choice theory ; apportionment ; electoral law ; Venice Commission ; one man-one vote ; Alabama paradox ; population paradox ; Hare quota ; Wahlrecht ; Soziale Wohlfahrtsfunktion ; Abstimmungsregel ; Wahlkreis ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Our paper examines the possible role of enterprise surveys in the forecasting of labour market processes. Based on two enterprise surveys with large samples we examine to what extent are enterprises, differing in their size, sales revenues, ownership structure and markets, capable to predict their future labour market demand or manpower requirements for different time horizons. We explore the enterprise characteristics and planning features determining the maximum time horizon and accuracy of the manpower forecasts of enterprises. Both objective and subjective indicators are used in the analysis of the accuracy of forecasts. An empirical study of enterprises' capability to forecast labour market needs and the accuracy of such predictions seems crucial in determining the possibilities and the limits of enterprise surveys in producing forecasts for aggregate manpower needs of the economy or predicting labour demand by vocations and qualifications. We also investigate the ways enterprises perceive the qualitative changes in job contents, and the ways they evaluate the changes in qualification and skill requirements by job categories. Managers' perception of new skill requirements in their own enterprises and in the economy as a whole are also dealt with in the paper.
    Keywords: J21 ; J23 ; J40 ; M54 ; ddc:330 ; labour demand ; business planning ; enterprise survey ; labour market requirements ; change in job content ; Arbeitsnachfrage ; Prognoseverfahren ; Unternehmensplanung
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 27
    facet.materialart.
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: MOL Plc as a national champion does not simply take part in the implementation of the state's decisions but the company's cooperation is needed in realizing the economic, political and social considerations of the authorities. Therefore the company is provided with special preferential treatment. Besides, MOL can take advantage of its efficient bargaining power to secure the authorities' favorable decisions in important cases. The regulations and special decisions of the European Union limit MOL's position as a national champion. In cases belonging exclusively to national competence the main position of authorities was to prevent the emergence of foreign ownership control. In other cases, the authorities behaved differently: sometimes they contributed to the consolidation of the company's position as national champion, sometimes they weakened it with their decisions. The relationship of the company and the state is thus characterized not only by matching but conflicting interests too.
    Keywords: D21 ; D23 ; L1 ; L2 ; L5 ; ddc:330 ; national champion ; corporate management ; relationship and interactions of the company and the state ; changes of ownership structure ; Unternehmenserfolg ; Management ; Eigentümerstruktur ; Staatliche Einflussnahme ; Ungarn
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  • 28
    facet.materialart.
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: In this paper we analyze whether people who spend money on experiences rather than material things are more satisfied. Previous psychological studies have several drawbacks, and therefore their results might be biased and unreliable. Trying to avoid these drawbacks in this research we use large-scale representative survey databases from Hungary. In the first study we analyze two pooled cross-sectional surveys (TÁRKI Household Monitor 2005 and 2007), in the second study we analyze a subsample of the Hungarian Household Budget Survey (HBS). We estimate the association of expenditures with life satisfaction using linear and non-linear models as well. We demonstrate that experiences associate stronger with life satisfaction than material things, thus our evidences based on survey data corroborate the previous results from the psychological experiments. In addition, we show that marginal effect of material expenditures is diminishing, whereas marginal effect of experiential expenditures is constant. It means that, ceteris paribus, a reallocation of the expenditures might increase individuals' well-being. The magnitude of this gain is similar to a 10 percent increase in income and expenditures. Although this analysis is not able to establish causality between expenditures and satisfaction, at the end of the paper we suggest a minor modification of the HBS which can make possible to analyze the causal relationship between expenditures and well-being.
    Keywords: I31 ; D12 ; ddc:330 ; subjective well-being ; satisfaction ; expenditures ; consumption
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  • 29
    facet.materialart.
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: This case study is a part of the research project "The Unexpected consequences and impacts of the regulation of markets" which is financed by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund. It deals with the conditions and impacts of the implementation of the Law CXXIV (2012) which radically changed the regulation of the market of tobacco products. The new regulation promised significant political benefits for the ruling coalition because the majority of the population supports the supression of smoking in the young generation. That is the reason why the government and the national assembly played a significant role in the remarkable modification of the regulation of this market. An other important factor of this development was that one of the decisive market players - mobilizing its political influence and connection - was involved into the enactment process from its very beginning. The efforts of candidates close to power (which wanted to enter this market) were not coordinated, but they expected the good support of the decision makers. But the new regulation had a number of failures and disturbances. As a result of the new legislation there remained 1500 settlements without a shop of tobacco sales. This unexpected development and the high and growing number of loss making tobacco shops forced the government (and the state company responsible for the tobacco market) to modify permanently the regulation in a short period of time. The main reason for the market distrubances was the artifical restructuring of the market of tobacco products.
    Keywords: K2 ; ddc:330 ; market regulation ; regulatory bargain ; unexpected regualtory effects
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: This study estimates the expected long-term budgetary benefits to investing into Roma education in Hungary. By budgetary benefits we mean the direct financial benefits to the national budget. The main idea is that investing extra public money into Roma education would pay off even in fiscal terms. In order to be successful, investments should take place in early childhood. Successful investments are also expensive. But if it is done the right way, such investments more than recoup their costs in terms of extra tax benefits in the future. This study looks at the expected budgetary benefits of a successful investment. It does no deal with how to achieve success. The motivating idea behind our analysis is the notion that investing into somebody's education will lead to benefits not only to the person in question but also to the whole society. We consider these social benefits in a very narrow sense: we make use the fact that in a typical modern society, more education makes people contribute more to the national budget and/or receive less transfers from it. The increased contributions and decreased transfers make up the net budgetary benefits. Net budgetary benefits measure a return on investments into education, very much like returns on any other financial investment. If expected returns more than compensate for such investments, it is in the very narrow interest of the government to invest into Roma education, even setting aside other consideration. We estimate the net benefit of an extra investment (on top of existing pre-school and primary school financing) that enables a young Roma to successfully complete secondary school. We consider an investment that takes place (starts at) at age 4, i.e. we calculate the long-term benefits discounted to age 4. We estimate returns to an investment that makes Roma children complete the maturity examination ('eretttsegi') and opens the road to college, instead of stopping at 8 grades of primary school (or dropping out of secondary school). We consider seven channels: personal income tax on income earned from registered full-time employment, social security contributions paid by employers and employees on earned income, unemployment benefits, means-tested welfare benefits, earning from public employment projects, value added and excise tax on consumption, and incarceration costs. We adjust our estimates by the extra costs of increased secondary and college education. We use large sample surveys, aggregate administrative data, and tax and contribution rules to estimate the necessary parameters. The analysis is nonexperimental and is based on national estimates adjusted for Roma differences. The lack of detailed Roma data and lack of experimental evidence makes interpretation somewhat problematic. We therefore carry out extensive robustness checks for analyzing alternative assumptions. One should keep in mind that, for lack of appropriate data, we leave out important channels such as old-age pensions, disability pensions, childcare benefits, and health care costs. Including most of these channels would most likely increase the estimated benefits to educational investments. Our estimates are therefore most likely lower bounds for the expected budgetary benefits. The results indicate that an investment that makes one young Roma successfully complete secondary school would yield significant direct long-term benefits to the national budget. According to our benchmark estimate, discounted to age 4 (a possible starting age for such an investment), the present value of the future benefits is about HUF 19M (EUR 70,000) relative to the value the government would collect on the representative person in case if she had not continued her studies after the primary school. The benefits are somewhat smaller if (without the suggested early childhood educational investment), the young Roma person finished vocational training school (HUF 15M, EUR 55,000). The estimated returns are sensitive to the discount rate, the assumed wage growth, the college completion rate after secondary school, and the race specific employment and wage differentials (to some extent due to labor market discrimination). But even our most conservative estimates suggest that benefits are least HUF 7M - 9M. We formulate all results in terms of the benefits of an investment that makes one child successfully complete secondary school, for methodological convenience. Naturally, no investment is certain to bring such a result. When comparing benefits to costs, one has to factor in the success probabilities. For example, if an investment increases the chance of secondary school completion by 20 percentage points, i.e. one child out of five gets there as a result of the investment, benchmark benefits relative to 8 grades are HUF 3.8M (19M/5). In other words, 3.8M per child investment would therefore break even with a 20% success rate. Even by looking at our most conservative estimates, any investment with such a success rate is almost sure to yield a positive return if costs are HUF 1.8M or less per child. Overwhelmingly, the benefits would come from increased government revenues, from personal income tax and employer/employee contributions after earned income. Savings on unemployment insurance, welfare benefits and public employment projects are negligible, and savings on incarceration costs are also small. Larger value added tax benefits on consumption are also sizable.
    Keywords: J15 ; I20 ; I30 ; ddc:330 ; Roma Minority ; Education ; Poverty ; Hungary ; Roma-Bevölkerung ; Bildungsinvestition ; Ausbildungsfinanzierung ; Öffentliche Einnahmen ; Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse ; Schätzung ; Ungarn
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  • 31
    facet.materialart.
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Using firm-level and individual panel data from 2008-2009, the paper looks at how Hungarian firms combined employment reduction with "softer" measures like short-work and wage cuts, in response to the crisis. The data suggest that the wage distribution remained practically unchanged while hours reductions did not extend beyond the scope of a government-supported job retention scheme (requiring that the subsidized workers are reclassified as part-timers). In the private sector, the burden of adjustment fell entirely on employment. Variations in the changes of employment are studied using firm-level longitudinal data and controlling for the changes in the composition of the workforce. The dominance of adjustment on the extensive margin is explained, among others, by the lack of institutions encouraging soft adjustment, minimum wage regulations, and the fact that firms brought hiring to a halt rather than engaging in mass dismissals.
    Keywords: E3 ; J2 ; J3 ; J5 ; ddc:330 ; crisis ; employment ; wages ; working hours ; Hungary ; Wirtschaftskrise ; Personalabbau ; Unterbeschäftigung ; Vergütungssystem ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 32
    facet.materialart.
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: This paper estimates the effect of school starting age on academic performance using the 2006 "National Assessment of Basic Competencies" (NABC), focusing on disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged children. The instrumental variable estimates of the school starting age imply that those who start school at the age of seven do better on competency tests than those children who start school at the age of six. This benefit is substantially larger for disadvantaged children than their non-disadvantaged counterparts. However, the benefit of later enrolment diminishes as children - both disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged - progress through school.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; education ; student test scores ; enrolment age ; identification ; Schüler ; Altersgruppe ; Bildungschancen ; Bildungsertrag ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The National Educational Integration Network (OOIH) launched a program in 2003 that focused on the integrated education of primary school children (grades 1 through 8) in 45 schools in Hungary. The goal of the program was to compensate for the educational disadvantages of children from poor and/or minority families by providing quality education in an integrated environment. The report on the impact evaluation of the program is available at Kézdi and Surányi (2009). The results and methods of the impact evaluation research were criticized in a paper published (in Hungarian) in Magyar Tudomány, March 2010. This study answers the criticism on sampling and methodology. A separate study addresses the issues of our measurement of non-cognitive skills. It is an interesting methodological study on its own right, regardless of the debate. In both paper we show that the critiques are unfounded. In this study we also summarize the conclusions from the impact evaluation.
    Keywords: I20 ; I38 ; C81 ; ddc:330 ; Schule ; Bildungspolitik ; Bewertung ; Methodenkritik ; Ungarn
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The paper looks at secondary school attendance and grade retention after 8th grade in Hungary. It makes use of panel data of the Hungarian Life Course Survey from 2006 through 2009. Three and a half years after finishing 8th grade, ninety per cent of the children are in school, three quarters on the continuous track in 12th grade. The corresponding figures for Roma children are only 60 and 40 per cent, respectively. Drop-outs and grade retentions are especially frequent in vocational training schools and evening schools; quite a few students switch between tracks; and drop-outs and evening school students do not have a second chance on the regular track. Standardized test scores in 8th grade are strong predictors of secondary school career, but the relation is different among the children of Roma and uneducated families, indicating the importance of other factors.
    Keywords: J15 ; I20 ; ddc:330 ; Roma minority ; secondary school drop-outs ; Allgemeinbildende Schule ; Bildungsverhalten ; Abbrecher ; Ethnische Gruppe ; Roma-Bevölkerung ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 35
    facet.materialart.
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Built upon data from 11 subsequent waves of yearly wage surveys carried out by the National Labour Center in Hungary from 1992 to 2003, the paper examines, with the use of elementary statistical tools, whether or not earnings fluctuations differed in size among groups of employees with different degrees of schooling and experience, and if they did, whether the observed differentials might be related to differences in the respective experience/earnings profiles of those groups. Findings suggests that earnings fluctuations did differ in size across those groups, and that, moreover, they appear to have done so in association with group-specific experience/earnings profiles. Assuming that differences in the observed size of earnings fluctuations are at least partly due to differences in the flexibility/rigidity of the attained market rates of earnings, and that flexibility/rigidity of those rates is a determinant of unemployment, it seems reasonable to suspect that long-discovered systemic differences in unemployment across groups with different degrees of schooling and experience (and, perhaps, across countries as well) might also be related in part to the particular shapes of their experience/earnings profiles.
    Keywords: E24 ; E32 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; education and experience ; earnings differentials ; experience-earnings profiles ; trends in earnings ; fluctuations of earnings ; Lohn ; Lohnstruktur ; Bildungsabschluss ; Berufserfahrung ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 36
    facet.materialart.
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Since 2006, the law has changed in a way that the expected wage of the employers has to be at least the double of the minimum wage. The employers who pay less than this amount to their employees are more likely to be audited by the tax authority. According to my hypothesis this change has decreased significantly the amount of envelop wages. My aim is to examine empirically the difference between conformation of the legal and informal wages and the behaviour of tax evading companies after the introduction of this new tax law.
    Keywords: C51 ; H26 ; H32 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; tax evasion ; wage distribution ; Steuervermeidung ; Lohnstruktur ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The paper examines the labour-market position of persons with the higher-education diploma in Hungary. First, using simple labour-market indicators and international-comparison data, we find that persons with the higher-education diploma in Hungary are in a relatively good position in terms of both wage premium and unemployment. Second, analysing the occupation/education matching of workers having higher education diploma, we conclude that matching becomes better over time, and this is mainly due to a re-classification (upgrading) effect, that is, that more and more occupations are considered by the employers as occupations requiring higher-education diploma.
    Keywords: J21 ; J23 ; J24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; higher-education expansion ; international comparison ; occupation/education matching of workers with the higher education diploma ; Akademiker ; Hochqualifizierte Arbeitskräfte ; Anforderungsprofil ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Ungarn
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: This study analyses properties of fast growing small and medium sized firms, known as gazelles. Using balance sheet information for the 2000-2008 period, we show that a small fraction of companies is responsible for a large share of new jobs created in the business sector. For instance, the top 5% of fastest growing firms created 45.8% of new jobs, and 20% of new employment was generated by a mere 1% of firms. Importantly for policy, we show that the likelihood of becoming a gazelle is virtually the same in all industries and geographic regions. Using both probit regression and propensity score matching models, we show that younger firms with better financing background, more skilled labor force and better past growth performance are more likely to be gazelles. However, our model also shows that fast firm growth is highly idiosyncratic, and government or banks can not precisely predict which firm will actually turn into a gazelle.
    Keywords: L25 ; D22 ; J23 ; ddc:330 ; SME ; firm growth ; job creates ; Unternehmenswachstum ; KMU ; Zweiter Arbeitsmarkt ; Probit-Modell ; Matching ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 39
    facet.materialart.
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The goal of this study is to find the model that best describes the trends in labor demand using international industry level longitudinal data. Our starting point is Kézdi et al. (2006), who uses a fixed-effect model to project labor demand. We take their model and compare it with several other specifications to test forecasting fit. The main conclusions of this study are that different functional forms are better for different industries, but the linear specification fares just fine in all industries. Moreover, fixed-effect models are not better than the simple models with level effects, but results of this latter are easier to interpret. Quasi-autoregressive models do not improve forecasting fit as much as expected.
    Keywords: J23 ; E27 ; ddc:330 ; labor-demand ; forecasting ; industry level panel ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Arbeitsnachfrage ; Prognose
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  • 40
    facet.materialart.
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Sorting into public sector jobs may be motivated not only by the available income but also by other aspects, such as stronger demand for security or for social usefulness. The demand for larger job security - beside other factors - can be the consequence of family circumstances. We have identified several family conditions which increase the probability of sorting into the public sector: the case of single parents; long-term illness, which doesn't make it impossible to work; having a chronically ill child or pair; in case of women having a husband who previously experienced unemployment. In these cases the usual approach of risk-aversion in the literature is not really correct, optimizing family strategies would be much more accurate. In our paper we used volunteering as the proxy for direct social commitment. We show that this motive is important in case of employees working in human services (education, health and social care, culture, etc.); however it is absolutely missing in the public/government administration. The demand for redistribution can be another approach of social responsibility, connected to it through the aversion towards inequalities. The relatively higher demand for redistribution is characteristic only for employees working in the health and social care. We didn't restrict our analysis of volunteering and demand for redistribution to the sphere of employees, we tried to identify the main explanatory factors also for the whole population. Higher age, higher education, higher number of children (up to three), and the smaller settlement size increase the probability of volunteering. Higher income, higher education, higher number of children and the larger settlement size decrease the demand for redistribution, which - in average - is very high in Hungary.
    Keywords: D31 ; D63 ; D64 ; D81 ; H50 ; J28 ; J45 ; J62 ; ddc:330 ; public sector employment ; public-private wage differentials ; job security ; volunteering ; demand for redistribution ; subjective well-being ; Öffentlicher Dienst ; Lohnstruktur ; Beschäftigungssicherung ; Ehrenamtliche Arbeit ; Ungarn
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  • 41
    facet.materialart.
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: I identify wage spillovers from the public to the corporate sector with the help of a large public sector wage increase, which raised public sector wages by 40 percent in two years time, changing the average public relative wage from a fallback of 10.5 percent to a 12.5 percent premium. The spillover effect is identified with along the variation of the share of public sector employment along gender, experience and occupation. The analysis shows that 10 percent higher share of public sector workers within worker-type increases corporate wages by 1.5 percent. The spillover effect is positively correlated with the public wage premium, with low corporate wages, with occupations which are abundant in the public sector, and services. It is also larger in labor market cells where there is a large number of vacancies in the public sector as well as for corporate workers hired after the wage increase.
    Keywords: J31 ; J45 ; ddc:330 ; public sector ; wage spillower ; Hungary ; Vergütungssystem im öffentlichen Dienst ; Spillover-Effekt ; Ungarn
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  • 42
    facet.materialart.
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: This study investigates the crowding out effect among old and young workers in the Hungarian public sector, using job-level data. The analysis improves upon analyses based on aggregate data by considering the levels of employment for various labour types and the employment opportunities and wages of the young on the job-level. Results indicate that the crowding out effect is realized through employment and wages as well, but is limited: it appears only in the case of only the youngest and least experienced.
    Keywords: J14 ; J23 ; J26 ; J45 ; J63 ; ddc:330 ; youth ; ageing ; employment ; crowding out ; Verdrängungseffekt ; Ältere Arbeitskräfte ; Junge Arbeitskräfte ; Öffentlicher Dienst ; Ungarn
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  • 43
    facet.materialart.
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: This study quantifies the achievement gap between Roma and non-Roma students in Hungary and assesses the potential causes of the gap. According to reading and mathematics test scores measured in eighth grade, the gap is substantial. Its magnitude is similar to the gap between African American and White students in the early 1980's. The gap between Roma and non-Roma students is almost entirely explained by social differences in income, wealth and parental education, and ethnic factors do not play a significant role. Besides differences in health, social disadvantages of Roma students lead to lower skills through two major mechanisms. Their home environment is less favorable for their cognitive development, and their schools are characterized by lower quality educational environment. Ethnic differences in home environment are, again, explained by social differences, and ethnicity seems to play no additional role. On the other hand, while access to higher quality schools is strongly related to social differences, Roma students seem to face additional disadvantages. The results suggest that besides policies that aim at alleviating poverty, well designed interventions influencing the transmission mechanisms can also improve the skill development of Roma and other disadvantaged children.
    Keywords: I20 ; J15 ; ddc:330 ; test score gap ; Roma minority ; Hungary ; Bildungsniveau ; Soziale Lage ; Ethnische Gruppe ; Roma-Bevölkerung ; Ungarn
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  • 44
    facet.materialart.
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Based on the microbased panel datasets of the Labour Force Survey between 1998 and 2010 and the administrative Pension Fund data between 2000 and 2006 we analyse the number, composition and subsequent labour market behaviour of former public sector employees in Hungary. We show that the greater stability of the public sector stems from the fact that the transition probabilities from it to unemployment and to other economic branches / occupations are both about half of the corresponding probabilities from the public sector. Meanwhile, the exit probabilities to inactivity do not differ substantially between the two sectors. By analysing the reemployment probabilities of the laid-off workers with Jenkins' discrete time hazard model we find that those who lost their jobs in the public sector find a new job with a 5-25 percent smaller intensity - i.e. by 5-25 percent more slowly - than their private sector counterparts. However, this difference disappears among the higher educated. Finally, after controlling for education, those who leave the public sector for the private sector do not become overeducated in their new job with a significantly higher probability than similar workers switching jobs within the private sector.
    Keywords: C41 ; J45 ; J62 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; labour market of the public sector ; labour market transition probabilities ; unemployment duration ; Jenkins discrete time hazard model ; Öffentlicher Dienst ; Arbeitsmobilität ; Arbeitslosigkeit ; Qualitative Methode ; Statistische Bestandsanalyse ; Panel ; Ungarn
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  • 45
    facet.materialart.
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The legal relationship between civil servants and the state, is not governed by the theory of sovereignty, which is relevant in the outer relationships between the state and its citizens, though it has some, limited effect on the inner relationships between the civil servant and the state organ, as well. The inner relationship falls into the category of "dependent work" and therefore civil servants must enjoy the employment rights generally applicable to employees with some alterations. Among such rights, two are investigated more closely in the paper: protection against unjust dismissal and collective rights of workers (right to organise, right to bargain collectively, and right to strike). In 2010 the Hungarian state modified its regulations on civil servants and introduced dismissal without notice referring to the argument that the parties of the legal relationship must be treated equally and because the civil servant can resign from its position without notice, the same right should be enjoyed by the state, as well. The Hungarian Constitutional Court and European Court of Justice nullified this law because of violating the right to work, the right to human dignity, and the right to hold public positions. The regulations on collective rights of civil servants have been systematically violated by the Hungarian legislator since 1992, when the first regulation on civil servants passed. Until 2011 the right to organise has been enjoyed without disturbance by civil servants but since than the state has organise the Bar of Hungarian Civil Servants into which all civil servants are obliged to enter. Because the Bar has rights which are usually considered to be union rights, therefore the Bar is a competitor of the civil servants' unions; consequently the regulations on the Bar violate the right to organise. The right to bargain collectively has never been enjoyed by unions of civil servants since 1992, despite such right is generally applied in developed countries app. since 1960-1970s and is also accepted by the international conventions on social and economic rights. The right to strike is also restricted by the Agreement on Right to Strike in Civil Service (1994) which prohibits the rights to strike far beyond the limits established by the Fundamental Law and the Act on Right to Strike (Act No. VII of 1989). Alternative methods of collective dispute settlement (mediation, arbitration) are also neglected by the Hungarian legal regime.
    Keywords: J45 ; J52 ; J83 ; ddc:330 ; public sector labor markets ; dispute resolution: strikes, arbitration, and mediation ; collective bargaining ; workers' rights ; Dienstrecht ; Beschäftigungssicherung ; Tarifverhandlungen ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Although apprenticeship training has been praised for its effectiveness in smoothing the school-to-work transition of non-college bound students in Western European dual education systems, there is a lack of evidence from Central Eastern Europe. Using a unique individual-level panel database, which includes an extensive set of controls, the study shows that Hungarian vocational apprenticeship students from the non-college bound vocational training track and from the vocational secondary track have about 10-15% higher probability of initial employment, compared to similar graduates from the same track, who were trained in school. This effect seems to be stable across industries and robust to specification checks. It is also apparent that this effect is due to the apprenticeship students trained in medium or large size firms.
    Keywords: I21 ; I24 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; apprenticeship training ; unemployment ; panel data
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 47
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Using the panel data of the Hungarian Life Course Survey from 2006 through 2012 we analyze the educational attainment of a cohort of Hungarian Roma and non-Roma students. This cohort started high school in 2006. High school dropout rate is 10 percent among non-Roma, whereas nearly 50 percent among Roma students. 75 percent of the non-Roma students take a final maturity exam, and the college attendance rate is 35 percent among them. The corresponding figures for Roma are 24 percent and 5 percent, respectively. The ethnic difference in high school attainment and college attendance are strongly related to the skills gap emerged before high school. However, almost half of the ethnic difference in high school dropout rate remains unexplained. Future studies need to answer the causes of this residual gap.
    Keywords: J15 ; I20 ; ddc:330 ; Roma minority ; secondary school drop-outs ; college attendance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 48
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The paper investigates teachers' decisions to leave the profession. First we examine the role of earnings and earnings in alternative occupations in these decisions, and then the paper discusses how the public sector wage increase in 2002 has effected exiting decisions of teachers. Using large merged administrative data-sets duration models were estimated. First binary choice Cox proportional hazard models (leaving teaching profession or not), then competing risk models which distinguish exits to another occupation and exits to no-working state. Results show, that earnings matter. Higher wages reduce the probability of exiting teacher profession to go to another occupation or to non-employment. The public sector wage increase has decreased the probability of leaving the teacher profession for inexperienced teachers temporarily, but one or two years after the effect disappeared. For experienced teachers who are older than 51 year-olds the wage increase found to reduce attrition.
    Keywords: I22 ; J28 ; J31 ; J45 ; J62 ; ddc:330 ; teacher salaries ; teacher attrition ; human capital ; Vergütungssystem im öffentlichen Dienst ; Lehrkräfte ; Berufswechsel ; Präferenztheorie ; Statistische Bestandsanalyse ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 49
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 50
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2018-02-02
    Description: Using unique data from Hungary we analyze the educational attainment of a cohort of Hungarian Roma and non-Roma students. This cohort started high school in 2006. High school dropout rate is 10 percent among non-Roma, whereas nearly 50 percent among Roma students. 75 percent of the non-Roma students take a final maturity exam, and the college attendance rate is 31 percent among them. The corresponding figures for Roma are 24 percent and 4 percent, respectively. The ethnic difference in high school attainment and college attendance are strongly related to the skills gap emerged before high school. The ethnic test score gap measured by the end of 8th grade is nearly entirely explained by social differences in income, wealth and parental education, while ethnic factors do not play an important role. Two major mediating mechanisms can be identified: first, the home environment of Roma children is less favorable for their cognitive development; second, Roma children face a lower quality educational environment. Comparing children with similar home environments from the same school and class, we find that the ethnic gap in test scores is insignificant. Ethnic differences in the home environment are explained by social differences, and ethnicity seems to play no additional role. While their disadvantage in accessing high-quality education is also strongly related to social differences, Roma students seem to face additional disadvantages as subjects of ethnic segregation. The majority of Roma students are educated in classrooms in which the sheer quantity of unresolved pedagogical problems makes it very difficult for teachers to teach well. The raw ethnic difference in the likelihood of studying in classes in which over half of the classmates can be considered functionally illiterate, is 40 percentage points. Residential inequalities and selection by social disadvantage are responsible for the bulk of this selection; however, ethnic exclusion mechanisms are responsible for the rest.
    Keywords: I20 ; J15 ; ddc:330 ; Roma minority ; test score gap ; school segregation ; high school completion ; college attendance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The study aims at illuminating the following questions: (1) what characterizes enterprises and workers using the temporary work booklet, (2) in what ways do actors on the labour market use the booklet, (3) what motivations drive the economic actors when they decide about the ways of using the booklet, (4) what effects does the temporary work booklet have on hidden employment. Furthermore, we also arrive at some more general conclusions relevant to the general functioning of the Hungarian hidden economy. The empirical material on which our study is based was collected through semi-structured interviews with employers and employees. The interviewees were selected using a "snowballing" technique. Our main results are the following: (1) the temporary work booklet is mostly used for seasonal, temporary employment in accordance with the intentions inherent in the regulation. Nevertheless, (2) in most cases the booklet wasn't used in compliance with the specific rules of the regulation. (3) Decisions whether to evade taxes were mostly influenced by a rational calculation of costs and benefits associated with evasion. (4) The temporary work booklet did decrease to some extent unreported employment, as many unreported workers employed previously gained semi-legal employment status thanks to the booklet. (5) The clarification of some connections between employment using the temporary work booklet and the hidden economy underlined the importance of trust and stable relations between the actors, and it also showed that a significant group of economic actors has norms that do not condemn tax evasion, and only partially approve tax compliance.
    Keywords: E24 ; E26 ; H26 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; hidden economy ; policies to reduce the size of the hidden economy ; temporary work ; emploment with the temporary work booklet ; favourable tax treatment of temporary employment ; Schattenwirtschaft ; Befristete Beschäftigung ; Steuervermeidung ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 52
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: This paper was commissioned by DG ECFIN from the EU Commission as part of the "EMU@10" project and is published in Hungarian language by the permission of the EU Commission. The original English language version of the paper is available at: http://ec.europa.eu/economy_finance/publications/publication_summary12103_en.htm . The paper discusses the risks and challenges faced by the new members on the road to the euro and the strategies for and timing of euro adoption. We investigate the real-nominal convergence nexus from the perspective of euro area entry. We argue that the initial level of economic development as measured by per capita income and the speed of real convergence have a bearing on the strategies to follow and on the timing of entry into euro area. This is because the lower is the per capita income, the larger is the price level gap to close and the greater is the danger of credit booms and overheating. We argue that inflation targeting with floating rates is better suited than hard pegs to manage the price level catching-up process. We suggest a modification in the Maastricht inflation criterion which as currently defined has lost its economic logic.
    Keywords: E31 ; E52 ; E60 ; F30 ; ddc:330 ; euro area enlargement ; convergence ; capital flows ; credit boom ; exchange rate regime ; inflation ; Maastricht ; Eurozone ; EU-Mitgliedschaft ; Konvergenzkriterien ; Wechselkurs ; Inflationsrate ; EU-Mitgliedschaft
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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  • 53
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The paper analyses disparities in local education expenditures at the settlement and school level n Hungary. It is shown that local average income, which is a major element of the local government budget constraint, has a strong impact on school expenditures, especially in towns. This lack of fiscal neutrality implies that settlements with a higher share of socially disadvantaged children spend somewhat less on education. In case of towns, this between settlement effect is offset by within settlement disparities in expenditures: schools with relatively more disadvantaged pupils tend to have a larger budget compared to other schools of the same town. Considering village and town schools together indicates, that the higher is the share of poor children in a school, the lower are per capita expenditures on average. Though the magnitude of the effect is small, it reveals a fundamental equity problem. While the successful education of disadvantaged pupils might require substantial additional resources, the pubic education system in Hungary can not provide school with these resources now.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; School expenditures ; interjurisdictional disparities ; wealth neutrality of education expenditures ; Bildungsfinanzierung ; Schulfinanzierung ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The paper investigates the socio-demographic characteristics and the labor market history of casual workers that have been temporarily employed for some time using a temporary work booklet (ensuring favorable tax treatment for casual workers and their employers). By investigating that, as well as the involvement of these casual workers in the hidden economy, the authors try to explore the contradictory impacts of this special tax treatment of temporary employment. After explaining the sampling method and depicting some main characteristics of the sample, the paper describes the links between labor market vulnerability, temporary employment and hiding or underreporting of labor income. For those employed with the temporary work booklet black or grey employment is an ordinary phenomenon, visibly present in everyday life. As the actual administrative rules concerning the use of the booklet in case of temporary employment provide ample opportunities for unreporting or underreporting of employment periods and income at a relatively low risk of detection and punishment, in some cases employers try to convert normal employment status into temporary employment thus taking advantage of the booklet in order to reduce their tax payments. Thus paradoxically the booklet, conceived as a policy tool for reducing hidden employment may even foster the underreporting of income. However, although abusing the booklet is not rare, our results (though not convincing enough statistically) may indicate that using the booklet to at least partially regularize former hidden employment is more widespread. In some cases where the booklet is abused during a probation period, employment may also be regularized later. Our results indicate that the relationship between educational attainment or income and involvement in unreported work and/or underreporting of income is ambiguous and non-linear in this 6 segment of the labor market. Masking labor income as entrepreneurial income from subcontracting can be mostly found amongst workers above a certain level of educational attainment; it is also more common amongst middle income employees, while it is atypical for low and high earners. On the other hand, unreported direct cash payments to employees are more frequent amongst low and high earners, while occur relatively rarely in the middle income range. Our results suggest that experiencing unemployment spells directly (by the employee) or indirectly (by family members) promote the acceptance of irregular forms of employment entailing some form of tax evasion, and may lead to more frequent involvement in such forms of employment.
    Keywords: J43 ; J49 ; H26 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; temporary work ; agricultural labor market ; other specific labor markets ; tax evasion ; underground economy ; economic sociology ; Atypische Beschäftigung ; Befristete Beschäftigung ; Steuer ; Steuervermeidung ; Schattenwirtschaft ; Ungarn
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Hungarian
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    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics