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Land Degradation and Desertification : A Global Crisis (2016)
Rijeka, Croatia : InTech
Keywords: soil science ; desertification ; land degradation ; landscape research ; soil degradation ; crop production ; weather conditions
Notes: Land degradation which is caused by multiple forces-extreme weather conditions and anthropogenic activities that pollute or degrade the quality of soils and land utility-negatively affects food production, livelihoods, and the provision of other ecosystem goods and services. Land degradation can also lead to climate change and affect human health. The problem is more pronounced in least developing countries due to overdependence of natural resources for survival. Sustainable ways to reduce land degradation and desertification demand research and advocacy of sustainable land management practices. This book is organized into two sections. The first section covers three major aspects, viz., an understanding of patterns of land degradation and desertification for developing mitigation strategies, land-atmosphere interaction from response of land cover to climate change effects of Karst rocky desertification, and the effect of unprecedented human activity into land degradation and desertification processes using natural and human-induced landscape research. The last section dwells on the relationship between soil degradation and crop production and an examination on how land degradation impacts the quality of soil in communal rangelands. Environmentalists, land-use planners, ecologists, pedologists, researchers, and graduate students will find this book to be an essential resource.
Pages: 122 S.
ISBN: 978-953-51-2706-2
Fracture Mechanics : Properties, Patterns and Behaviours (2016)
Rijeka, Croatia : InTech
Keywords: fracture ; fractography ; fatigue ; crack propagation
Notes: This book is a collection of 13 chapters divided into seven sections: Section I: "General Foundations of the Stress Field and Toughness" with one chapter, Section II: "Fractography and Impact Analysis" with two chapters, Section III: "Toughness Fracture" with three chapters, Section IV: "Fracture Behavior" with two chapters, Section V: "Natural and Hydraulic Fractures" with two chapters, section VI: "Fatigue" with one chapter and Section VII: "Fracture Biomaterials and compatible" with two chapters. This book covers a wide range of application of fracture mechanics in materials science, engineering, rock prospecting, dentistry and medicine. The book is aimed towards materials scientists, metallurgists, mechanical and civil engineers, doctors and dentists and can also be well used in education, research and industry.
Pages: 330 S.
ISBN: 978-953-51-2708-6
Nonlinear Systems : Design, Analysis, Estimation and Control (2016)
Rijeka, Croatia : InTech
Keywords: nonlinear systems ; linearization ; quantum mechanics ; estimation methods ; Kalman filtering ; nonlinear control system ; nonlinear dynamic system ; chaotic models
Notes: The book consists mainly of two parts: Chapter 1 - Chapter 7 and Chapter 8 - Chapter 14. Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 treat design techniques based on linearization of nonlinear systems. An analysis of nonlinear system over quantum mechanics is discussed in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 to Chapter 7 are estimation methods using Kalman filtering while solving nonlinear control systems using iterative approach. Optimal approaches are discussed in Chapter 8 with retarded control of nonlinear system in singular situation, and Chapter 9 extends optimal theory to H-infinity control for a nonlinear control system.Chapters 10 and 11 present the control of nonlinear dynamic systems, twin-rotor helicopter and 3D crane system, which are both underactuated, cascaded dynamic systems. Chapter 12 applies controls to antisynchronization/synchronization in the chaotic models based on Lyapunov exponent theorem, and Chapter 13 discusses developed stability analytic approaches in terms of Lyapunov stability. The analysis of economic activities, especially the relationship between stock return and economic growth, is presented in Chapter 14.
Pages: 362 S.
ISBN: 978-953-51-2714-7
How Change Happens (2016)
Oxford : Oxford University Press
Keywords: change agents ; campaigners ; lobbyists ; officials ; public services ; activists ; social change ; political change ; NGOs
Notes: Human society is full of would-be ‘change agents’, a restless mix of campaigners, lobbyists, and officials, both individuals and organizations, set on transforming the world. They want to improve public services, reform laws and regulations, guarantee human rights, get a fairer deal for those on the sharp end, achieve greater recognition for any number of issues, or simply be treated with respect. Striking then, that not many universities have a Department of Change Studies, to which social activists can turn for advice and inspiration. Instead, scholarly discussions of change are fragmented with few conversations crossing disciplinary boundaries, rarely making it onto the radars of those actively seeking change. This book aims to bridge the gap between academia and practice, bringing together the best research from a range of academic disciplines and the evolving practical understanding of activists to explore the topic of social and political change. Drawing on many first-hand examples from the global experience of Oxfam, one of the world’s largest social justice NGOs, as well as insights gleaned from studying and working on international development, it tests ideas and offers the latest thinking on what works to achieve progressive change. Table of Contents Foreword, Ha-Joon Chang Introduction Part 1. A Power and Systems Approach 1: Systems Thinking Changes Everything 2: Power Lies at the Heart of Change 3: Shifts in Social Norms often Underpin Change Case Study: The Chiquitanos of Bolivia Part 2. Institutions and the Importance of History Introduction to Section 2 4: How States Evolve 5: The Machinery of Law 6: Accountability, Political Parties,and the Media 7: How the International System Shapes Change 8: Transnational Corporations as Drivers and Targets of Change Case Study: The December 2015 Paris Agreement on Climate Change Part 3. Activists Introduction to Section 3 9: Citizen Activism and Civil Society 10: Leaders and leadership 11: The Power of Advocacy 12: A Power and Systems Approach to Making Change Happen In Conclusion
Pages: XVIII, 268 S.
ISBN: 978-0-19-878539-2
Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery (cEOR) : A Practical Overview (2016)
Rijeka, Croatia : InTech
Keywords: chemical engineering ; petrochemistry ; petroleum industry ; Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery ; cEOR ; polymer ; processing ; electrorheology
Notes: Commercial application of chemical enhanced oil recovery (cEOR) processes is expected to grow significantly over the next decade. Thus, Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery (cEOR): A Practical Overview offers key knowledge and understanding of cEOR processes using an evidence-based approach intended for a broad audience ranging from field operators, researchers, to reservoir engineers dealing with the development and planning of cEOR field applications. This book is structured into three sections; the first section surveys overall EOR processes. The second section focuses on cEOR processes, while the final section describes the electrorheology technology. These sections are presented using a practical and realistic approach tailored for readers looking to improve their knowledge and understanding of cEOR processes in a nutshell.
Pages: 200 S.
ISBN: 978-953-51-2700-0
Why Icebergs Float : Exploring Science in Everyday Life (2016)
London : UCL Press
Notes: From paintings and food to illness and icebergs, science is happening everywhere. Rather than follow the path of a syllabus or textbook, Andrew Morris takes examples from the science we see every day and uses them as entry points to explain a number of fundamental scientific concepts – from understanding colour to the nature of hormones – in ways that anyone can grasp. While each chapter offers a separate story, they are linked together by their fascinating relevance to our daily lives. The topics explored in each chapter are based on hundreds of discussions the author has led with adult science learners over many years – people who came from all walks of life and had no scientific training, but had developed a burning curiosity to understand the world around them. This book encourages us to reflect on our own relationship with science and serves as an important reminder of why we should continue learning as adults.
Pages: XIV, 205 S.
ISBN: 978-1-911307-02-0
Management of Hazardous Wastes (2016)
Rijeka, Croatia : InTech
Keywords: hazardous waste ; nuclear waste ; nuclear power ; contaminants ; microbial bioremediation ; waste generation
Notes: Rapid trend of industry and high technological progress are the main sources of the accumulation of hazardous wastes. Recently, nuclear applications have been rapidly developed, and several nuclear power plants have been started to work throughout the world. The potential impact of released hazardous contaminants into the environment has received growing attention due to its serious problems to the biological systems. The book Management of Hazardous Wastes contains eight chapters covering two main topics of hazardous waste management and microbial bioremediation. This book will be useful to many scientists, researchers, and students in the scope of development in waste management program including sources of hazardous waste, government policies on waste generation, and treatment with particular emphasis on bioremediation technology.
Pages: 184 S.
ISBN: 978-953-51-2616-4
Tsunami (2016)
Rijeka, Croatia : InTech
Keywords: tsunami ; warning system ; risk reduction ; tsunami propagation ; meteo-tsunami ; tsunami generation
Notes: This book is a collection of contribution from experts involved in tsunami study for the purpose of covering its different aspects from generation to warning system to be applied in tsunami risk reduction. The presented chapters have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. The content of the book consists of information on tsunami propagation from the open sea to the coast and coastal tsunami warning using deployed HF radar systems in different parts of North America and Japan. In this book, tsunami propagation, preliminary methods for evaluating the suitability of radar sites for tsunami detection using simulated tsunami velocities and factors affecting tsunami detectability are discussed and methods for reducing the false alarms are described. It further covers multi-scale meteorological systems resulted in meteo-tsunami and tsunami generation due to a landslide or a submarine volcanic eruption, where few case studies have been presented. The occurrence and characteristics of tsunami in Sweden, using paleo-tsunami events from different parts of the Scandinavia and finally challenges and opportunities for reducing losses to fast-arriving tsunamis in remote villages along Pakistan coast, with few examples are also discussed.
Pages: 142 S.
ISBN: 978-953-51-2676-8
Agent-Based Modelling and Landscape Change (2016)
Basel, Beijing, Wuhan : MDPI
Keywords: landscape change ; agent-based models ; simulation ; modelling ; spatial ; interdisciplinary ; innovation
Notes: The use of agent-based models (ABMs) and modelling for understanding landscape change and dynamics continues to grow. One reason for the popularity of ABMs is that they provide a framework to represent multiple, discrete, multi-faceted, heterogeneous actors (human or otherwise) and their relationships and interactions between one another and their environment, through time and across space. This special issue seeks to showcase innovative uses of ABMs for investigating and explaining landscape change and dynamics and to explore and identify how researchers in different disciplines can learn from one another to further innovate. Thus, this special issue will emphasise multidisciplinary dialogue between researchers using ABM in physical geography, hydrology, ecology, land change science, economics, alternative histories, archaeology, sociology, psychology and others. Innovation may come in the form of computational, conceptual, analytical, participatory or epistemological advances in the use of ABM for a range of aims and motivations associated with landscape change and dynamics. Modelling advances may include new ways of representing agent decisions and/or interactions, establishing and evaluating model structures and rules, presenting and visualising change, multi-scale analysis, comparative techniques, narrative methods, and more. The presentation of innovative agent-based modelling from diverse research backgrounds and perspectives will demonstrate opportunities for learning and enable dialogue to enhance future use of ABMs for understanding landscape change.
Pages: XII, 314 S.
Edition: Printed Edition of the Special Issue Published in Land
ISBN: 978-3-03842-280-8
Notes: This volume presents new research on small-scale basaltic volcanism and provides a ‘state of the art’ review of our understanding of the nature, origin and global significance of monogenetic volcanism. It would also appeal to anyone interested in exploring the enigma of monogenetic volcanism in geological, volcanological, geomorphological volcanic hazard and geoconservation point of view.
Edition: online first