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Greenhouse Gases : Selected Case Studies (2016)
Rijeka, Croatia : InTech
Keywords: greenhouse gases ; global warming ; climate change
Notes: Greenhouse Gases - Selected Case Studies, is a book which covers a range of topics. The long term effective management of the natural environment, requires a detailed understanding of greenhouse gases. This has both environmental and economic implications, especially where there is any anthropogenic involvement. Numerical models are often the tool and framework used for predicting the effects, both in the long-term and short-term, of greenhouse gases. However, the relevant atmospheric processes can vary quite considerably depending upon the spatial and temporal scales under consideration. For this reason for the past few decades, scientists, engineers, meteorologists and mathematicians have all been continuing to conduct research into the many aspects which influence greenhouse gases. These issues range from: industrial science, agricultural research, carbon dioxide and other emissions. This book reports the findings from recent research in greenhouse gases, primarily in the the form of case studies, particularly from an interdisciplinary perspective. The research was carried out by researchers who specialise in areas such as: energy production, emissions from livestock, chemical industry, and metallurgical process technology.
Pages: 88 S.
ISBN: 978-953-51-2682-9
Updates in Volcanology : From Volcano Modelling to Volcano Geology (2016)
Rijeka, Croatia : InTech
Keywords: volcanology ; geology ; geophysics
Notes: Updates in Volcanology - From Volcano Modeling to Volcano Geology is a new book that is based on book chapters offered by various authors to provide a snapshot of current trends in volcanological researches. Following a short Introduction, the book consists of three sections, namely, "Understanding the Volcano System from Petrology, Geophysics to Large Scale Experiments", "Volcanic Eruptions and Their Impact to the Environment", and "Volcanism in the Geological Record". These sections collect a total of 13 book chapters demonstrating clearly the research activity in volcanology from geophysical aspects of volcanic systems to their geological framework. Each chapter provides a comprehensive summary of their subject’s current research directions. This book hence can equally be useful for students and researchers.
Pages: 422 S.
ISBN: 978-953-51-2622-5
Highly Siderophile and Strongly Chalcophile Elements : in High-Temperature Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry (2016)
Chantilly, Va. : Mineralogical Society of America
Notes: In high-temperature geochemistry and cosmochemistry, highly siderophile and strongly chalophile elements can be defined as strongly preferring metal or sulfide, respectively, relative to silicate or oxide phases. The highly siderophile elements (HSE) comprise Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Rh, Pd, and Au and are defined by their extreme partitioning (>104) into the metallic phase, but will also strongly partition into sulfide phases, in the absence of metal. The HSE are highly refractory, as indicated by their high melting and condensation temperatures and were therefore concentrated in early accreted nebular materials. Within the HSE are the platinum-group elements (PGE), which include the six elements lying in the d-block of the periodic table (groups 8, 9, and 10, periods 5 and 6), i.e., Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Rh and Pd. These six elements tend to exist in the metallic state, or bond with chalcogens (S, Se, Te) or pnictogens (P, As, Sb, Bi). Rhenium and Au do not necessarily behave as coherently as the PGE, due to their differing electronegativity and oxidation states. For these reasons, a clear definition between the discussion of the PGE and the HSE (PGE, Re and Au) exists in the literature, especially in economic geology, industrial, or bio-medical studies. The strongly chalcophile elements can be considered to include S, Se, and Te. These three elements are distinguished from other chalcophile elements, such as Cd or Pb, because, like the HSE, they are all in very low abundances in the bulk silicate Earth. By contrast with the HSE, S, Se, and Te all have far lower melting and condensation temperatures, classifying them as highly volatile elements. Moreover, these elements are not equally distributed within chondrite meteorite groups. Since their initial distribution in the Solar nebula, planetary formation and differentiation process have led to large fractionations of the HSE and strongly chalcophile elements, producing a range of absolute and relative inter-element fractionations. The chemical properties of the HSE, that set them apart from any other elements in the periodic table, have made them geochemical tracers par excellence. As tracers of key processes, the HSE have found application in virtually all areas of the physical Earth sciences. These elements have been used to inform on the nucleosynthetic sources and formation of the Solar System, planetary differentiation, late accretion addition of elements to planets, core-formation and possible core-mantle interaction, crust-mantle partitioning, volcanic processes and outgassing, formation of magmatic, hydrothermal and epithermal ore deposits, ocean circulation, climate-related events, weathering, and biogeochemical cycling. More recently, studies of strongly chalcophile elements are finding a similar range of applications. Their utility lies in the fact that these elements will behave as siderophile or strongly chalcophile elements under reducing conditions, but will also behave as lithophile or atmophile elements under oxidizing conditions, as experienced at the present day Earth’s surface. A key aspect of the HSE is that three long-lived, geologically useful decay systems exist with the HSE as parent (107Pd–107Ag), or parent–daughter isotopes (187Re–187Os and 190Pt–186Os). This volume is dedicated to some of the processes that can be investigated at high-temperatures in planets using the HSE and strongly chalcophile elements. While this volume is not dedicated to the practical applications of the HSE and strongly chalcophile elements, it would be remiss not to briefly discuss the importance of these elements in society. All of these elements have found important societal use, from the application of Au as a valued commodity in early societies, through to the present-day; the importance of S and Se in biological processes; the discovery and implementation of Pt, Pd, and subsequently other PGE to catalytic oxidation, and the importance of the anti-cancer drug cisplatin (cis-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2]) to anti-tumour treatments. The use of the PGE, most especially Pt, Pd and Rh, in the automotive industry to generate harmless gases has caused some potential collateral effects; the possible environmental impact and human health-risks from available PGE in the environment. An entire volume can (and should!) equally be written on the utility of the HSE and strongly chalcophile elements during low-temperature geochemistry. In this volume, a number of key areas are reviewed in the use of the HSE and strongly chalcophile elements to investigate fundamental processes in high-temperature geochemistry and cosmochemistry. It is divided into five parts. The first part of the volume concerns measurements and experiments. Chapter 1, by Brenan et al. (2016), provides an comprehensive overview of experimental constraints applied to understanding HSE partitioning under a range of conditions, including: liquid metal–solid metal; metal– silicate; silicate–melt; monosulfide solid solution (MSS)–sulfide melt; sulfide melt–silicate melt; silicate melt–aqueous fluid–vapor. Chapter 2, by Meisel and Horan (2016) provides a summary of analytical methods, issues specifically associated with measurement of the HSE, and a review of important reference materials. The second part of the volume concerns the cosmochemical importance of the HSE and strongly chalcophile elements. In their assessment of nucleosynthetic isotopic variations of siderophile and chalcophile elements in Solar System materials, Yokoyama and Walker (2016, Chapter 3) discuss some of the fundamentals of stellar nucleosynthesis, the evidence for nucleosynthetic anomalies in pre-Solar grains, bulk meteorites and individual components of chondrites, ultimately providing a synthesis on the different information afforded by nucleosynthetic anomalies of Ru, Mo, Os, and other siderophile and chalcophile elements. Chapter 4 concerns the HSE in terrestrial bodies, including the Earth, Moon, Mars and asteroidal bodies for which we have materials as meteorites. Day et al. (2016) provide a summary of HSE abundance and 187Os/188Os variations in the range of materials available and a synthesis of initial Solar System composition, evidence for late accretion, and estimates of current planetary mantle composition. The third part of the volume concerns our understanding of the Earth’s mantle from direct study of mantle materials. In Chapter 5, Aulbach et al. (2016) discuss the importance and challenges associated with understanding HSE in the cratonic mantle, providing new HSE alloy solubility modelling for melt extraction at pressures, temperatures, fO2 and fS2 pertaining to conditions of cratonic mantle lithosphere formation. Luguet and Reisberg (2016) provide similar constraints on non-cratonic mantle in Chapter 6, emphasizing the importance of combined geochemical and petrological approaches to fully understand the histories of mantle peridotites. The information derived from studies of Alpine peridotites, obducted ophiolites and oceanic abyssal peridotites are reviewed in Chapter 7 by Becker and Dale (2016). The fourth part of the volume focusses on important minerals present in the mantle and crust. Chapter 8 provides a broad overview of mantle chalcophiles. In this chapter, Lorand et al. (2016) emphasise that chalcophile and siderophile elements are important tracers that can be strongly affected by host minerals as a function of sulfur-saturation, redox conditions, pressure, temperature, fugacity of sulfur, and silicate melt compositions. Along a similar theme in Chapter 9, O’Driscoll and Gonzalez-Jimenez (2016) provide an overview of platinum-group minerals (PGM), pointing out that, where present PGM dominate the HSE budget of silicate rocks. Finally in this section, Harvey et al. (2016) examine the importance of Re–Os–Pb isotope dating methods of sulfides for improving our understanding of mantle processes (Chapter 10). The fifth and final part of the volume considers the important of the HSE for studying volcanic and magmatic processes. In Chapter 11, Gannoun et al. (2016) provide a synthesis of the most abundant forms of volcanism currently operating on Earth, including mid-ocean ridge basalts, volcanism unassociated with plate boundaries, and subduction zone magmatism. The volume is completed in Chapter 12 by Barnes and Ripley (2016), by an appraisal of the obvious importance of magmatic HSE ore formation in Earth’s crust.
Pages: xxiii, 774 S.
ISBN: 978-0-939950-97-3
Pore-Scale Geochemical Processes (2015)
Chantilly, Va. : Mineralogical Society of America
Notes: The pore scale is readily recognizable to geochemists, and yet in the past it has not received a great deal of attention as a distinct scale or environment that is associated with its own set of questions and challenges. Is the pore scale merely an environment in which smaller scale (molecular) processes aggregate, or are there emergent phenomena unique to this scale? Is it simply a finer-grained version of the “continuum” scale that is addressed in larger-scale models and interpretations? We would argue that the scale is important because it accounts for the pore architecture within which such diverse processes as multi-mineral reaction networks, microbial community interaction, and transport play out, giving rise to new geochemical behavior that might not be understood or predicted by considering smaller or larger scales alone. Fortunately, the last few years have seen a marked increase in the interest in pore-scale geochemical and mineralogical topics, making a Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry volume on the subject timely. The volume had its origins in a special theme session at the 2015 Goldschmidt Conference, Prague, Czech Republic, August 16-21, 2015, where at least some of the contributors to this volume gave presentations. From the diversity of pore-scale topics in the session that spanned the range from multi-scale characterization to modeling, it became clear that the time was right for a volume that would summarize the state of the science. Based in part on the evidence in the chapters included here, we would argue that the convergence of state of the art microscopic characterization and high performance pore scale reactive transport modeling has made it possible to address a number of long-standing questions and enigmas in the Earth and Environmental Sciences. Among these is the so-called “laboratory-field discrepancy” in geochemical reaction rates, which may be traceable in part to the failure to consider porescale geochemical issues that include chemical and physical heterogeneity, suppression of precipitation in nanopores, and transport limitations to and from reactive mineral surfaces. This RiMG volume includes contributions that review experimental, characterization, and modeling advances in our understanding of pore-scale geochemical processes. The volume begins with chapters authored or co-authored by two of the éminences grises in the field of pore-scale geochemistry and mineralogy, two who have made what is perhaps the strongest case that the pore-scale is distinct and requires special consideration in geochemistry. The chapter by Andrew Putnis gives a high level overview of how the pore-scale architecture of natural porous media impacts geochemical processes, and how porosity evolves as a result of these. The chapter makes the first mention of what is an important theme in this volume, namely the modification of thermodynamics and kinetics in small pores. In a chapter authored by Røyne and Jamtveit, the authors investigate the effects of mineral precipitation on porosity and permeability modification of rock. Their principal focus is on the case where porosity reduction results in fracturing of the rock, in the absence of which the reactions will be suppressed due to the lack of pore space. The next chapter by Emmanuel, Anovitz, and Day-Stirrat addresses chemo-mechanical processes and how they affect porosity evolution in geological media. The next chapter by Anovitz and Cole provides a comprehensive review of the approaches for characterizing and analyzing porosity in porous media. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) plays prominently as a technique in this chapter. Stack presents a review of what is known about mineral precipitation in pores and how this may differ from precipitation in bulk solution. Liu, Liu, Kerisit, and Zachara focus on porescale process coupling and the determination of effective (or upscaled) surface reaction rates in heterogeneous subsurface materials. Micro-continuum modeling approaches are investigated by Steefel, Beckingham, and Landrot, where the case is made that these may provide a useful tool where the computationally more expensive pore and pore network models are not feasible. The next chapter by Noiriel pursues the focus on characterization techniques with a review of X-ray microtomography (especially synchrotron-based) and how it can be used to investigate dynamic geochemical and physical processes in porous media. Tournassat and Steefel focus on a special class of micro-continuum models that include an explicit treatment of electrostatic effects, which are particularly important in the case of clays or clay-rich rock. Navarre-Sitchler, Brantley, and Rother present an overview of our current understanding of how porosity increases as a result of chemical weathering in silicate rocks, bringing to bear a range of characterization and modeling approaches that build toward a more quantitative description of the process. In the next chapter, Druhan, Brown, and Huber demonstrate how isotopic gradients across fluid–mineral boundaries can develop and how they provide insight into pore-scale processes. Yoon, Kang, and Valocchi provide a comprehensive review of lattice Boltzmann modeling techniques for pore-scale processes. Mehmani and Balhoff summarize mesoscale and hybrid models for flow and transport at the pore scale, including a discussion of the important class of models referred to as “pore network” that typically can operate at a larger scale than is possible with the true pore-scale models. Molins addresses the problem of how to represent interfaces (solid–fluid) at the pore scale using direct numerical simulation.
Pages: xiv, 491 S.
ISBN: 978-0-939950-96-6
Datenflut und Recht - Informationsrecht als Deich, Kanal, Wasserhahn oder Rettungsring? (2013)
Karlsruhe : KIT Scientific Publishing
Keywords: Datenflut ; Informationsflut ; information overkill ; Gesetzgebung ; Urheberrecht ; Datenspeicher ; Informationsfreiheit ; Informationsgesellschaft ; Datenrecht ; Informationsrecht
Notes: Die Menschheit kämpft mit immer größeren Datenmassen, was nicht nur lästig, sondern in der Informationsgesellschaft ein existentielles Problem ist. Bemerkenswerterweise adressiert das Recht diese Problem der informationellen Überforderung bislang kaum. Das vorliegende Essay stellt die punktuell durchaus bestehenden rechtlichen Regelungen zusammen. Es werden rechtliche Lösungsansätze für den informationellen Überfluss formuliert, aber auch vor der damit einhergehenden Freiheitsbeschränkung gewarnt.
Pages: 30 S.
ISBN: 978-3-86644-989-3
Ethical Aspects of Climate Engineering (2012)
Karlsruhe : KIT Scientific Publishing
Keywords: climate engineering ; geoengineering ; ethics ; climate ethics ; argument map
Notes: This study investigates the ethical aspects of deploying and researching into so-called climate engineering methods, i.e. large-scale technical interventions in the climate system with the objective of offsetting anthropogenic climate change. The moral reasons in favour of and against R&D into and deployment of CE methods are analysed by means of argument maps. These argument maps provide an overview of the CE controversy and help to structure the complex debate.
Pages: VII, 158 S.
ISBN: 978-3-86644-856-8
Scaling Up: The Convergence of Social Economy and Sustainability (2016)
Edmonton : Athabasca University Press
Keywords: environment ; economics ; credit unions ; British Columbia ; Alberta ; sustainable development ; cooperatives
Notes: When citizens take collaborative action to meet the needs of their community, they are participating in the social economy. Co-operatives, community-based social services, local non-profit organizations, and charitable foundations are all examples of social economies that emphasize mutual benefit rather than the accumulation of profit. While such groups often participate in market-based activities to achieve their goals, they also pose an alternative to the capitalist market economy. Contributors to Scaling Up investigated innovative social economies in British Columbia and Alberta and discovered that achieving a social good through collective, grassroots enterprise resulted in a sustainable way of satisfying human needs that was also, by extension, environmentally responsible. As these case studies illustrate, organizations that are capable of harnessing the power of a social economy generally demonstrate a commitment to three outcomes: greater social justice, financial self-sufficiency, and environmental sustainability. Within the matrix of these three allied principles lie new strategic directions for the politics of sustainability.Whether they were examining attainable and affordable housing initiatives, co-operative approaches to the provision of social services, local credit unions, farmers’ markets, or community-owned power companies, the contributors found social economies providing solutions based on reciprocity and an understanding of how parts function within the whole—an understanding that is essential to sustainability. In these locally defined and controlled, democratically operated organizations we see possibilities for a more human economy that is capable of transforming the very social and technical systems that make our current way of life unsustainable.
Pages: XI, 301 S.
ISBN: 978-1-77199-021-9
Energieszenarien : Konstruktion, Bewertung und Wirkung – „Anbieter“ und „Nachfrager“ im Dialog (2011)
Karlsruhe : KIT Scientific Publishing
Keywords: Energie ; Szenarien ; Zukunft ; Szenarienmethodik ; Energiemodelle
Notes: Energieszenarien sind ein wesentliches Mittel zur Entscheidungsunterstützung in Politik und Wirtschaft. Für Infrastrukturentscheidungen im Energiebereich sind lange Zeiträume geltend. Daher ist eine sorgfältige Analyse möglicher "Energiezukünfte" von hoher Bedeutung. In diesem Band finden sich sowohl Beiträge von Wissenschaftlern als auch von Akteuren aus der Praxis, die sich mit Methodologie, Konstruktion und Bewertung von Energieszenarien in Gesellschaft, Politik und Wirtschaft beschäftigen.
Pages: 153 S.
ISBN: 978-3-86644-621-2
Applied Studies of Coastal and Marine Environments (2016)
Rijeka, Croatia : InTech
Keywords: marine environment ; coastal environment
Notes: The book 'Applied Studies of Coastal and Marine Environments' is a collection of a number of high-quality and comprehensive work on coastal and marine environment. This book has an Introductory Chapter, followed by 15 chapters. Chapters 2 and 3 are devoted to coastal geological sedimentation and its impacts on marine environment. Consequently, Chapter 4 investigates neo-tectonic movement in the Pearl River Delta. Different aspects of the coastal pollution and its impacts are addressed in Chapter 5 through Chapter 13. Furthermore, coastal management is also discussed in Chapter 14, and monitoring the coastal environment using remote sensing and GIS techniques is reported in Chapter 15. Finally, Chapter 16 addresses the human history of maritime exploitation and adaptation process to coastal and marine environments. It is important to investigate the history of maritime exploitation and adaptation to environment coastal zone to learn how to explore the oceans.
Pages: 436 S.
ISBN: 978-953-51-2548-8
Alberta Oil and the Decline of Democracy in Canada (2015)
Edmonton : Athabasca University Press
Keywords: C.B. Macpherson ; resource-rich economies ; oil ; Progressive Conservatives ; oil industry ; climate change
Notes: Prior to May 2015, the oil-rich jurisdiction of Alberta had, for over four decades, been a one-party state. During that time, the rule of the Progressive Conservatives essentially went unchallenged, with critiques of government policy falling on deaf ears and Alberta ranking behind other provinces in voter turnout. Given the province’s economic reliance on oil revenues, a symbiotic relationship also developed between government and the oil industry. Cross-national studies have detected a correlation between oil-dependent economies and authoritarian rule, a pattern particularly evident in Africa and the Middle East. Alberta Oil and the Decline of Democracy in Canada sets out to test the “oil inhibits democracy” hypothesis in the context of an industrialized nation in the Global North.In probing the impact of Alberta’s powerful oil lobby on the health of democracy in the province, contributors to the volume engage with an ongoing discussion of the erosion of political liberalism in the West. In addition to examining energy policy and issues of government accountability in Alberta, they explore the ramifications of oil dependence in areas such as Aboriginal rights, environmental policy, labour law, women’s equity, urban social policy, and the arts. If, as they argue, reliance on oil has weakened democratic structures in Alberta, then what of Canada as whole, where the short-term priorities of the oil industry continue to shape federal policy? In Alberta, the New Democratic Party is in a position to reverse the democratic deficit that is presently fuelling political and economic inequality. The findings in this book suggest that, to revitalize democracy, provincial and federal leaders alike must find the courage to curb the influence of the oil industry on governance.
Pages: VIII, 426 S.
ISBN: 978-1-77199-029-5