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1.
E-BOOK
Borehole Imaging : Applications and Case Histories (1999)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: Borehole images now form a major part of the interpretation strategy for subsurface geological interpretation in a wide variety of scenarios. This volume documents some case histories together with image acquisition and analysis techniques, and includes three major reviews of recent applications and technical developments. The contributions begin with an introduction and review on the technology and applications of the subject, which also includes a sustantial bibliography detailing many of the relevant research papers. A timely and necessary appraisal of the fundamentals of electrical and ultrasonic borehole imaging tools and processing methods forms a second review in this collection. Anyone utilizing borehole images will benefit from studying the third review paper on the recognition of artefacts in these images. The wealth of case histories of borehole imaging in the remainder of this volume provides an up to date glimpse of the wide range of applications and uses. This text is of benefit to geologist and engineers alike, from both academia and industry. It is suitable for newcomers to the field as well as being essential reading for experienced borehole analysts wanting to keep abreast of the latest technological developments and methods.
Pages: 294 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-043-6
2.
E-BOOK
In Sight of the Suture : the Palaeozoic geology of the Isle of Man in its Iapetus Ocean context (1999)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: The Isle of Man lies close to the surface trace of one of the most important regional Palaeozoic structures — the lapetus Suture. Evidence suggests that this boundary, between the former Avalonian microcontinent to the south and the Laurentian continent to the north, skirts the northwestern edge of the island. Over most of the British Isles the surface trace of the suture is hidden by Upper Palaeozoic rocks. However, on the Isle of Man, where Lower Palaeozoic rocks crop out at the suture, research promises to substantially augment our knowledge of the geology of the lapetus Suture Zone and of the outboard edge of the Avalonian margin. As well as the providing an overview of a key Caledonide area adjacent to the lapetus Suture, the papers in this volume describe new work on stratigraphy, sedimentology, deformation, metamorphism, geochemistry, plutonism, palaeomagnetism and geophysics. There are descriptions and an analysis of a range of deep-water sedimentary processes on an early Ordovician continental margin and a detailed analysis of the processes occurring in the developing collision zone between Avalonia and Laurentia. Review papers cover the analogous rocks of Eastern Ireland, the Scottish Southern Uplands and the English Lake District. In Sight of the Suture is the first overview of the pre-Carboniferous geology of the Isle of Man since the 1960s. It will be of prime interest to research workers in the geology of the Caledonian/Appalachian orogenic belt, to sedimentologists interested in deep marine processes and to petroleum geologists focusing on exploration in the Irish Sea.
Pages: 361 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-046-0
3.
E-BOOK
Exhumation Processes : Normal Faulting, Ductile Flow and Erosion (1999)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: Field geology is, by definition, the geology of exhumed rocks. This book provides a broad range of examples of deep exhumation and emphasizes the competition between the various exhumation processes: normal faulting, ductile thinning and erosion. The papers include examples from all parts of the world and from a variety of tectonic settings, including oceanic subduction zones, continental collision zones and continental rifts. The volume explores the relationship between climate, erosion and tectonics. It provides innovative applications of thermochronology to understanding the rates and geometry of normal faulting, and the interaction between erosion and tectonics. The book will be of broad interest to any student of mountain belts and orogenesis, including those in tectonics, structural geology, geodynamics, metamorphic petrology, sedimentology and geomorphology.
Pages: 364 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-032-0
4.
E-BOOK
The Mediterranean Basins : Tertiary Extension within the Alpine Orogen (1999)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: The coexistence in space and time of growing mountain belts and actively extending basins poses a number of yet unsolved questions in terms of mechanics. This problem is particularly crucial in the Mediterranean regions, where all Cenozoic basins opened in the iflternal zones of mountain belts.TheTyrrhenian Sea opened in the back-arc region of the Apennines, the Aegean Sea in the back-arc domain of the Hellenides and Hellenic arc, the Pannonian Basin behind the Carpathians and the Alboran Sea between the Betics and the Rif. In some examples, such as the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Aegean Sea, extension is ongoing while peripheral compression and convergence are active.The Alboran Sea and Pannonian Basin are now in a compression stage. Several models have been proposed to explain this coexistence of compression and extension: slab retreat during subduction process, detachments of a deep lithospheric root under the internal zones leading to radial extension and peripheral compression and slab detachments. This volume brings together contributions from geologists and geophysicists in the quest to solve the complex dynamic problem posed by the Mediterranean region. It presents a wealth of new data on various topics centred on the Mediterranean region from the deep mantle structure to the detailed geometry of sedimentary basins. This book results from the Integrated Basins Studies Project, which was funded by the European Commission and which involved the collaboration of over 200 researchers across Europe.
Pages: 561 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-033-9
5.
E-BOOK
Continental Tectonics (1999)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: The evolution of oceanic plates is very well described by plate tectonic theory, but the study of continental tectonics is more complicated. Continental plates have a different rheology, a greater mean age, a higher heat productivity, and are more heterogeneous in composition. An understanding of continental tectonics requires, therefore, that these effects upon rigid plate behaviour be taken into account. This book brings together a series of papers which explore various aspects of the deformation of continental lithosphere, covering different tectonic settings from the Palaeozoic to the present day.These include the processes of terrane accretion and juxtaposition, the exhumation of high-pressure terrains, and mechanisms of crustal extension and rifting. The book will be of general interest to a broad audience of earth scientists concerned with global tectonics, continental growth processes, and the deformation of the continents during collision, exhumation and extension.
Pages: 338 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-051-7
6.
E-BOOK
Palaeomagnetism and Diagenesis in Sediments (1999)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: This book contains a co-ordinated series of papers considering how chemical changes in sediments, as they accumulate and lithify, affect their magnetization and how such changes can be monitored by studying their magnetic properties. It is especially relevant to sedimentologists, particularly those in exploration for hydrocarbons and sediment-hosted metals, as well as for geophysicists using the magnetization of sediments.
Pages: 208 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-028-2
7.
E-BOOK
The Oil and Gas Habitats of the South Atlantic (1999)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: The South Atlantic continues to be a globally important focus for the oil and gas industry. This book is, therefore, a timely reference work that provides both the geological background needed to understand the habitats of the discoveries of Nigeria, Angola and Brazil, and the background data required for preparing work programmes. The book presents five thematic sections: ‘The geological and geophysical framework of the South Atlantic’, ‘Oil and gas habitats’, ‘Organic geochemistry studies’, ‘Biostratigraphic appllications’ and ‘Exploration studies and issues’. Extensive use is made of colour and, for the time in this series, a CD-ROM is included that provides a tectonic map of the South Atlantic as well as play maps of both Brazil and West Africa.
Pages: 464 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-030-4
8.
E-BOOK
Biostratigraphy in Production and Development Geology (1999)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: This book records some of the recent advances that biostratigraphy has made in production and development geology. It serves to illustrate to non-biostratigraphers the potential applicability of biostratigraphic and related techniques, and to encourage biostratigraphers to further explore and evaluate this potential. Case histories of applications in the North Sea are given first, followed by case histories of applications in Euramerica, Borneo, Venezuela, Nigeria and the Gulf of Mexico. The overall representation of different geographies, stratigraphies and reservoir depositional environments is wide, although the North Sea is particularly well represented. High-resolution and quantitative biostratigraphy and integrated reservoir description are among the comparatively new techniques described. Biostratigraphic steering (bio-steering) of wells at wellsite, enabling optimal penetration of reservoir sections, has become an exceedingly important application (and one bringing significant benefits to the operator in terms of saving time and money).
Pages: 308 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-031-2
9.
E-BOOK
James Hutton : Present and Future (1999)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: The collection of papers in this volume commemorates the bicentenary of the death of James Hutton, the founder of modern geology. Eminent Earth scientists and science historians celebrate his unique contribution to the knowledge of our planet’s history and his influence on modern geological thinking.
Pages: 179 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-026-6
10.
E-BOOK
Faulting, Fault Sealing and Fluid Flow in Hydrocarbon Reservoirs (1998)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: Compared with many other areas of the petroleum geosciences, studies of the structural controls on fluid flow in hydrocarbon reservoirs are in their infancy. As hydrocarbon reserves have become depleted and the oil industry has become more competitive, the need to cut costs by optimizing production and predicting the occurrence of subtle traps has highlighted the importance of information on the way in which faults and fractures affect fluid flow. Structural geologists are now having to provide answers to questions such as: • Are hydrocarbons likely to have migrated into (or out of) the trap? • What is the likely height of hydrocarbons that a fault can support? • Is it likely that compartments which have not been produced exist ithin a field and will therefore require further drilling? This volume aims to find answers to these questions.
Pages: 312 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-022-3
11.
E-BOOK
Modern Ocean Floor Processes and the Geological Record (1998)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: This volume considers the geological processes at, and biological colonization of, deep ocean spreading centres from both a modern, for example Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the East Pacific and the South West Indian Ridge, and an ancient perspective, such as in the UK, Cyprus, Turkey, Greece and the Urals. The book is one of the first attempts to bring together researchers from disciplines as diverse as geophysics and biology studying modern active hydrothermal systems and the fossilized remains of long-extinct hydrothermal systems that are now locked in the geological record. By using new knowledge of how hydrothermal systems function we can aid the understanding and prediction of mineral deposits now found on land.
Pages: 291 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-023-1
12.
E-BOOK
Carbonate Ramps (1998)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: Carbonate ramps are the most widespread platform type in the geological record, and the bulk of hydrocarbon-bearing carbonates were deposited in ramp-like settings. Nevertheless, ramps remain one of the more enigmatic carbonate platform types. In contrast to steeper sloped rimmed shelves and isolated buildups, where the factors that controlled their location and development are commonly evident, the controls on ramp development have seldom been clearly demonstrated. This volume is an up-to-date compilation of our understanding of modern and ancient carbonate ramp deposystems from 13 countries. It sheds new light on ramp development and related topics by addressing a number of key issues including: terminology - can we classify ramps? processes - how important are water temperature controls and production-depth profiles? tectonic controls - are ramps by necessity restricted to shallow, flexural basins? sedimentary processes - sediment dispersal versus in situ production origin of ramp reef-mounds evolution of ramps into other platform types The international field of authors present case studies of carbonate ramp deposystems, including new reviews of the southern Arabian Gulf shallow-water deposits, the Brazilian coast, northern UK shelf, as well as studies of Ordovician to Tertiary ramps systems. Also included are examples of the use of modelling in understanding the architecture of ancient carbonate platforms.
Pages: 456 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-025-8
13.
E-BOOK
Coastal Tectonics (1999)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: This volume concerns the application of high-resolution coastal records to developing and testing tectonics models. The case studies are at scales ranging from global to regional and local, and deal with glacio-isostasy, relative sea-level changes and seismic and aseismic crustal deformation at a variety of time scales. Data are drawn from a wide variety of disciplines, including geology, seismology, geodesy, geomorphology, geochronology and archaeology. The contributions within the book are from leading practitioners of field, laboratory and theoretical aspects of coastal tectonics. They provide a multidisciplinary, international review at a time when satellite monitoring, advanced modelling and sophisticated dating are transforming the subject from a descriptive historical branch of Earth science into a predictive tool addressing real societal needs. The book will be of interest to a wide audience including academics with an interest in tectonics and/or Quaternary science and professionals involved in seismic hazard or coastal development/protection.
Pages: 374 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-024-X
14.
E-BOOK
Dating and Duration of Fluid Flow and Fluid-Rock Interaction (1998)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: Fluid flow is fundamental to many geological processes, including the development of natural resources of hydrocarbons, ore deposits and water. Modelling of these processes requires information on the timing of fluid flow events and the interaction of fluids with surrounding rocks. In addition to isotopic methods, a diversity of approaches has been developed to assess the timing of events, including palaeomagnetism, fission track analysis and fluid inclusion studies. Many techniques also provide information on the duration of fluid flow events. The papers in this volume represent the range of approaches available to determine the dating and duration of fluid flow events and fluid-rock interaction: • first overview of methods of dating fluid flow • examples of commercial application of dating methods • explanations of methodology suitable for advanced teaching • extensive bibliographies This volume will be of interest to geologists in the hydrocarbon and minerals industries and in academia, and to geochemists and hydrogeologists.
Pages: 277 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-019-3
15.
E-BOOK
The Physics of Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (1998)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: The Physics of Explosive Volcanic Eruptions includes seven review papers that outline our current understanding of several aspects of the physical processes affecting magma during volcanic eruptions. An introductory chapter highlights research areas where our understanding is incomplete, or even completely lacking, and where work needs advancing if our knowledge of volcanic processes is to be substantially improved. The book covers topics on the physical properties of silicic magma, vesiculation processes, conduit flow and fragmentation, gas loss from magmas during eruption, models of volcanic eruption columns, tephra dispersal and pyroclastic density currents.
Pages: 182 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-020-7
16.
E-BOOK
Uplift, Erosion and Stability : Perspectives on Long-term Landscape Development (1999)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: An interdisciplinary collection of papers related to long-term landscape development, integrating landscape and tectonic processes. The presentations demonstrate that studies of present-day processes can be successfully placed within an evolutionary framework and geological setting, the necessity for which increases as appreciation of the antiquity of many landscapes grows. Coverage includes: British Isles, NW Europe, Mediterranean Basin, Middle East, Himalaya, Andes and Antarctica. The papers highlight the significance of recent advances in analytical technology for improving interpretation of both geologically ‘ancient’ and ‘young’ landscapes. It is hoped that, by demonstrating the benefits of interdisciplinary discourse, a widening of interest in landscape studies will be encouraged.
Pages: 278 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-047-9
17.
E-BOOK
Floodplains : Interdisciplinary Approaches (1999)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: Floodplains are an important functional part of fluvial systems. They absorb and gradually release floodwaters, filter contaminants from run-off, recharge groundwater, provide diverse wildlife habitats and are sites of sediment accumulation and storage. The relatively flat, generally fertile land with a readily available water supply has attracted considerable agricultural and urban development throughout the world; with the result that the natural functions of many floodplains have been lost or damaged. Development and management of floodplains has tended to be rather piecemeal, often with a lack of regard for the critical roles they play in fluvial and ecological systems. To a large extent this has been due to an absence of communication between stakeholders, practitioners and scientists. In the rock record, fluvial sediments are host to economic accumulations of hydrocarbons, gold and other minerals. They also act as aquifers for the storage and transport of freshwater, though because of the filtering functions of the floodplain, contaminants may reach dangerous levels. In order to extract minerals efficiently and to deal with potential pollution problems a better understanding of the whole fluvial system is required and until relatively recently the study of floodplain development has not been integrated. This book brings together papers on current themes by some of those at the forefront of research into the many aspects of modern floodplains, recent and ancient alluvial deposits. It shows the multidisciplinary nature of the subject and the value of interdisciplinary study.
Pages: 325 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-050-9
18.
E-BOOK
Volcanoes in the Quaternary (1999)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: It has long been suggested that there is a causal link between volcanic activity and Quaternary environmental change. Earlier work pointed to the volcanic activity driving large-scale Quaternary glacial fluctuations. However, a growing body of evidence lends weight to the converse view that Quaternary environmental changes resulted in increased volcanic activity. Using tephra layers as chronological horizons, researchers have begun to suggest that these volcanic events may have produced not only short-term climate changes but also variations in regional vegetation patterns and in the distribution of society. A full understanding of the complex interaction between volcanic activity and Quaternary environmental change requires the collaboration of both volcanologists and Quaternary scientists. Volcanoes in the Quaternary brings together papers from workers in both fields and reflects the diversity of current research. The papers are grouped geographically and focus on New Zealand’s North Island, the East African Rift Valley, the Mediterranean and Iceland. They cover the determination of eruptive chronologies, discuss the impacts on local vegetation and society, outline the importance of tephrostratigraphic records and provide detailed studies of hazard assessment.
Pages: 216 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-049-5
19.
E-BOOK
Muds and Mudstones : Physical and Fluid-Flow Properties (1999)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: Muds and mudstones are the prime control on fluid flow in sedimentary basins and near-surface environments. As the world's commonest sediment type, they act as aquitards in sedimentary basins, restricting water flow and influencing the development of overpressure. In petroleum systems they act as source rocks for nearly all oil and much gas, determine migration directions between source and trap in most settings, and act as seals to many reservoirs. In near surface environments they not only control natural flow, but have been commonly used to restrict leakage from waste disposal sites. This volume focuses on the previously poorly described physical properties of muds and mudstones in both near-surface and deep basinal settings. Amongst its contents are reviews of the compaction, permeability, thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of mudstones, experimental studies of transport properties, and case studies of the importance of fluid flow in both hydrogeological and petroleum systems.
Pages: 186 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-044-4
20.
E-BOOK
Fractures, Fluid Flow and Mineralization (1999)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: Faulting and fracturing play an important role in enhancing permeability, facilitating flow and controlling hydrothermal mineralization in rocks. This is the main theme of this volume and the papers included are intended to provide an overview of current ideas at the interfaces of structural geology, fluid flow and mineralization research. Included are speculative, but provocative ideas that should stimulate a re-examination of existing concepts regarding fluid flow in fractures systems and the formation of hydrothermal mineral deposits. Also highlighted are recent advances showing the significance of the development of fracture connectivity in focusing fluid flow. The collection concludes with a thermatic set of papaers presenting new research results on the genesis of the world-famous Carboniferous base metal deposits of Ireland. The volume is intended for geoscientists studying the floe of fluids through fault, vien and fracture systems or the genesis of mineral deposits and will be of interest principally to those involved in the minerals industry and in academia.
Pages: 321 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-034-7
21.
E-BOOK
Chemical Containment of Waste in the Geosphere (1999)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: Chemical Containment of Waste in the Geosphere deals with chemical processes within the geosphere that may be harnessed to contain a wide range of wastes, a topic of major importance for sound environmental management. Both technical and philosophical issues concerning waste containment are considered. The book contains contributions from experts in many waste containment technologies and covers a number of issues, ranging from the regulation of radioactive waste management to the design of liners for landfills and the management of mine wastes. An introductory contribution highlights the underlying chemical principles that are common to all forms of waste management by geological means, and that rely to some extent upon chemical containment. The remainder of the book is divided into six sections: • The place of chemical containment in regulatory frameworks • Chemical containment properties of the deep geosphere • The role of chemical containment in clay barriers • Chemical containment properties of cementitious engineered barriers • Containment of metalliferous wastes • Investigative methods The book will appeal to all those who are concerned with technical aspects of waste management. Established researchers will benefit from the multi-disciplinary character of the volume. Regulators and planners concerned with waste management will be able to gain an overview of major technical issues relevant to waste containment. The volume will also be a useful source for post-graduate level students of environmental science, waste management and geochemistry.
Pages: 280 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-040-1
22.
E-BOOK
Meteorites : Flux with Time and Impact Effects (1998)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: The Earth is bombarded constantly by material from space. Evidence of this bombardment comes both from craters that may form prominent features in the landscape and samples of the impactors curated as meteorites. Because the impact of extraterrestrial, material on Earth has the potential to be of more than local significance, and can lead to effects traceable in both the geological and biological record, it is important to obtain an accurate picture of the extent of bombardment. Several techniques have been used to derive estimates for the flux of extraterrestrial material to the Earth, both now and throughout the geological record. The methods used to assess meteorite fluxes and impact effects are diverse and involve scientists from different communities (geologists, geochemists, biologists and astronomers). The volume commences with description of the meteorite flux with time, covering both small bodies (including strewn fields and the problem of ‘pairing’ of meteorites) and large bodies capable of producing craters and cryptoexplosion features. The discussion includes the different ways in which the flux has been determined (from observational astronomy, meteorite collection statistics and theoretical calculations). Following this comes the documentation of impacts in the geological record and their effects on the environment, focusing specifically on the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary mass extinction event. Although the geophysical and geochemical evidence for a large impact at the end of the Cretaceous period is quite clear, the possible environmental consequences of an impact are still a matter of active debate, and the fossil record is by no means an unambiguous record of the mass extinction so frequently reported.
Pages: 271 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-017-7
23.
E-BOOK
Gas Hydrates : Relevance to World Margin Stability and Climate Change (1998)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: From a geological perspective, gas hydrates are an important feature of the shallow geosphere. If current estimates are correct, gas hydrates contain more potential fossil fuel energy than is present in conventional oil, gas and coal deposits, although it is uncertain how much of this can be exploited. They are also geological agents that affect the physical, geophysical and geochemical properties of sediments. Oceanic gas hydrates are increasingly recognized as a major potential ha~rd for the stability of offshore structures in various deep-water hydrocarbon provinces. The possibility also exists that a large release of methane from gas hydrates may have a significant impact on the radiative properties of the atmosphere and thus influence global Climatei past~ present and future, Following an introduction and overviews, this book covers; analysis .and modelling of hydrate formation; exploration strategy and reservoir evaluation; regional case studies; relevance to margin~stability and climate change. Hydrate research informatiloln is presented from the USA, Russia, South Asia and the European Union. The individual papers, drawing on hydrate research: by leading :European and American scentists, are well written, with extensive references and high quality graphs and figures. Thorough index. Recommended as a valuable state,of-the-art reference in natural gas hydrates, marine geology, and the environment for students in all the earth science disciplines,
Pages: 331 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-010-X
24.
E-BOOK
What Drives Metamorphism and Metamorphic Reactions? (1998)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: Although it has long been recognized that what ultimately drives metamorphism and metamorphic reactions is heat, what was less certain is the distribution of heat within the crust, the type and location of major heat sources and the rates of heat flux through crustal rocks. This book explores the factors that control metamorphism and rates of metamorphic processes.
Pages: 280 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-009-6
25.
E-BOOK
Continental Transpressional and Transtensional Tectonics (1998)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: Many present-day and ancient continental deformation systems appear to have formed due to significantly oblique relative plate motions. Transpression and transtension zones are formed where the oblique motions involve components of compression and extensions, respectively. This book covers the recent advances in our understanding or transpressional and transtensional deformation zones both in theory and in real geological settings from around the world. The volume opens with an up-to-date overview of the topic that sets the scene for the more detailed papers which follow. The papers are grouped into four sections. The first, Modelling Transpression and Transtension, includes a series of papers that discuss theoretical strain models in the context of field examples and analogue experiments. The second section details the tectonic evolution of Continental Transform Zones and includes papers on the Dead Sea Transform, wester USA and Chile. The third section, Oblique Divergence Zones, has papers on gravitational collapse in the Norwegian Caledonides and in SW North America, the break-up of Gondwana and a pull-apart basin in northern China. The final section on Oblique Convergence Zones, has case studies from Brazil, European Variscides, Antarctica, the Himalayas, the Sierra Nevada batholith and Italy.
Pages: 354 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-007-X
26.
E-BOOK
Core-Log Integration (1998)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: This volume addresses some of the problems of core-log integration encountered by scientists and engineers from both industry and academia. Core and log measurements provide crucial information about subsurface formations. Their usage, either for integration or calibration, is complicated by the different measurement methods employed, different volumes of formation analysed and, in turn, the heterogeneity of the formations. While the problems of comparing core and log data are only too well known, the way in which these data can be most efficiently combined is not at all clear in most cases. In recent years there has been increased interest in this problem, both in industry and academia, due to developments in technology which offer access to new types of information and, in the case of industry, pressure for improved reservoir models and hydrocarbon recovery. The application of new numerical methods for analysing and modelling core and log data, the availability of core scanning facilities, and novel core measurements in both two and three dimensions, currently provide a framework for the development of new and exciting approaches to core-log integration. The contributions within Core-Log Integration geologically range from hydrocarbon-bearing sediments in the North Sea to the volcanic rocks that form the upper part of the oceanic crust.
Pages: 412 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-010-X
27.
E-BOOK
Lyell : The Past is the Key to the Present (1998)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: Distinguished historians of science give an appraisal of Sir Charles Lyell's life and works, and his influence through his travels across Europe and North America. Leading geologists assess Lyell's subsequent influence on climatology, sedimentology, stratigraphy, coal geology, regional tectonics, volcanology and natural hazards. Modern geological research constructed upon Lyell's legacy illustrates its wealth, 200 years on from his birth.
Pages: 368 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-018-5
28.
E-BOOK
The Delft Sand, Clay and Rock Cutting Model (2014)
Amsterdam, Berlin, Tokyo, Washington D.C. : IOS Press
Notes: Sand, clay and rock have to be excavated for a variety of purposes, such as dredging, trenching, mining (including deep sea mining), drilling, tunnel boring and many other applications. Many excavations take place on dry land, but they are also frequently required in completely saturated conditions, and the methods necessary to accomplish them consequently vary widely. This book provides an overview of cutting theories. It begins with a generic model, valid for all types of soil (sand, clay and rock), and continues with the specifics of dry sand, water-saturated sand, clay, atmospheric rock and hyperbaric rock. Small blade angles and large blade angles are discussed for each soil type, and for each case considered the equations/model for cutting forces, power and specific energy are given. With models verified by laboratory research, principally from the Delft University of Technology, and data from other recognized sources, this book will prove an invaluable reference for anybody whose work involves major excavations of any kind.
Pages: XIII, 558 S.
ISBN: 978-1-61499-453-4
29.
E-BOOK
Basin Modelling : Practice and Progress (1998)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: Basin Modelling: Practice and Progress aims to focus for the first time on the application of basin modelling tools to real problems, and to share experiences as to which techniques have worked and which have not. Modelling is a valuable process of risk reduction in exploration prospectivity assessment. It is an area which has significant room for risk reduction in new technologies, or in better practices with existing technologies. The impact of basin modelling on the exploration business is on risking source effectiveness, and by providing the timing framework for petroleum generation, migration and reservoir/trap formation. The reconstruction of the geological evolution of a sedimentary basin, and numerical qua.~;;',mtion of this information is now considered to add considerable value. Insight into the development and understanding of a basin that develops during a basin modelling study provides as much value as the final numerical results.
Pages: 239 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-008-8
30.
E-BOOK
The Proto-Andean Margin of Gondwana (1998)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: The Palaeozoic geological history of western south america has been the focus of intense international interest in the last few years, as evidenced b the number of the international conferences on the subject. This book brings together multidisciplinary research and review papers on the Lower Palaeozoic geology of the Sierras Pampeanas and the Precordillera of the central west Argentina. It deals with the final stages of assembly of the supercontinent of Gondwana and a period of tectonic interaction with Laurentia (the North american continent of today). The evidence for the growth of this part of the margin of Gondwana from late Neoproterozoic times is presented interms of stratigraphy, palaeontology, igneous petrology, geochemistry and geochronology, and rival tectonic hypotheses are critically compared. At least two episodes of subduction-related marginal basin closure and terrane accretion are documented and re-assessed. The book will be of interest to a broad audience of Earth Scientists interested in global tectonics, continetal growth processes and reconstructions, as well as those specifically interested in the Lower Palaeozoic, Gondwana and the southern lapetus Ocean.
Pages: 376 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-021-5
31.
E-BOOK
Sedimentary Processes in the Intertidal Zone (1998)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: Intertidal flats form an integral and important part of coastal systems, which have for centuries been usefully exploited by man for communication, transportation, waste disposal, power generation and amenity development. They provide an indispensable feeding ground for many species of shorebirds, play a vital role in protecting the shoreline against erosion by wave action, and they act as both a source and sink to sediments and pollutants and are therefore intrinsically related to the ecological health of the system as well as its geomorphology. It is thus important that we monitor these environments, and build up a comprehensive picture of the dynamic processes that have produced and now modify these environments. This book brings together geoscientists, chemists and biologists working on the intertidal zones of European estuaries and coasts.
Pages: 175 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-013-4
32.
E-BOOK
Holocene Land-Ocean Interaction and Environmental Change around the North Sea (2000)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: The majority of the research presented in this volume arises from the Land—Ocean Evolution Perspective Study (LOEPS), which was one component of the Land—Ocean Interaction Study (LOIS - funded by the Natural Environment Research Council). The main aim of LOEPS was to describe the evolution of coastal system from the Holocene to the Present, in response to changes in relative sea level and the impact of human activities. A key element in the success of LOEPS has been the integration and interaction between the various element of the research programme. The papers published here reflect this integration rather than summarizing the results of individual research projects or the achievements of a single LOEPS objective. The contributions fall into four sections: techniques; Humber catchment; other areas within the studied region; regional-scale analysis.
Pages: 319 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-054-1
33.
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Dynamics of the Norwegian Margin (2000)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: The papers and research results presented here have been prepared as part of the Integrated Basin Studies project. This project had the objective of studying the lithospheric and upper crustal processes governing the formation and evolution of extensional and foreland basins and to decipher the role of tectonics, sea level and sedimentary processes in the filling of such basins. The Dynamics of the Norwegian Margin module focused on the rifted sedimentary basins of the northern North Sea and off Mid-Norway. This prolific hydrocarbon province has an extensive industry and scientific database and offers a unique opportunity to study fundamental earth processes, from failed rifting to crustal breakup and accretion of oceanic crust. A set of new models for basin formation and filling has been derived, including linking of sedimentary basin faulting to lower crustal deformation, signature and variability of syn-rift infill, correlation of mineralogy to seismic signature, nature and characteristics of volcanic margin formation and distribution of present-day stress field.
Pages: 467 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-056-8
34.
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Understanding Granites : Integrating New and Classical Techniques (1999)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: Granite magmatism represents a major contribution to crustal growth and recycling and, consequently, is one of the most important mechanisms to have contributed to the geochemical differentiation of the Earth’s crust since Archaean time. Granites are also often associated with ore bodies, and their study therefore has direct commercial relevance. The modern view of the granite problems requires the application of many different theoretical, experimental and empirical resources provided by geophysics, geochemistry, experimental petrology, structural geology, scale modelling and field geology. Because of the complexity of the granite problem, it is necessary to integrate a variety of techniques and corroborate the findings with field observations.This is the philosophy of this book. Many chapters are review papers dealing with the development and achievements of a particular technique, whilst other chapters deal with the application of a number of techniques to a specific problem. This volume brings together papers that would otherwise be dispersed in different publications. The book will be of interest to igneous petrologists, geophysicists, structural geologists and geochemists.
Pages: 272 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-058-4
35.
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Geoarchaeology : Exploration, Environments, Resources (1999)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: Geology and archaeology have a long history of fruitful collaboration stretching back to the early 19th century. Geoarchaeology - the application of the geosciences to solve research problems in archaeology - has now emerged as a recognized sub-discipline of archaeology, especially in the USA. Traditionally, methods used include geomorphology, sedimentology, pedology and stratigraphy, reflecting the fact that most archaeological evidence is recovered from the sedimentary environment. As reflected in the sub-title, this volume embraces a broader definition, including geophysics and geochemistry. Geophysical techniques, both terrestrial and remote, are now used routinely to locate and horizontally map buried features of archaeological interest. New developments include the use of georadar and other methods of giving vertical information. Geochemistry has long been used to give information about the exploitation, trade and exchange of mineral resources and finished products such as metals and pottery. Refinements, such as the use of isotopic measurements to define not only exploitation but also production techniques, are increasingly being applied. Perhaps most significantly of all, geoarchaeology can contribute to an understanding of the dynamic relationship between human society and the environment in that most significant (if brief) period of geological time when human activity dramatically modified the natural world. The papers presented here exemplify the many and varied ways in which geology and archaeology can combine to the mutual benefit of both.
Pages: 176 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-053-3
36.
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Forced Folds and Fractures (1999)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: This volume is concerned with defining the major similarities and difference between forced folds and buckle folds in order that these differences can be used to recognize the type of folding (and therefore the expected fracture pattern) present in regions of poor exposure or where the geologist has to rely on seismic images. An understanding of the differences between the two fold types (their 3D geometry, spatial organization, fracture patterns etc.) provides an invaluable tool for Earth scientists concerned with assessing the possible role of folds and their associated fracture patterns in controlling fluid migration and concentration within the crust. The papers presented here are grouped into 4 sections. Contributions in the first section describe the use of numerical analyses to investigate the formation of fractures in forced folds, including compaction folds, and the section contains a description of large-scale compaction folding in which the associated fracturing has given rise to the development of large sandstone dykes. The papers in the second section deal with the formation of forced folds as a result of normal faulting in various geological environments including along a classical graben margin and around a resurgent caldera. The third section contains papers relating to forced folding in compressional and strike-slip regimes. The final section considers the temporal and spatial relationships between forced folds and buckle folds, the formation of crustal-scale folds, and a method of determining the distribution of strain on any folded surface, a key parameter controlling the distribution of fractures.
Pages: 221 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-060-6
37.
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Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Water-Rock Interaction (2009)
Washington, DC : Mineralogical Society of America
Notes: The chapters in this volume represent an extensive review of the material presented by the invited speakers at a short course on Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Water-Rock Interaction held prior to the 19th annual V. M. Goldschmidt Conference in Davos, Switzerland (June 19-21, 2009). This volume stems from a convergence of a number of factors. First, there is a compelling societal need to resuscitate the field of the thermodynamics and kinetics of natural processes. This field is essential to quantify and predict the response of the Earth’s surface and crust to the disequilibria caused by the various natural and anthropic inputs of energy to our planet. As such, it serves as the basis for sustainable development and assuring the quality of life on the Earth; it serves as the key to understanding the long term future of radioactive waste storage, toxic metal mobility in the environment, the fate of CO2 injected into the subsurface as part of carbon sequestration efforts, quantifying the quality of petroleum reservoirs and generating novel methods of petroleum extraction, and the identification of new ore deposits. The recent interest in the weathering of continental surfaces and its impact on global elemental cycles and climate evolution has also brought new attention to the thermodynamics and kinetics of water-rock interactions as it has become evident that only a true mechanistic approach based on robust thermodynamic and kinetic laws and parameters can accurately model these processes. Yet, this field has, in many ways, atrophied over the past two decades. Relatively few students have pursued graduate research in this field; many of the great contributors to this field have retired or otherwise moved on. No doubt some of this atrophy was caused by economic factors. For roughly two decades from the mid-1980’s to the mid-2000’s the price of base metals and petroleum, when adjusted for inflation, were at lows not seen for over a generation. Some of this atrophy was also caused by past successes in this field; the development and success of computer generated thermodynamic databases, for example, giving the illusion that the work of scientists in this field was complete. A second factor motivating the creation of this volume was that it was requested by our graduate students. We currently coordinate two European Research Networks: MIR and MIN-GRO, and participate in two others GRASP and DELTA-MIN. As part of these networks we ran summer schools on the thermodynamics and kinetics of water-rock interaction in La Palma, Spain and in Anglet, France. In total theses classes were attended by roughly 100 students. By the end of these schools, we received numerous demands from our students requesting a book to help them follow the subject, as they, like most when introduced to thermodynamics and kinetics, got rapidly lost among the equations, symbols, and conventions, and standard states. This volume is an attempt to help these and others through these formalities towards applying the many advances available in thermodynamics and kinetics towards solving academic and societal problems. A third factor is that we felt this volume would be a great way of getting many of our friends to write up that review paper that we have been hoping they would write for years. The chapters in this volume represent our effort to do just this. We recall Dave Sherman first explaining to us how to perform first principle thermodynamics calculations at an European Research Conference in Crete, Greece during 1999. We recall that his explanations were so clear that we wished to have recorded it. Manolo Prieto gave in La Palma, Spain a lecture summarizing decades of research on the thermodynamics of solid solutions. This lecture opened up our eyes to how little we know about the chemistry of minor and trace elements, and how they can drastically alter the pathways of reactions in nature. He also made us aware of the thermodynamic formalism available for advancing our ability to quantify the behavior of these elements in complex natural systems. Another lecture we left knowing that we needed a permanent record of was that of Dmitrii Kulik on the thermodynamics of sorption in Jena, Germany. After leaving Dmitrii’s talk, we felt that we finally understood the differences between the various models used to describe sorption. Yet another chapter we felt essential to see published is a summary of the latest advances in mineral precipitation kinetics. We have followed the work of Bertrand Fritz for years as he developed a new formalism for quantifying mineral nucleation and growth, and in particular practical approaches to apply this formalism to complex systems. We are very pleased we were able to convince him to contribute his chapter to this volume. Other chapters we believed were essential to include was that of Andrew Putnis, who has gathered extensive evidence for the existence of mineral transformation reactions, a novel and widespread mechanism in nature. Through this volume we were able to get Andrew to bring all this evidence together in a single place, where we can see clearly the significance and pervasiveness of these reactions. Similarly Jichwar Ganor has, over the past two decades, gathered a variety of evidence showing how organic compounds affect both thermodynamics and kinetics. Jichwar’s chapter brings all this evidence together in one place for the first time. This volume is completed with the future of this field, the application of thermodynamics and kinetics to natural phenomena. Two of the leaders in the development and application of reactive transport modeling are Carl Steefel and Chen Zhu. Carl, who has written what may be the most advanced reactive transport modeling code currently available, together with Kate Malher has written an informative summary of recent advances in reactive transport modeling. Chen then shows how the use of these models provides insight into the relative role of dissolution and precipitation kinetics in natural processes. This volume finishes with insightful applications of reactive transport modeling together with field observations to understand chemical weathering from the centimeter to the regional scale by Susan Brantley, Art White and Yves Goddéris.
Pages: xvii , 569 p.
ISBN: 0-939950-84-7
38.
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Arsenic : Environmental Geochemistry, Mineralogy, and Microbiology (2014)
Washington, DC : Mineralogical Society of America
Notes: Arsenic is perhaps history’s favorite poison, often termed the "King of Poisons" and the "Poison of Kings" and thought to be the demise of fiction’s most famous ill-fated lovers. The toxic nature of arsenic has been known for millennia with the mineral realgar (AsS), originally named “arsenikon” by Theophrastus in 300 B.C.E. meaning literally "potent." For centuries it has been used as rat poison and as an important component of bactericides and wood preservatives. Arsenic is believed to be the cause of death to Napoleon Bonaparte who was exposed to wallpaper colored green from aceto-arsenite of copper (Aldersey-Williams 2011). The use of arsenic as a poison has been featured widely in literature, film, theatre, and television. Its use as a pesticide made it well known in the nineteenth century and it was exploited by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in the Sherlock Holmes novel The Golden Pince-Nez (Conan-Doyle 1903). The dark comedy Arsenic and Old Lace is a prime example of arsenic in popular culture, being first a play but becoming famous as a movie. Arsenic has figured prominently not only in fiction but in historical crimes as well (Kumar 2010). A high profile case of the mid-nineteenth century involved a hydrotherapist, Dr. Thomas Smethurst, who was accused of using arsenic to poison a woman he had befriended (Wharton 2010). Based on analytical evidence from a renowned toxicologist, Alfred Swaine Taylor, a death sentence was imposed, however Taylor had to confess that his apparatus was contaminated. The verdict was overturned after public opinion was voiced against it and a plea for clemency was made to Queen Victoria. In recent years, arsenic has been recognized as a widespread, low-level, natural groundwater contaminant in many parts of the world, particularly in places such as West Bengal and Bangladesh, where it has given rise to chronic human-health issues. Long-term exposure to arsenic has been shown to cause skin lesions, blackfoot disease, and cancer of the skin, bladder, and lungs, and is also associated with developmental effects, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity, and diabetes (WHO 2012). Arsenate's toxicity is caused by its close chemical similarities to phosphate; it uses a phosphate transport system to enter cells. Arsenic occurs in many geological environments including sedimentary basins, and is particularly associated with geothermal waters and hydrothermal ore deposits. It is often a useful indicator of proximity to economic concentrations of metals such as gold, copper, and tin, where it occurs in hydrothermally altered wall rocks surrounding the zones of economic mineralization. Arsenic is commonly a persistent problem in metal mining and there has been significant effort to manage and treat mine waste to mitigate its environmental impacts. This volume compiles and reviews current information on arsenic from a variety of perspectives, including mineralogy, geochemistry, microbiology, toxicology, and environmental engineering. The first chapter (Bowell et al. 2014) presents an overview of arsenic geochemical cycles and is followed by a chapter on the paragenesis and crystal chemistry of arsenic minerals (chapter 2; Majzlan et al. 2014). The next chapters deal with an assessment of arsenic in natural waters (chapter 3; Campbell and Nordstrom 2014) and a review of thermodynamics of arsenic species (chapter 4; Nordstrom et al. 2014). The next two chapters deal with analytical measurement and assessment starting with measuring arsenic speciation in solids using x-ray absorption spectroscopy (chapter 5; Foster and Kim 2014). Chapter 6 (Leybourne and Johannesson 2014) presents a review on the measurement of arsenic speciation in environmental media: sampling, preservation, and analysis. In chapter 7 (Amend et al. 2014) there is a review of microbial arsenic metabolism and reaction energetics. This is followed by an overview of arsenic toxicity and human health issues (chapter 8; Mitchell 2014) and an assessment of methods used to characterize arsenic bioavailability and bioaccessibility (chapter 9; Basta and Jurasz 2014). This leads into chapter 10 (Craw and Bowell 2014), which describes the characterization of arsenic in mine waste with some examples from New Zealand, followed by a chapter on the management and treatment of arsenic in mining environments (chapter 11; Bowell and Craw 2014). The final three chapters are in-depth case studies of the geochemistry and mineralogy of legacy arsenic contamination in different historical mining environments: the Giant gold mine in Canada (chapter 12; Jamieson 2014), the Sierra Nevada Foothills gold belt of California (chapter 13; Alpers et al. 2014), and finally, the hydrogeochemistry of arsenic in the Tsumeb polymetallic mine in Namibia (chapter 14; Bowell 2014).
Pages: xvi ; 635 S.
ISBN: 978-0-939950-94-2
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Architecture in the Anthropocene : Encounters Among Design, Deep Time, Science and Philosophy (2013)
Ann Arbor, Michigan : Open Humanities Press
Notes: Research regarding the significance and consequence of anthropogenic transformations of the earth’s land, oceans, biosphere and climate have demonstrated that, from a wide variety of perspectives, it is very likely that humans have initiated a new geological epoch, their own. First labeled the Anthropocene by the chemist Paul Crutzen, the consideration of the merits of the Anthropocene thesis by the International Commission on Stratigraphy and the International Union of Geological Sciences has also garnered the attention of philosophers, historians, and legal scholars, as well as an increasing number of researchers from a range of scientific backgrounds. Architecture in the Anthropocene: Encounters Among Design, Deep Time, Science and Philosophy intensifies the potential of this multidisciplinary discourse by bringing together essays, conversations, and design proposals that respond to the “geological imperative” for contemporary architecture scholarship and practice. Contributors include Nabil Ahmed, Meghan Archer, Adam Bobbette, Emily Cheng, Heather Davis, Sara Dean, Seth Denizen, Mark Dorrian, Elizabeth Grosz, Lisa Hirmer, Jane Hutton, Eleanor Kaufman, Amy Catania Kulper, Clinton Langevin, Michael C.C. Lin, Amy Norris, John Palmesino, Chester Rennie, François Roche, Ann-Sofi Rönnskog, Isabelle Stengers, Paulo Tavares, Etienne Turpin, Eyal Weizman, Jane Wolff, Guy Zimmerman.
ISBN: 978-1-60785-307-7
40.
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Telemorphosis : Theory in the Era of Climate Change, Vol. 1 (2012)
Ann Arbor, Michigan : Open Humanities Press
Notes: This volume gathers notable critics and philosophers to engage the predominant impasse of an emerging era of climate change and ecocatastrophic acceleration: that is, how conceptual and critical practices inherited from 20th century master-thinkers—who took no account of these emergences and logics—alter, adapt, mutate, or undergo translation at the current moment. Rather than assume that the humanities and philosophic practices of the past routed in the rethinking of language and power are suspended as irrelevant before mutations of the biosphere itself, Telemorphosis asks how, in fact, the latter have always been imbricated in these cognitive and linguistic practices and remain so, which is also to ask how a certain violence returns, today, to entirely different fields of reference. The writers in the volume ask, implicitly, how the 21st century horizons that exceed any political, economic, or conceptual models alters or redefines a series of key topoi. These range through figures of sexual difference, bioethics, care, species invasion, war, post-carbon thought, ecotechnics, time, and so on. As such, the volume is also a dossier on what metamorphoses await the legacies of “humanistic” thought in adapting to, or rethinking, the other materialities that impinge on contemporary “life as we know it.” With contributions by Robert Markley, J. Hillis Miller, Bernard Stiegler, Justin Read, Timothy Clark, Claire Colebrook, Jason Groves, Joanna Zylinska, Catherine Malabou, Mike Hill, Martin McQuillan, Eduardo Cadava and Tom Cohen.
ISBN: 978-1-60785-237-7
41.
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Carbon in Earth (2013)
Washington, DC : Mineralogical Society of America
Notes: Carbon in Earth is an outgrowth of the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO), a 10-year international research effort dedicated to achieving transformational understanding of the chemical and biological roles of carbon in Earth (http://dco.ciw.edu). Hundreds of researchers from 6 continents, including all 51 coauthors of this volume, are now engaged in the DCO effort. This volume serves as a benchmark for our present understanding of Earth's carbon - both what we know and what we have yet to learn. Ultimately, the goal is to produce a second, companion volume to mark the progress of this decadal initiative. This volume addresses a range of questions that were articulated in May 2008 at the First Deep Carbon Cycle Workshop in Washington, DC. At that meeting 110 scientists from a dozen countries set forth the state of knowledge about Earth's carbon. They also debated the key opportunities and top objectives facing the community. Subsequent deep carbon meetings in Bejing, China (2010), Novosibirsk, Russia (2011), and Washington, DC (2012), as well as more than a dozen smaller workshops, expanded and refined the DCO's decadal goals. The 20 chapters that follow elaborate on those opportunities and objectives. A striking characteristic of Carbon in Earth is the multidisciplinary scientific approach necessary to encompass this topic. The following chapters address such diverse aspects as the fundamental physics and chemistry of carbon at extreme conditions, the possible character of deep-Earth carbon-bearing minerals, the geodynamics of Earth's large-scale fluid fluxes, tectonic implications of diamond inclusions, geosynthesis of organic molecules and the origins of life, the changing carbon cycle through deep time, and the vast subsurface microbial biosphere (including the hidden deep viriosphere). Accordingly, the collective authorship of Carbon in Earth represents laboratory, field, and theoretical researchers from the full range of physical and biological sciences.
Pages: xv ; 698 S.
ISBN: 978-0-939950-90-4
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Terror, Theory and the Humanities (2012)
Ann Arbor, Michigan : Open Humanities Press
Notes: The events of September 11, 2001, have had a strong impact on theory and the humanities. They call for a new philosophy, as the old philosophy is inadequate to account for them. They also call for reflection on theory, philosophy, and the humanities in general. While the recent location and killing of Osama bin Laden, the leader of al-Qaeda, in Pakistan on May 2, 2011—almost ten years after he and his confederates carried out the 9/11 attacks—may have ended the “war on terror,” it has not ended the journey to understand what it means to be a theorist in the age of phobos nor the effort to create a new philosophy that measures up with life in the new millennium. It is in the spirit of hope—the hope that theory will help us to understand the age of terror—that the essays in this collection are presented. With essays by Christian Moraru, Terry Caesar, David B. Downing, Horace L. Fairlamb, Emory Elliott, Elaine Martin, Robin Truth Goodman, Sophia A. McClennen, William V. Spanos, Zahi Zalloua.
ISBN: 978-1-60785-249-0
43.
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Sulfur in Magmas and Melts : Its Importance for Natural and Technical Processes (2011)
Washington, DC : Mineralogical Society of America
Notes: The chapters in this volume represent a compilation of the material presented by the invited speakers at a short course on August 21-23, 2011 called “Sulfur in Magmas and Melts and its Importance for Natural and Technical Processes.” This Mineralogical Society of America and the Geochemical Society sponsored short course was held at the Hotel der Achtermann, in Goslar, Germany following the 2011 Goldschmidt Conference in Prague, Czech Republic. Following a nice overview in chapter 1 by the organizers Harald Behrens and James Webster, this volume is divided into 4 parts. 1. Analytical and Spectroscopic Methods -- chapters 2 and 3 2. Physical and Chemical Properties of S-Bearing Silicate Melts -- chapters 4-7 3. Constraints from Natural and Experimental Systems -- chapters 8-11 4. Natural and Technical Applications -- chapters 12-16
Pages: xiv , 578 S.
ISBN: 978-0-939950-87-4
44.
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Oxygen in the Solar System (2008)
Washington, DC : Mineralogical Society of America
Notes: Hydrogen may be the most abundant element in the universe, but in science and in nature oxygen has an importance that is disproportionate to its abundance. Human beings tend to take it for granted because it is all around us and we breathe it, but consider the fact that oxygen is so reactive that in a planetary setting it is largely unstable in its elemental state. Were it not for the constant activity of photosynthetic plants and a minor amount of photo dissociation in the upper atmosphere, we would not have an oxygen-bearing atmosphere and we would not be here. Equally, the most important compound of oxygen is water, without which life (in the sense that we know it) could not exist. The role of water in virtually all geologic processes is profound, from formation of ore deposits to igneous petrogenesis to metamorphism to erosion and sedimentation. In planetary science, oxygen has a dual importance. First and foremost is its critical role in so many fundamental Solar System processes. The very nature of the terrestrial planets in our own Solar System would be much different had the oxygen to carbon ratio in the early solar nebula been somewhat lower than it was, because elements such as calcium and iron and titanium would have been locked up during condensation as carbides, sulfides and nitrides and even (in the case of silicon) partly as metals rather than silicates and oxides. Equally, the role of water ice in the evolution of our Solar System is important in the early accretion and growth of the giant planets and especially Jupiter, which exerted a major control over how most of the other planets formed. On a smaller scale, oxygen plays a critical role in the diverse kinds of physical evolution of large rocky planets, because the internal oxidation state strongly influences the formation and evolution of the core, mantle and crust of differentiated planets such as the Earth. Consider that basaltic volcanism may be a nearly universal phenomenon among the evolved terrestrial planets, yet there are basalts and basalts. The basalts of Earth (mostly), Earth's Moon, Vesta (as represented by the HED meteorites) and Mars are all broadly tholeiitic and yet very different from one another, and one of the primary differences is in their relative oxidation states (for that matter, consider the differences between tholeiitic and calc-alkaline magma series on Earth). But there is another way that oxygen has proven to be hugely important in planetary science, and that is as a critical scientific clue to processes and conditions and even sources of materials. Understanding the formation and evolution of our Solar System involves reconstructing processes and events that occurred more than 4.5 Ga ago, and for which the only contemporary examples are occurring hundreds of light years away. It is a detective story in which most of the clues come from the laboratory analysis of the products of those ancient processes and events, especially those that have been preserved nearly unchanged since their formation at the Solar System's birth: meteorites; comets; and interplanetary dust particles. For example, the oxidation state of diverse early Solar System materials ranges from highly oxidized (ferric iron) to so reducing that some silicon exists in the metallic state and refractory lithophile elements such as calcium exist occur in sulfides rather than in silicates or carbonates. These variations reflect highly different environments that existed in different places and at different times. Even more crucial has been the use of oxygen 3-isotope variations, which began almost accidentally in 1973 with an attempt to do oxygen isotope thermometry on high-temperature solar nebula grains (Ca-, Al-rich inclusions) but ended with the remarkable discovery (see Clayton 2008) of non-mass-dependent oxygen isotope variations in high-temperature materials from the earliest Solar System. The presolar nebula was found to be very heterogeneous in its isotopic composition, and virtually every different planet and asteroid for which we have samples has a unique oxygen-isotopic fingerprint.
Pages: xx , 598 p
ISBN: 978-0-939950-80-5
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Immersion Into Noise (2011)
Ann Arbor, Michigan : Open Humanities Press
Notes: The noise factor is the ratio of signal to noise of an input signal to that of the output signal. Noise can block or interfere with the meaning of a message in both human and electronic communication. But in Information Theory, noise is still considered to be information. By refining the definition of noise as that which addresses us outside of our preferred comfort zone, Joseph Nechvatal's Immersion Into Noise investigates multiple aspects of cultural noise by applying the audio understanding of noise to the visual, architectural and cognitive domains. Nechvatal expands and extends our understanding of the function of cultural noise by taking the reader through the immersive and phenomenal aspects of noise into algorithmic and network contexts, beginning with his experience in the Abside of the Grotte de Lascaux. Immersion Into Noise is intended as a conceptual handbook useful for the development of a personal-political-visionary art of noise. On a planet that is increasingly technologically linked and globally mediated, how might noises break and re-connect in distinctive and productive ways within practices located in the world of art and thought? That is the question Joseph Nechvatal explores in Immersion Into Noise.
ISBN: 978-1-60785-241-4
46.
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Diffusion in Minerals and Melts (2013)
Washington, DC : Mineralogical Society of America
Notes: The chapters in this volume represent an extensive compilation of the material presented by the invited speakers at a short course on Diffusion in Minerals and Melts held prior (December 11-12, 2010) to the Annual fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco, California. The short course was held at the Napa Valley Marriott Hotel and Spa in Napa, California and was sponsored by the Mineralogical Society of America and the Geochemical Society. Because diffusion plays a critical role in numerous geological processes, petrologists and geochemists (as well as other geologists and geophysicists) often apply diffusion data and models in a range of problems, including interpretation of the age of rocks and thermal histories, conditions for formation and retention of chemical compositional and isotopic zoning in minerals, controls on bubble sizes in volcanic rocks, and processes influencing volcanic eruptions. A major challenge in the many applications of diffusion data is for researchers to find relevant and reliable data. For example, diffusivities determined in different labs may differ by orders of magnitude. Sometimes the differences are a result of limitations not recognized in certain diffusion studies due to the materials or methodologies used. For example, diffusivities determined through bulk analyses are often orders of magnitude greater than those obtained from directly measured diffusion profiles; the former are often affected by cracks, extended defects and/or other additional diffusion paths whose influence may not be recognized without direct profiling. Differences in depth resolution of analytical techniques may also contribute to discrepancies among measured diffusivities, as can the occurrence of non-diffusional processes (e.g., convection, crystal dissolution or surface reaction) that may compromise or complicate diffusion experiments and interpretations of results. Sometimes the discrepancies among datasets may be due to subtle variations in experimental conditions (such as differing oxygen fugacities, pressures, or variations in H2O content of minerals and melts used in respective experimental studies). Experts in the field may be able to understand and evaluate these differences, but those unfamiliar with the field, and even some experimental practitioners and experienced users of diffusion data, may have difficulty discerning and interpreting dissagreements among diffusion findings. For those who want to investigate diffusion through experiments, it is critical to understand the advantages and limitations of various experimental approaches and analytical methods in order to optimize future studies, and to obtain a clear sense of the "state of the art" to put their own findings in perspective with earlier work. Two early books were important landmarks in diffusion studies in geology. One was a special publication by Carnegie Institution of Washington edited by Hofmann et al. (1974) titled Geochemical Transport and Kinetics. The other was a Reviews of Mineralogy volume edited by Lasaga and Kirkpatrick (1981) titled Kinetics of Geochemical Processes. Various recent tomes are available on diffusion theory in metallurgy, chemical engineering, materials science, and geology (e.g., Kirkaldy and Young 1987; Shewmon 1989; Cussler 1997; Lasaga 1998; Glicksman 2000; Balluffi et al. 2005; Mehrer 2007; Zhang 2008) and the mathematics of solving diffusion problems (e.g., Carslaw and Jaeger 1959; Crank 1975). There have also been summaries of geologically relevant diffusion data (e.g., Freer 1981; Brady 1995), review articles and book chapters presenting diffusion data for specific mineral phases (e.g., Yund 1983; Giletti 1994; Cherniak and Watson 2003) and for specific species in minerals and melts (e.g., Chakraborty 1995; Cole and Chakraborty 2001; Watson 1994) and applications of diffusion in geology (e.g., Ganguly 1991; Watson and Baxter 2007; Chakraborty 2008). However, there is no single resource that reviews and evaluates a comprehensive collection of diffusion data for minerals and melts, and previously published summaries of geologically-relevant diffusion data predate the period in which a large proportion of the existing reliable diffusion data have been generated. This volume of Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry attempts to fill this void. The goal is to compile, compare, evaluate and assess diffusion data from the literature for all elements in minerals and natural melts (including glasses). Summaries of these diffusion data, as well as equations to calculate diffusivities, are provided in the chapters themselves and/or in online supplements. Suggested or assessed equations to evaluate diffusivities under a range of conditions can be found in the individual chapters. The aim of this volume is to help students and practitioners to understand the basics of diffusion and applications to geological problems, and to provide a reference for and guide to available experimental diffusion data in minerals and natural melts. It is hoped that with this volume students and practitioners will engage in the study of diffusion and the application of diffusion findings to geological processes with greater interest, comprehension, insight, and appreciation. This volume begins with three general chapters. One chapter presents the basic theoretical background of diffusion (Zhang 2010), including definitions and concepts encountered in later chapters. This chapter is not meant to be comprehensive, as detailed, book-length treatments of diffusion theory can be found in other sources. Some discussion of advanced topics of diffusion theory and mechanisms can be found in individual chapters throughout the volume, including models for diffusion in melts (Lesher 2010), multi-species diffusion (Zhang and Ni 2010), multicomponent diffusion (Liang 2010; Ganguly 2010), and defect chemistry (Chakraborty 2010; Cherniak and Dimanov 2010; Van Orman and Crispin 2010). Diffusion data for minerals and melts are most commonly obtained through experimental studies which require analyses of the experimental products; these considerations are reflected in the topics of the next two chapters. For readers who are interested in carrying out experimental research or understanding experimental results and diffusion data, the second general chapter (Watson and Dohmen 2010) covers experimental methods in diffusion studies, with focus on nontraditional and emerging methods. Additional discussion of experimental methods in diffusion studies is provided in Ganguly (2010) and Farver (2010). The third general chapter reviews a range of analytical techniques applied in analyses of diffusion experiments (Cherniak et al. 2010). Experimental methods and analytical techniques are also described in other chapters in the context of discussion of specific diffusion studies. The next five chapters are on diffusion in melts (including glasses), focusing on natural melts relevant in geological systems. Zhang and Ni (2010) discuss the diffusion of H, C and O in silicate melts, which involves multi-species diffusion, where one species (such as molecular H2O) may contribute to the diffusion of two elements (such as H and O in this case). They also assess the relative importance of various diffusing species, and extract oxygen diffusion data in hydrous silicate melts from diffusion data for water. Behrens (2010) offers a thorough review and evaluation of noble gas diffusion data for natural silicate melts and industrial glasses. Lesher (2010) elaborates on the various diffusion models for self diffusion, tracer diffusion, isotopic diffusion and trace element diffusion. Zhang et al. (2010) summarize available diffusion data (focusing on effective binary diffusivities) of all elements in silicate melts. Liang (2010) presents a systematic assessment of multicomponent diffusion studies for silicate melts. The next eleven chapters review and evaluate diffusion data for minerals. Farver (2010) reviews H and O diffusion data for a range of mineral phases and examines the effect of oxygen, hydrogen and water fugacities on diffusion. Noble gas diffusion in minerals, notably diffusion of the important radiogenic nuclides 40Ar and 4He for application in closure temperature determinations and thermochronometry, is reviewed by Baxter (2010). Ganguly (2010) assesses cation diffusion data in garnet, with discussion of multicomponent diffusion in garnet and its geological applications. Chakraborty (2010) focuses on diffusion in (Fe,Mg)2SiO4 polymorphs (olivine, wadsleyite and ringwoodite) with a discussion of the role of defects in diffusion and the effects of pressure on diffusion in these phases. Diffusion of major and trace elements in pyroxenes, amphibole, and mica is discussed by Cherniak and Dimanov (2010). Cherniak (2010a) reviews diffusion data for feldspars, examining the effects of feldspar composition on diffusion in this common crustal mineral. Cherniak (2010d) summarizes diffusion data for the silicate phases quartz, melilite, silicate perovskite, and mullite. Van Orman and Crispin (2010) discuss diffusion in oxide minerals including periclase, magnesium aluminate spinel, magnetite, and rutile, and explore the intricacies of defect chemistry and its effects on diffusion in these deceptively simple compounds. Cherniak (2010b) reviews diffusion in the accessory minerals zircon, monazite, apatite, and xenotime, phases important in geochronologic studies. Diffusion in other minerals, including carbonates, sulfide minerals, fluorite and diamond, is reviewed by Cherniak (2010c). Brady and Cherniak (2010) take a broad overview of extant diffusion data for minerals, examining possible relations among diffusivities for various mineral phases and diffusants to assess trends and correlations that may be of value in developing or refining predictive models and empirical relations. The next two chapters discuss the specialized topics of grain-boundary diffusion and computational methods for determining diffusion coefficients. Dohmen and Milke (2010) present existing data for grain boundary diffusion in polycrystalline materials, discuss theoretical underpinnings and the different types of grain-boundary diffusion regimes, and outline mathematical treatments and experimental approaches for quantifying grain-boundary diffusion. Computation of diffusion coefficients using ab initio methods and molecular dynamics simulations are reviewed by De Koker and Stixrude (2010) with focus on recent progress and what the future may bring for these rapidly-developing techniques. The final chapter is devoted to geological applications of diffusion data (Mueller et al. 2010). The applications outlined include not only forward problems of applying diffusion theory and data to infer rates and extents of diffusion-related processes, but also inverse problems of thermochronology and geospeedometry.
Pages: xviii , 1036 S.
ISBN: 978-0-939950-86-7
47.
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Capital at the Brink : Overcoming the Destructive Legacies of Neoliberalism (2014)
Ann Arbor, Michigan : Open Humanities Press
Notes: Capital at the Brink reveals the pervasiveness, destructiveness, and dominance of neoliberalism within American society and culture. The contributors to this collection also offer points of resistance to an ideology wherein, to borrow Henry Giroux’s comment, “everything either is for sale or is plundered for profit.” The first step in fighting neoliberalism is to make it visible. By discussing various inroads that it has made into political, popular, and literary culture, Capital at the Brink is taking this first step and joining a global resistance that works against neoliberalism by revealing the variety of ways in which it dominates and destroys various dimensions of our social and cultural life. With essays by Paul A. Passavant, Noah De Lissovoy, Robert P. Marzec, Jennifer Wingard, Zahi Zalloua, Jodi Dean, Andrew Baerg, Jeffrey R. Di Leo, Christopher Breu and Uppinder Mehan.
Edition: available soon
ISBN: 978-1-60785-306-0
48.
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Theoretical and Computational Methods in Mineral Physics : Geophysical Applications (2010)
Washington, DC : Mineralogical Society of America
Notes: The chapters in this volume represent an extensive review of the material presented by the invited speakers at a short course on Theoretical and Computational Methods in Mineral Physics held prior (December 10-12, 2009) to the Annual fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco, California. The meeting was held at the Doubletree Hotel & Executive Meeting Center in Berkeley, California. Mineral physics is one of the three pillars of geophysics, the other two being geodynamics and seismology. Geophysics advances by close cooperation between these fields. As such, mineral physicists investigate properties of minerals that are needed to interpret seismic data or that are essential for geodynamic simulations. To be useful, mineral properties must be investigated in a wide range of pressures, temperatures, and chemical compositions. The materials and conditions in the interior of Earth and other terrestrial planets present several challenges. The chemical composition of their mantles is complex with at least five major oxide components and tens of solid phases. Today, these challenges are being addressed by a combination of experimental and computational methods, with experiments offering precise information at lower pressures and temperatures, and computations offering more complete and detailed information at conditions more challenging to experiments. While bulk properties of materials are fundamental to understanding a planet’s state, atomistic inspection of these complex materials are fundamental to understanding their properties. A connection is then established between atomic and planetary scale phenomena, which mineral physicists are in a unique position to appreciate. This book presents a set of review articles offering an overview of contemporary research in computational mineral physics. Fundamental methods are discussed and important applications are illustrated. The opening chapter by John Perdew and Adrienn Ruzhinszky discusses the motivation, history, and expressions of Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory (DFT) and approximations for exchange and correlation. This is the established framework for investigation of a condensed matter system’s ground state electronic density and energy. It also discusses the recent trend to design higher-level semi-local functionals, with solid state applications in mind. It presents arguments in favor of semi-local approximations for condensed matter and discusses problematic cases where fully non-local approximations are needed. The following article by Yan Zhao and Donald Truhlar, demonstrates current research in search of appropriate exchange and correlation energy functionals. It reviews the performance of families of local, semi-local, and fully non-local exchange and correlation functionals: the so-called “Minnesota” functionals. These new functionals have been designed to give broad accuracy in chemistry and perform very well in difficult cases where popular functionals fail badly. The prospects for their successful applications are encouraging. Stefano Baroni, Paolo Gianozzi, and Eyvaz Isaev, introduce Density Functional Perturbation Theory, a suitable technique to calculate vibrational properties of extended materials using a combination of density functional theory and linear response techniques. This method gives very accurate phonon frequencies which, in combination with the quasi-harmonic approximation, allow one to study thermal properties of materials. The next chapter by Renata Wentzcovitch, Yonggang Yu, and Zhongqing Wu review the applications of density functional perturbation theory to the investigation thermodynamic properties and phase relations in mantle minerals. The series of studies summarized in this review have explored the accuracy of DFT within its most popular approximations for exchange and correlation energy in combination with the quasiharmonic approximation to offer results with useful accuracy for geophysical studies. The following article by Renata Wentzcovitch, Zhongqing Wu, and Pierre Carrier, summarizes the combination of the quasiharmonic approximation with elasticity theory to investigate thermoelastic properties of minerals at conditions of the Earth interior. Some unfamiliar but essential aspects of the quasiharmonic approximation are discussed. Thermoelastic properties of minerals are essential to interpret seismic observations. Therefore, some examples of interpretation of seismic structures are reviewed. The article by David Ceperley, returns to the fundamental theme of calculations of ground state energy in condensed matter and introduces Quantum Monte Carlo methods. These methods treat exactly the quantum many-body problem presented by a system of electrons and ions. They treat electrons as particles rather than a scalar charge-density field, as done by DFT. These are computationally intensive methods but the only exact ones. The following article by Lubos Mitas and Jindrich Kolorenc, reviews applications of these methods to transition metals oxides, materials that have some aspects in common with mantle minerals. One of the examined systems, FeO, is a most important component of mineral solid solutions. Matteo Cococcioni continues exploring the same theme. He discusses a modified density functional useful for addressing cases like FeO, which are untreatable by standard DFT. The DFT + Hubbard U method (DFT+U) is a practical approximate method that enables investigations of electronically and structurally complex systems, like minerals. The application of this method to a contemporary and central problem in mineral physics, pressure and temperature induced spin-crossovers in mantle minerals, is reviewed in the next chapter by Han Shu, Koichiro Umemoto, and Renata Wentzcovitch. The geophysical implications of the spin-crossover phenomenon, an electronic transition, are still unclear but some possibilities are suggested. Michael Ammann, John Brodholt, and David Dobson discuss simulations of bulk ionic diffusion. This property plays an important role in chemical exchange between and within crystalline and melt phases. It plays an important role in the kinetics of phase transitions, compositional zoning, mineral growth, and other important geochemical processes. It can also control rheological properties, especially in the diffusion creep regime, and thus the time scale of mantle convection. This is a very difficult property to investigate at combined pressures and temperature conditions of the mantle, therefore, calculations play a very important role in this area. Phillip Carrez and Patrick Cordier discuss modeling of dislocations and plasticity in deep Earth materials. This article focuses on recent developments in dislocation modeling and applications to our understanding of how the direction of mantle flow is recorded in polycrystalline texture. Next, the article by Stephen Stackhouse and Lars Stixrude, discusses theoretical methods for calculating lattice thermal conductivity in minerals, which controls the cooling of Earth’s core. Measurements of thermal conductivity at lower mantle conditions are very challenging to experiments and calculations are a valuable alternative to learning about this property. This article describes the most common methods to calculate this property and presents a review of studies of the lattice thermal conductivity of periclase. Artem Oganov discusses the prediction of high pressure crystal structures. A genetic algorithm for structural prediction is described and numerous applications predicting new phases with novel properties and phases that can explain experimental data so far not understood is presented. This is a most recent development on the subject of structural predictions, a subject that has been pursued by simulations for several decades now. The possibility of predicting structure and composition by this method is also pointed out. Koichiro Umemoto and Renata Wentzcovitch continue on the same theme of structural prediction by a different approach: combination of phonon calculations and variable cell shape molecular dynamics. The former indicates unstable displacement modes in compressed structures; the latter searches for structures resulting from the superposition of these unstable modes to the compressed lattice. This approach is illustrated with the search of mineral structures at multi-Mbar pressures that are still challenging to static or dynamic compression experiments, but have great interest in view of the discovery of terrestrial exoplanets with several Earth masses. The following chapter by Koichiro Umemoto is on simulations of phase transitions on a different class of planet forming material: H2O-ice. Ice has a rich phase diagram but many of its phase relations are unknown: large hysteresis precludes their direct measurements in manageable time scales. Therefore, calculations acquire special significance but they are also challenging, the main reasons being the description of hydrogen bond by DFT and hydrogen disorder. Dario Alfè presents a review of first principles calculations of properties of iron at Earth’s core conditions. This chapter includes examples of applications of multiple techniques used in studies of high temperature properties, structure, and melting lines. Results from Quantum Monte Carlo are compared with those from DFT, and results from molecular dynamics simulations are contrasted with predictions of quasiharmonic theory. These comparisons are instructive and illustrate the breadth of research in computational mineral physics. The following chapter by Bijaya Karki turns to DFT based simulations of another type of melt: ionic silicates and oxides. The article discusses the methodology used in these simulations and specially developed methods to analyze the results. The properties of interest are high temperature equations of state, thermodynamics properties, atomic and electronic structure, and self-diffusion and viscosity. Visualization of atomic motion is one of the valuable approaches discussed to gain insight into changes in melt structure with pressure and temperature. These studies are illustrated for 3 melts along the MgO-SiO2 join. The following three articles are devoted primarily to the introduction of inter-atomic potentials of broad applicability and relatively high accuracy, and applications to large scale simulations. The first article by Julian Gale and Kate Wright describes the current status of the derivation of force-fields and their applications to static and lattice dynamic calculations in mineral physics. This is done in the context of the General Utility Lattice Program (GULP), which has become quite popular. A selection of applications illustrating the possibilities of this code is then presented. Victor Vinograd and Bjoern Winkler illustrate another important type of application of force-field models: an efficient cluster expansion method to investigate binary mineral solid solutions. The article focuses on a rock-salt system but the technique is general. This type of problem is central to mineral physics and ingenious combinations of first principles methods, force-field models, and purely parameterized free energy expressions, combined with molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo techniques are necessary to address this problem. The predictive treatment of properties of ionic solid solutions is a major challenge in mineral physics. Mark Ghiorso and Frank Spera discuss long duration large scale molecular dynamics simulations using empirical pair-potentials. This article illustrates the concrete requirements on the number of atoms and time scales necessary to obtain information on transport properties such as shear viscosity and lattice thermal conductivity using Green-Kubo theory. These more than 1000-atom and pico-second simulations also improve the statistics in the estimation of equilibrium properties. Finally, the article by Lars Stixrude and Carolina Lithgow-Bertelloni on the thermodynamics of Earth’s mantle, gives an overview of how the elucidation of materials behavior governs planetary processes. It explains how the complexity of the Earth’s mantle demands methods that are complementary to first principles calculations and experiments. These methods must allow one to interpolate among and extrapolate from results on minerals with limited compositions to the full chemical richness of the silicate mantle. It then illustrates how the derived properties of multi-phase multi-component systems are used to address mantle heterogeneity on multiple length scales, ranging from that of the subducting slab to the possibility of mantle-wide radial variations in bulk composition.
Pages: xviii , 484 S.
ISBN: 978-0-939950-85-0
49.
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Sex After Life : Essays on Extinction, Vol. 2 (2014)
Ann Arbor, Michigan : Open Humanities Press
Notes: Sex After Life aims to consider the various ways in which the concept of life has provided normative and moralizing ballast for queer, feminist and critical theories. Arguing against a notion of the queer as counter-normative, Sex After Life appeals to the concept of life as a philosophical problem. Life is neither a material ground nor a generative principle, but can nevertheless offer itself for new forms of problem formation that exceed the all too human logics of survival.
ISBN: 978-1-60785-300-8
50.
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The Archaeology of Geological Catastrophes (2000)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: Archaeology is playing an increasingly important role in unravelling the details of geological catastrophes that occurred in the past few millennia. This collection of papers addresses both established and innovative archaeological methods and techniques, and their application in examining the impact of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.This comprehensive volume includes case studies from around the world, such as Europe, Africa, SE Asia, Central and North America; covering historical and archaeological aspects of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Although the bulk of the collection views earthquakes and volcanic eruptions as agents of destruction, the volume also considers their potential benefits to past cultures - providing materials for tools, building and sculpture, and even the fertile environmental conditions on which societies depended. New geophysical, geological, and archaeometrical methods and techniques are described and the application of these new ideas presented, providing improved knowledge of these ancient catastrophes. There is a strong focus on arguably the most prominent geological catastrophe in the archaeological record - the Bronze Age eruption of Thera (Santorini, Greece) and its consequent regional impacts on Minoan culture. This multidisciplinary text is of benefit to academic researchers and educators in archaeology, palaeoseismology and volcanology alike.
Pages: 412 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-062-2
51.
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Impasses of the Post-Global : Theory in the Era of Climate Change, Vol. 2 (2012)
Ann Arbor, Michigan : Open Humanities Press
Notes: The diverse materials comprising Impasses of the Post-Global take as their starting point an interrelated, if seemingly endless sequence of current ecological, demographic, socio-political, economic, and informational disasters. These have impacted on the stakes and tenor of cultural criticism as much as they have on tangible relations in the contemporary world. The contributors to the Impasses struggle as valiantly with a rapidly unfolding set of new discursive and communicative preconditions as they do with the open-ended chain of current insults and injuries to the ecological, socio-political, and cultural surrounds. These in turn demand increased attentiveness on the part of culturally and politically engaged readers. If the volume claims a global, if not post-global scope in the range of its perspectives and interventions, the diversity of approaches and interests advanced and updated by its contributors is correspondingly vast. These include the contemporary discourses of deconstruction, climate change, ecological imbalance and despoilment, sustainability, security, economic bailout, auto-immunity, and globalization itself. With contributions by James H. Bunn, Rey Chow, Bruce Clarke, Tom Cohen, Randy Martin, Yates McKee, Alberto Moreiras, Haun Saussy, Tian Song, Henry Sussman, Samuel Weber, Ewa P. Ziarek, and Kryzsztof Ziarek.
ISBN: 978-1-60785-239-1
52.
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Stolen Future, Broken Present : The Human Significance of Climate Change (2014)
Ann Arbor, Michigan : Open Humanities Press
Keywords: climate change
Notes: This book argues that climate change has a devastating effect on how we think about the future. Once several positive feedback loops in Earth’s dynamic systems, such as the melting of the Arctic icecap or the drying of the Amazon, cross the point of no return, the biosphere is likely to undergo severe and irreversible warming. Nearly everything we do is premised on the assumption that the world we know will endure into the future and provide a sustaining context for our activities. But today the future of a viable biosphere, and thus the purpose of our present activities, is put into question. A disappearing future leads to a broken present, a strange incoherence in the feel of everyday life. We thus face the unprecedented challenge of salvaging a basis for our lives today. That basis, this book argues, may be found in our capacity to assume an infinite responsibility for ecological disaster and, like the biblical Job, to respond with awe to the alien voice that speaks from the whirlwind. By owning disaster and accepting our small place within the inhuman forces of the biosphere, we may discover how to live with responsibility and serenity whatever may come.
ISBN: 978-1-60785-314-5
53.
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Death of the PostHuman : Essays on Extinction, Vol. 1 (2014)
Ann Arbor, Michigan : Open Humanities Press
Notes: Death of the PostHuman undertakes a series of critical encounters with the legacy of what had come to be known as 'theory', and its contemporary supposedly post-human aftermath. There can be no redemptive post-human future in which the myopia and anthropocentrism of the species finds an exit and manages to emerge with ecology and life. At the same time, what has come to be known as the human - despite its normative intensity - can provide neither foundation nor critical lever in the Anthropocene epoch. Death of the PostHuman argues for a twenty-first century deconstruction of ecological and seemingly post-human futures.
ISBN: 978-1-60785-299-5
54.
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Tectonics and Magmatism in Turkey and the Surrounding Area (2000)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: This volume contains 23 papers from a range of international contributors, describing recent research into the tectonics and magmatism of Turkey and its surroundings. This region is sited at the collision zone between Eurasia and Afro-Arabia and, as such, provides an extraordinarily complete and well-exposed record of the staged tectonic evolution of this sector of the Alpine-Himalayan orogen. The geological history of this area involves separation of continental fragments from the margin of Gondwana, their migration across the Tethyan oceans, the subsequent closure of these oceans and, finally, the development of the neotectonic regime, which continues to evolve to the present day. Such a comprehensive record is relevant to the understanding of collisional zones worldwide. The volume is divided into five sections: Tethyan evolution, Neotethyan ophiolites, post-Tethyan basin evolution, neotectonics and igneous activity. The first two sections deal with Tethyan oceans, whose growth and subsequent closure dominated the geodynamic framework in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The subsequent sections deal with more recent geological developments from the Balkan Peninsula in the west to the Transcaucasus in the east that followed consumption of the Tethyan oceans. There is a broad mix of papers throughout the volume: wide-ranging review papers on ocean development and extensional tectonics are followed by detailed descriptions of petrology and geochemistry and geographically focused studies on basin evolution, specific aspects of extensional and strike-slip tectonics and discussions of the relationship of magmatic activity to the tectonic development of the area.
Pages: 512 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-064-9
55.
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Sedimentary Responses to Forced Regressions (2000)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: An increasing number of studies in recent years have demonstrated that significant progradation of shallow marine systems occurs under conditions of base-level fall. These new data are forcing many sedimentary geologists to critically re-evaluate many aspects of sequence stratigraphy relating to erosion and deposition during base-level (lake- or relative sea-level) fall, and the intrinsic link made between stratal geometries and base-level change. For the first time, this volume brings together a collection of articles that focus solely on forced regressions, providing a more complete picture of the development, formation, variability and preservation of the surfaces and deposits generated during base-level fall. The results of the studies published here will be of interest to all geologists attempting to understand the relationship between changes in base-level and stratigraphy, and to all who use sequence stratigraphy as a method of stratigraphic correlation and interpretation at outcrop and in the subsurface.
Pages: 377 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-063-0
56.
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Tectonics of the Nanga Parbat Syntaxis and the Western Himalaya (2000)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: The western syntaxis of the Himalaya is one of the most exciting frontiers of continental tectonis studies. The region around the mountain of Nanga Parbat has some of the highest peaks, deepest valleys anf highest uplift, exhumation and erosion rates known on earth. Surrounding regions include the Hindu Kush and Karakoram mountains (Asian plate), the Kohistan island arc and the Ladakh and Zanskar ranges of the western Himalaya (Indian plate). This volume includes 24 papers on all these regions as well as five new fold-out maps of the eastern Hindu Kush, the Spontang Ophiolite region of Ladakh, part of the west margin of the Indian plate, the Indus syntaxis in Pakistan and the Bouguer gravity anomalies in Pakistan.
Pages: 476 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-061-4
57.
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Minerals, Inclusions And Volcanic Processes (2008)
Washington, DC : Mineralogical Society of America
Notes: Minerals are intrinsically resistant to the processes that homogenize silicate liquids—their compositions thus yield an archive of volcanic and magmatic processes that are invisible at the whole rock scale. New experiments, and recent advances in micro-analytical techniques open a new realm of detail regarding the mineralogical record; this volume summarizes some of this progress. The alliance of the sub-fields reviewed in this volume bear upon fundamental issues of volcanology: At what depths are eruptions triggered, and over what time scales? Where and why do magmas coalesce before ascent? If magmas stagnate for thousands of years, what forces are responsible for initiating final ascent, or the degassing processes that accelerate upward motion? To the extent that we can answer these questions, we move towards formulating tests of mechanistic models of volcanic eruptions (e.g., Wilson, 1980; Slezin, 2003; Scandone et al., 2007), and hypotheses of the tectonic controls on magma transport (e.g., ten Brink and Brocher, 1987; Takada, 1994; Putirka and Busby, 2007). Our goal, in part, is to review how minerals can be used to understand volcanic systems and the processes that shape them; we also hope that this work will spur new and integrated studies of volcanic systems. Our review begins by tracing the origins of mineral grains, and methods to estimate pressures (P) and temperatures (T) of crystallization. Hammer shows how "dynamic" experiments (conducted with varying P or T) yield important insights into crystal growth. Chapters by Putirka, Anderson, and Blundy and Cashman review various igneous geothermometers and geobarometers and introduce new calibrations. Among these chapters are many familiar models involving olivine, amphibole, feldspar, pyroxene, and spinel. Blundy and Cashman introduce new methods based on phase equilibria, and in another chapter, Hansteen and Klügel review P estimation based on densities of entrapped fluids and appropriate equations of state. Rutherford's chapter returns to the issue of disequilibrium, with a review of methods to estimate magma ascent rates, and a summary of results. Our volume then moves to a review of melt inclusions. Kent shows how pre-mixed magma compositions can be preserved as inclusions, providing a window into pre-eruptive conditions. Métrich and Wallace review the volatile contents in basaltic melt inclusions and "magma degassing paths". Such methods rely upon vapor saturation pressures, which are derived from experimentally calibrated models. Chapters by Moore and Blundy and Cashman test two of the most important models, by Newman and Lowenstern (2002) (VolatileCalc) and Papale et al. (2006). Moore provides a guide to the appropriate use of these models, and their respective errors. The next four chapters document insights obtained from isotopic studies and diffusion profiles. Ramos and Tepley review developments of micro-analytical isotope measurements, which now have the potential to elucidate even the most cryptic of open system behaviors. Cooper and Reid examine the time scales for such processes through U-series age dating techniques, and Bindeman reviews oxygen isotopes and their uses as tracers of both magmas and crystals. Costa then reviews yet another means to estimate the rates of magmatic processes, using mineral diffusion profiles, with important implications for magma processing. In the next two chapters, Streck reviews an array of imaging methods and mineral textures, and their potential for disentangling mixed magmas, and Armienti takes a new look at the analysis of crystal size distributions (CSD), with applications to Mt. Etna. Our volume concludes with a chapter by Bachmann and Bergantz summarizing compositional zonations and a review of the thermal and compositional forces that drive open system behavior. Finally, descriptions of many of the most common analytical approaches are also reviewed within these chapters. Analytical topics include: secondary ion mass spectrometry (Blundy and Cashman; Kent); electron microprobe (Blundy and Cashman; Kent; Métrich and Wallace; laser ablation ICP-MS (Kent; Ramos and Tepley); Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (Moore; Métrich and Wallace); microsampling and isotope mass spectrometry (Ramos and Tepley); U-series measurement techniques (Cooper and Reid); Nomarski differential interference contrasts (Streck); micro-Raman spectroscopy (Métrich and Wallace); back-scattered electron microscopy, and cathodoluminescence (Blundy and Cashman). As noted, our hope is that integrated studies can bring us closer to understanding how volcanic systems evolve and why eruptions occur. Our primary goal is to review how minerals can be used to understand volcanic systems; we also hope that this review might spur new and integrated studies of volcanic systems.
Pages: XIV, 674 S.
ISBN: 0-939950-83-9
58.
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Deformation of Glacial Materials (2000)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: The flow of glacier ice can produce structures that are striking and beautiful. Associated sediments,too, can develop spectacular deformation structures, and examples are remarkbly well preserved in Quaternary deposits. Although such features have long been recognized, they are now the subject of new attention from glaciologists and glacial geologists. This collection of papers addresses how the methods for unravelling deformation structures evolved in recent years by structural geologists can be used for glacial materials, and the opportunities offered to structural geologists by glacial materials for studying deformation in rocks.
Pages: 360 S.
59.
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Spectroscopic Methods in Mineralogy and Material Sciences (2014)
Washington, DC : Mineralogical Society of America
Notes: Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and radiation and spectroscopic methods measure this interaction by measuring the radiative energy of the interaction in terms of frequency or wavelength or their changes. A variety of spectroscopic methods saw their first applications in mineralogical studies in the early 1960s and 1970s and since then have flourished where today they are routinely employed to probe both the general nature of mineralogical and geochemical processes as well as more atom specific interactions. In 1988, a Reviews in Mineralogy volume (Volume 18) was published on Spectroscopic Methods in Mineralogy and Geology by Frank Hawthorne (ed). The volume introduced the reader to a variety of spectroscopic techniques that, up to that time, were relatively unknown to most of the mineralogical and geochemical community. The volume was a great success and resulted in many of these techniques becoming main stream research tools. Since 1988, there have been many significant advances in both the technological aspects of these techniques and their applications to problems in Earth Sciences in general while the range and breadth of the techniques currently employed have greatly expanded since those formative years. The current volume compliments the original volume and updates many of the techniques. In addition, new methods such as X-ray Raman and Brillouin spectroscopy have been added, as well as non-spectroscopic chapters such as Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for completeness. The first chapter by Lavina et al. introduces the reader to current X-ray diffraction methods, while those of Newville and Henderson et al. separately cover the widely used techniques of EXAFS and XANES. The new in situ high-pressure technique of X-ray Raman is covered in the chapter by Lee et al. There is an emphasis in all these chapters on synchrotron based methods which continues in the Luminescence chapter by Waychunas. Chapters on high resolution TEM and its associated spectroscopies, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are covered by Brydson et al., and Nesbitt and Bancroft, respectively. The study of mineral surfaces by Atomic Force Microscopy has been covered by Jupille. UV/Vis and IR spectroscopies are described in the chapters by Rossman, Clark et al., Della Ventura et al., and Hofmeister. Rossman’s chapter covers the basics of UV/Vis while Clark et al. describes the detection of materials in the Solar system utilizing UV and IR methods. Synchrotron-based IR imaging is covered by Della Ventura et al. and errors and uncertainties associated with IR and UV/Vis data are covered in the chapter by Hofmeister. Photon/phonon interactions such as Raman and Brillouin are outlined by Neuville et al. and Speziale et al. The latter technique is relatively new outside the fields of condensed matter and minerals physics but is gaining increasing use as interest in elastic properties and anomalous behaviors at high pressure continues to grow. The chapters by Stebbins and Xue, and Pan and Nilges outline the current status of magnetic resonance methods such as NMR and EPR, respectively. Finally the last three chapters have been included for completeness and cover the basics of the theoretical simulations that are carried out to investigate phases beyond accessible experimental pressure-temperature ranges, as well as aiding in the interpretation of experimental spectra (Jahn and Kowalski), the high pressure methods that are now commonly employed for many spectroscopic studies (Shen and Wang) and finally a chapter on methods used in high-temperature melt and crystallization studies (Neuville et al.).
Pages: xvii ; 569 S.
ISBN: 0-939950-84-7
60.
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Geochemistry of Geologic CO2 Sequestration (2013)
Washington, DC : Mineralogical Society of America
Notes: Global climate change with substantial global warming may be the most important environmental challenge facing the world. Geologic carbon sequestration (GCS), in concert with energy conservation, increased efficiency in electric power generation and utilization, increased use of lower carbon intensity fuels, and increased use of nuclear energy and renewable sources, is now considered necessary to stabilize atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases and global temperatures at values that would not severely impact economic growth and the quality of life on Earth. Geological formations, such as depleted oil and gas fields, unmineable coal beds, and brine aquifers, are likely to provide the first large-scale opportunity for concentrated sequestration of CO2. The specific scientific issues that underlie subsurface sequestration technology involve the effects of fluid flow combined with chemical, thermal, mechanical and biological interactions between fluids and surrounding geologic formations. Complex and coupled interactions occur both rapidly as the stored material is emplaced underground, and gradually over hundreds to thousands of years. The long sequestration times needed for effective storage, the large scale of GCS globally necessary to significantly impact atmospheric CO2 levels, and the intrinsic spatial variability of subsurface formations provide challenges to both scientists and engineers. A fundamental understanding of mineralogical and geochemical processes is integral to the success of GCS. Large scale injection experiments will be carried out and monitored in the next decade provides a unique opportunity to test our knowledge of fundamental hydrogeology, geochemistry and geomechanics.
Pages: xiv ; 539 S.
ISBN: 978-0-939950-92-8
61.
E-BOOK
Minimal Ethics for the Anthropocene (2014)
Ann Arbor, Michigan : Open Humanities Press
Notes: Life typically becomes an object of reflection when it is seen to be under threat. In particular, humans have a tendency to engage in thinking about life (instead of just continuing to live it) when being confronted with the prospect of death: be it the death of individuals due to illness, accident or old age; the death of whole ethnic or national groups in wars and other forms of armed conflict; but also of whole populations, be they human or nonhuman. Even though Minimal Ethics for the Anthropocene is first and foremost concerned with life—understood as both a biological and social phenomenon—it is the narrative about the impending death of the human population (i.e., about the extinction of the human species), that provides a context for its argument. “Anthropocene” names a geo-historical period in which humans are said to have become the biggest threat to life on earth. However, rather than as a scientific descriptor, the term serves here primarily as an ethical injunction to think critically about human and nonhuman agency in the universe. Restrained in tone yet ambitious in scope, the book takes some steps towards outlining a minimal ethics thought on a universal scale. The task of such minimal ethics is to consider how humans can assume responsibility for various occurrences in the universe, across different scales, and how they can respond to the tangled mesh of connections and relations unfolding in it. Its goal is not so much to tell us how to live but rather to allow us to rethink “life” and what we can do with it, in whatever time we have left. The book embraces a speculative mode of thinking that is more akin to the artist’s method; it also includes a photographic project by the author.
ISBN: 978-1-60785-329-9
62.
E-BOOK
Applied Mineralogy of Cement & Concrete (2012)
Washington, DC : Mineralogical Society of America
Notes: 'Building materials' as a generic term encompasses steel, aluminum, copper and a range of metal alloys, glass and glaze, particulate materials like sand, gravel, or crushed rock, and natural stone of sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic origin. Each of these materials sees a wide range of applications, from structural/bearing via functional to merely ornamental and decorative. The wide range of 'building materials' application is achieved through an equally wide range of processing, from use 'as is' (e.g., stacking boulders to make a retaining wall), through simple re-dimensioning and fitting (e.g., splitting and sizing of roofing slate) to purification and complex treatment in multi-stage processing (e.g., glass, Portland cement clinker, concreting). The use of building materials, their applications and processing has changed considerably with the development of civilization and technology. Consequently, comprehensive coverage of building materials, applications, processing and history would require multiple volumes. This volume contains a selection of papers on the applied mineralogy of cement and concrete, by far the most popular modern building material by volume, with an annual production exceeding 9 billion cubic meters, and steadily growing. Not even all 'concrete' topics can be covered by a single volume, but an interesting assortment was finally obtained. The seven chapters deal with mineralogy and chemistry of (alumina) clinker production and hydration (Pöllmann), alternative raw clinkering materials to reduce CO2 emission (Justnes), assessment of clinker constituents by optical and electron microscopy (Stutzman), industrial assessment of raw materials, cement and concrete using X-ray methods in different applications (Meier et al.), in situ investigation of clinker and cement hydration based on quantitative crystallographic phase analysis (Aranda et al.), characterization and properties of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) to improve cement and concrete properties (Snellings et al.), and deleterious alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) in concrete (Broekmans).
Pages: x ; 364 S.
ISBN: 978-0-939950-88-1
63.
E-BOOK
Salt, Shale and Igneous Diapirs in and around Europe (2000)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: The ten articles in this book describe the mode of emplacement of various types of intrusions (salt diapirs, mud volcanoes and magmatic bodies) by means of theoretical reasoning, analogue and analytical modelling, interpretation of seismic and field data, and geodetic surveying. All the articles emphasize the role of regional tectonics in driving or controlling the emplacement of the intrusions. The selection of articles includes examples from Spain, Romania, onshore and offshore Italy, the Eastern Mediterranean, Israel and iran. Better understanding of the mode of emplacement of these intrusions has applications in hydrocarbon exploration (e.g., where salt structures or mud diapirs are present) and in the mining industry (where mineralization is related to the emplacement of batholiths).
Pages: 204 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-066-5
64.
E-BOOK
Coastal and Estuarine Environments: Sedimentology, Geomorphology and Geoarchaeology (2000)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: In a world of increasingly rapid technological and economic development, sea-level rise, and possible global climate change, central tasks facing the coastal and estuarine manager are to predict and manage change, undertaken against a background of constantly moving goalposts. There is an urgent need for a much better framework of background environmental data and more effective and reliable management tools, founded on sound scientific understanding, which can provide necessary guidance and the basis for policy formulation. Although these needs have been recognized, and some progress has been made in the past few years, an adequate suite of such management tools and frameworks for environmental monitoring is still some way off. The broad selection of papers included in this volume reflects the wide range of research currently being undertaken in coastal and estuarine environments, but underlines the fact that there are still significant gaps in understanding and major needs for further research which crosses traditional disciplinary boundaries. This volume brings together the results of recent research of sedimentologists, geomorphologists, archaeologists, engineers and others, expounding their methods and concerns, and identifying further areas where future joint work might be fruitful.
Pages: 427 S.
ISBN: 1-86239-070-3
65.
E-BOOK
World Energy Outlook 2014 (2014)
Paris : OECD/IEA (Please request login data at the PIK library)
Keywords: energy ; energy economics
Notes: Does growth in North American oil supply herald a new era of abundance - or does turmoil in parts of the Middle East cloud the horizon? How much can energy efficiency close the competitiveness gap caused by differences in regional energy prices? What considerations should shape decision-making in countries using, pursuing or phasing out nuclear power? How close is the world to using up the available carbon budget, which cannot be exceeded if global warming is to be contained? How can sub-Saharan Africa's energy sector help to unlock a better life for its citizens? Answers to these questions and a host of others are to be found in the pages of World Energy Outlook 2014 (WEO-2014), released on 12 November in London. Bringing together the latest data and policy developments, the WEO-2014 presents up to date projections of energy trends for the first time through to 2040. Oil, natural gas, coal, renewables and energy efficiency are covered, along with updates on trends in energy-related CO2emissions, fossil-fuel and renewable energy subsidies, and universal access to modern energy services.
Pages: 726 S.
ISBN: 978-92-64-20805-6
66.
E-BOOK
Introduction to Modern Instrumentation for Hydraulics and Environmental Sciences (2014)
Warsaw, Berlin : De Gruyter Open
Keywords: hydrology ; hydraulics ; oceanography ; meteorology ; environmental sciences
Notes: Natural hazards and anthropic activities threaten the human environment. The gathering of field data is needed so as to quantify the impact of such activities. To gather the necessary data researchers nowadays use a great variety of new instruments based on electronics. Yet, the working principles of this new instrumentation might not be well understood by some potential users. All operators of these new tools must gain proper insight so as to be able to judge whether the instrument is selected appropriately and functions adequately. This book attempts to demonstrate some characteristics that are not easy to understand by the uninitiated in the use of electronic instruments. The material presented in this book was prepared with the purpose of reflecting the technological changes that have occurred in environmental modern instrumentation in the last few decades. The book is intended for students of hydrology, hydraulics, oceanography, meteorology and environmental sciences. Basic concepts of electronics, special physics principles and signal processing are introduced in the first chapters in order to enable the reader to follow the topics developed in the book, without any prior knowledge of these matters. The instruments are explained in detail and several examples are introduced to show their measuring limitations. Enough mathematical fundamentals are given to allow the reader to reach a good quantitative knowledge.
Pages: XXI, 433 S.
ISBN: 978-3-11-040171-4
67.
E-BOOK
Nuclear Back-end and Transmutation Technology for Waste Disposal : Beyond the Fukushima Accident (2015)
Tokyo, Heidelberg, New York, Dordrecht, London : SpringerOpen
Keywords: Accelerator-driven systems (ADS) ; Environmental radiation ; Nuclear fuel cycle ; Nuclear reactor ; Nuclear transmutation ; Radioactive wastes
Notes: This book covers essential aspects of transmutation technologies, highlighting especially the advances in Japan. The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) has caused us to focus attention on a large amount of spent nuclear fuels stored in NPPs. In addition, public anxiety regarding the treatment and disposal of high-level radioactive wastes that require long-term control is growing. The Japanese policy on the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle is still unpredictable in the aftermath of the accident. Therefore, research and development for enhancing the safety of various processes involved in nuclear energy production are being actively pursued worldwide. In particular, nuclear transmutation technology has been drawing significant attention after the accident. This publication is timely with the following highlights: 1) Development of accelerator-driven systems (ADSs), which is a brand-new reactor concept for transmutation of highly radioactive wastes; 2) Nuclear reactor systems from the point of view of the nuclear fuel cycle. How to reduce nuclear wastes or how to treat them including the debris from TEPCO’s Fukushima nuclear power stations is discussed; and 3) Environmental radioactivity, radioactive waste treatment, and geological disposal policy. State-of-the-art technologies for overall back-end issues of the nuclear fuel cycle as well as the technologies of transmutation are presented here. The chapter authors are actively involved in the development of ADSs and transmutation-related technologies. The future of the back-end issues in Japan is very uncertain after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, and this book provides an opportunity for readers to consider the future direction of those issues.
Pages: XV, 341 S.
ISBN: 978-4-431-55110-2
68.
E-BOOK
Library and Information Sciences : Trends and Research (2014)
Heidelberg, Dordrecht, London, New York : SpringerOpen
Keywords: Information Literacy ; Information Profession ; Information Retrieval ; Informatrics ; LIS Education ; Trends
Notes: This book explores the development, trends and research of library and information sciences (LIS) in the digital age. Inside, readers will find research and case studies written by LIS experts, educators and theorists, most of whom have visited China, delivered presentations there and drafted their articles based on feedback they received. As a result, readers will discover the LIS issues and concerns that China and the international community have in common. The book first introduces the opportunities and challenges faced by the library and information literacy profession and discusses the key role of librarians in the future of information literacy education. Next, it covers trends in LIS education by examining the vision of the iSchool movement and detailing its practice in Syracuse University. The book then covers issues in information seeking and retrieval by showing how visual data mining technology can be used to detect the relationship and pattern between terms on the Q&A of a social media site. It also includes a case study regarding tracing information seeking behavior and usage on a multimedia website. Next, the book stresses the importance of building an academic accreditation framework for scientific datasets, explores the relationship between bibliometrics and university rankings, and details the birth and development of East Asian Libraries in North America. Overall, the book offers readers insight into the changing nature of LIS, including the electronic dissemination of information, the impact of the Internet on libraries, the changing responsibilities of library professionals, the new paradigm for evaluating information, and characteristics and functions of today's library personnel.
Pages: XIV, 177 S.
ISBN: 978-3-642-54811-6
69.
E-BOOK
Plant Selection for Bioretention Systems and Stormwater Treatment Practices (2015)
Singapore, Heidelberg, New York, Dordrecht, London : SpringerOpen
Keywords: Bioretention Systems ; Catchment Areas ; Drought-tolerant Plants ; Hydrologic Cycle ; Pollutant Removal ; Roadside Green Verge ; Stormwater Contaminants ; Urban Planning
Notes: As cities develop, more land is converted into impervious surfaces, which do not allow water to infiltrate. Careful urban planning is needed to ensure that the hydrologic cycle and water quality of the catchment areas are not affected. There are techniques that can attenuate peak flow during rain events and reduce the amount of metals, nutrients, and bacteria that enter the urban water cycle. This brief gives a short introduction on bioretention systems and documents the effectiveness of some 36 plant species in removing water pollutants. A summary on the maintenance requirements is also presented.
Pages: VII, 59 S.
ISBN: 978-981-287-244-9
70.
BOOK
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Auf Schlitten, Boot und Rentierrücken (1956)
Leipzig : Brockhaus
Additional Authors: Alschner, Gerolf [Hrsg.]
Call number: AWI E2-14-0071
Location: AWI
Branch Library: AWI Library
Notes: Inhaltsverzeichnis: Zur Einführung. - Middendorff - sein Leben und seine Bedeutung als Forschungsreisender. - Sibirien vor 1850. - Sibirien nach 1850. - DER REISEBERICHT. - Meine Gefährten. - Die Taimyrreise. - Erste Eindrücke. - Auf der Eisdecke des mittleren Jenissei. - Hunde im Anspann. - Mit Rentier und Narte weiter nach Norden. - Über den Polarkreis. - Ein Brief aus Dudino. - Entlang der Waldgrenze. - Dolganen und Jakuten. - An der Chatanga. - Abschied vom Walde. - Tierleben in der verschneiten Tundra. - Irrlichtereien. - Das Völkchen der Horde Assja. - In der Karawane Toitschums. - Sitten und Sünden bei den Assja. - Urplötzlich bricht das Frühjahr herein. - Ausflüge am Taimyrfluß. - Tundrasommer am Taimyrsee. - Die Assja an ihren Sommerplätzen. - Im Boot zur Küste. - Am Eismeer. - Das harte zurück. - Verlassen - begraben. - Die Samojeden als Jäger. - Glückliche Rückkehr. - DIE OCHOTSKISCHE UND DIE AMURREISE. - Dem Kältepol entgegen. - Das Steckenpferd des Kaufmanns Newerow. - Jakutsker Studien. - Über Äcker der Zukunft. - Im Zauber der Gebirgswildnis. - Verhacke im Walde. - "Am Rande der Welt". - Zobel! Zobel!. - Aufenthalt im Anblick des Meeres. - Wallfahrten der Wale. - Seefahrt mit Hindernissen. - Mücken - ein Schmauchfeuerchen - ein Riesenwaldbrand. - Auf den Inseln. - Zwischen Felsen und Meer. - Die Reitrentiere. - Herbstliches Wohlleben bei den Südtungusen. - Im Gebiet der Giläken. - Den Tugurfluß aufwärts. - Die Nigidal, ein Völkchen in der Waldeinsamkeit. - Und wieder wird Winter. - Durch dick und dünn zum Paß hinan. - Beschwörung der Berggeister. - Unsere Nöte mit den Rentieren. - Von Wasserscheide zu Wasserscheide. - Der Winter auf seinem Höhepunkt. - Zum Amur. - Heimwärts durch Transbaikalien. - Abschluß / Bilderteil / Karte von Asien.
Pages: 582 S. : Ill., 1 Kt.
Edition: 2. Aufl., 16. - 20. Tsd.
71.
BOOK
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Predicting the future in science, economics, and politics (2014)
Cheltenham [u.a.] : Elgar
Call number: PIK D 024-14-0206
Branch Library: PIK Library
Pages: XVI, 507 S. : Ill., graph. Darst.
ISBN: 978-1-78347-186-7
72.
BOOK
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Water security : principles, perspectives and practices (2013)
New York [u.a.] : Routledge
Call number: PIK T 240-14-0205
Location: PIK
Branch Library: PIK Library
Keywords: Wasserversorgung ; Sicherheit
Notes: Contents: Part 1: Frameworks/Approaches to Water Security ; 1. Introduction: A Battle of Ideas for Water Security ; 2. The Web of Sustainable Water Security ; 3. The Water Security Paradox and International Law: Securitisation as an Obstacle to Achieving Water Security and the Role of Law in De-Securitising the World's Most Precious Resource ; Part 2: Perspectives and Principles ; 4. Debating the Concept of Water Security ; 5. Water Security - The Multiform Water Scarcity Dimension ; 6. Securing Water in a Changing Climate ; 7. The Role of Cities as Drivers of International Transboundary Water Management Processes ; 8. The Water-Energy Nexus - Meeting Growing Demand in a Resource-Constrained World ; 9. Water Security for Ecosystems, Ecosystems for Water Security ; 10. From Water Productivity to Water Security: A Paradigm Shift? ; 11. Transboundary Water Security: Reviewing the Importance of National Regulatory and Accountability Capacities in International Transboundary River Basins ; Part 3: Water Security as Practice and Practice Debates ; 12. Easy as 1, 2, 3? Political and Technical Considerations for Designing Water Security Indicators ; 13. Water Security Risk and Response: The Logic and Limits of Economic Instruments ; 14. Corporate Water Stewardship: Exploring Private Sector Engagement in Water Security ; 15. The Shotgun Marriage: Water Security, Cultural Politics and Forced Engagements between Official and Local Rights Frameworks ; 16. Infrastructure Hydromentalities; Water Sharing, Water Control and Water (In)Security ; 17. The Strategic Dimensions of Water: From National Security to Sustainable Security ; 18. Dances with Wolves: Four Flood Security Frames ; 19. Household Water Security and the Human Right to Water and Sanitation ; Part 4: Conclusion ; 20. Food-Water Security: Beyond Water Resources and the Water Sector ; 21. A Synthesis Chapter: The 'Incodys'- Water Security Model
Pages: XVIII, 357 S. : graph. Darst.
Edition: 1. publ.
ISBN: 978-0-415-53471-0
73.
E-BOOK
Appreciating Physical Landscapes: Three Hundred Years of Geotourism (2014)
London : The Geological Society
Notes: This volume provides, through its analytical case studies, an overview of geotourism. It explores significant geo-historical themes, organisations, individuals, and locations across three centuries; opening with seventeenth century elite travellers and closing with the introduction of modern landscape and geoconservation approaches. It will appeal to anyone interested in geoheritage, geoconservation, tourism, landscape and conservation studies.
Edition: online first
74.
BOOK
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Die Zukunft der Fische - die Fischerei der Zukunft (2013)
Hamburg : Maribus
Call number: AWI Bio-14-0068
Location: AWI
Branch Library: AWI Library
Keywords: Aquatisches Ökosystem ; Fischerei ; Nachhaltigkeit ; Ressourcenökonomie
Notes: Inhalt: Vorwort. - Die Bedeutung der Meeresfische. - Die Rolle des Fischs im Ökosystem. - Bedrohte Vielfalt. - Conclusio: Das große Ganze im Meer. - Von Fischen und Menschen. - Fisch - ein geschätztes Gut. - Das Gute im Fisch. - Conclusio: Nahrungs- und Einkommensquelle für Millionen. - Wie es um den Fisch steht. - Die weltweite Jagd nach Fisch. - Fern und gefährdet - die Tiefsee. - Die illegale Fischerei. - Conclusio: Nach der Einsicht langsame Besserung. - Die große Zukunft der Fischzucht. - Aquakultur - Proteinlieferant für die Welt. - Wege zur schonenden Aquakultur. - Conclusio: Die Zukunft des Zuchtfischs. - Fischbestände richtig managen. - Fischen am Limit. - Wege zu einem besseren Fischereimanagement. - Kehrtwende in der Fischreipolitik?. - Conclusio: Lernen aus leidvoller Erfahrung?. - Gesamt-Conclusio. - Glossar. - Abkürzungen. - Mitwirkende. - Quellenverzeichnis. - Abbildungsverzeichnis. - Index. - Partner und Danksagung. - Impressum.
Pages: 147 S. : zahlr. Ill., graph. Darst., Kt.
ISBN: 978-3-86648-200-5
DDC: 333.956
DDC: 639.2
75.
BOOK
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Rohstoffe aus dem Meer - Chancen und Risiken (2014)
Hamburg : Maribus
Call number: AWI G2-14-0066
Location: AWI
Branch Library: AWI Library
Keywords: Tiefsee ; Meeresboden ; Erdöl ; Mineralischer Rohstoff ; Methanlagerstätte ; Gashydrate Ökologie
Notes: Inhalt: Vorwort. - Öl und Gas aus dem Meer. - Den Energiehunger stillen. - Erdgas und Erdöl gewinnen. - Von der Verölung der Ozeane. - Conclusio: Weniger Ölverschmutzung im Meer - trotz steigenden Energiebedarfs. - Tagebau am Meeresgrund. - Rohstoffe für die Welt. - Begehrte Manganknollen. - Metallreiche Krusten. - Massivsulfide - im Rauch der Tiefe. - Conclusio: Der Meeresbergbau - kein Goldrausch, aber eine Option. - Energie aus dem brennenden Eis. - Vom Plankton zum Hydrat. - Methanhydrat - eine neue Energiequelle?. - Die Folgen des Hydratabbaus. - Conclusio: Wertvoller Rohstoff oder Treibhausgas?. - Umweltschonende Förderung und gerechte Verteilung. - Von der Verantwortung der Staatengemeinschaft. - Von der Eigenverantwortung der Küstenstaaten. - Conclusio: Ist eine sichere und gerechte Meeresnutzung möglich?. - Gesamt-Conclusio. - Glossar. - Abkürzungen. - Mitwirkende. - Quellenverzeichnis. - Abbildungsverzeichnis. - Index. - Partner und Danksagung. - Impressum.
Pages: 163 S. : Ill., graph. Darst. Kt.
ISBN: 978-3-86648-220-3
76.
BOOK
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Marine resources - opportunities and risks (2014)
Hamburg : Maribus
Call number: AWI G2-14-0067
Location: AWI
Branch Library: AWI Library
Keywords: Tiefsee ; Meeresboden ; Erdöl ; Mineralischer Rohstoff ; Methanlagerstätte ; Gashydrate Ökologie
Notes: Contents: Preface. - Oil and gas from the sea. - Sating our energy hunger. - Producing natural gas and mineral oil. - Oiling the oceans. - Conclusion: Less marine oil pollution - despite growing energy demand. - Sea-floor mining. - Resources for the world. - Manganese nodule treasures. - Metal-rich crusts. - Massive sulphides in smoky depths. - Conclusion: Ocean mining - not a gold rush but an option. - Energy from burning ice. - From plankton to hydrate. - Methane hydrate - a new energy source?. - The impacts of hydrate mining. - Conclusion: Valuable resource or greenhouse gas?. - Clean production and equitable distribution. - The international community's responsibility. - The coastal states' responsibility. - Conclusion: Can commercial exploitation of marine minerals be safe and equitable?. - Overall conclusion. - Glossary. - Abbreviations. - Contributions. - Bibliography. - Table of figures. - Index. - Partners and Acknowledgements. - Publication details.
Pages: 163 S. : Ill., graph. Darst. Kt.
ISBN: 978-3-86648-221-0
77.
BOOK
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The Future of Fish - the fisheries of the future (2013)
Hamburg : Maribus
Call number: AWI Bio-14-0069
Location: AWI
Branch Library: AWI Library
Keywords: Aquatisches Ökosystem ; Fischerei ; Nachhaltigkeit ; Ressourcenökonomie
Notes: Contents: Preface. - The importance of marine fish. - The role of fish in the ecosystem. - Diversity at risk. - Conclusion: the "big picture" in the ocean. - Of fish and folk. - Fish - a prized commodity. - The goodness in fish. - Conclusion: Source of nutrition and income for millions. - Plenty more fish in the sea?. - The global hunt for fish. - The deep sea - remote and endangered. - Illegal fishing. - Conclusion: Slow but steady improvement. - A bright future for fish farming. - Aquaculture - protein provider for the world. - Towards more eco-friendly aquaculture. - Conclusion: The future of farmed fish. - Getting stock management right. - Fishing at its limit. - Towards better fisheries management. - Turning the tide in fisheries policy?. - Conclusion: Learning from bitter experience?. - Overall conclusion. - Glossary. - Abbreviations. - Contributors. - Bibliography. - Table of figures. - Index. - Partners and Acknowlegments. - Publication details.
Pages: 142 S. : zahlr. Ill., graph. Darst., Kt.
ISBN: 978-3-86648-201-2
DDC: 333.956
DDC: 639.2
78.
BOOK
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West African agriculture and climate change : a comprehensive analysis (2013)
Washington, DC : IFPRI
Call number: PIK W 101-14-0201
Location: PIK
Branch Library: PIK Library
Keywords: Klimaänderung ; Westafrika ; Landbau ; Crops and climate ; Africa, West ; Agriculture ; Klimawandel ; Landwirtschaft ; Ernährungssicherung
Notes: Contents: 1 Overview ; 2 Methodology ; 3 Benin ; 4 Burkina Faso ; 5 Cote d'lvoire ; 6 Ghana ; 7 Guinea ; 8 Liberia ; 9 Niger ; 10 Nigeria ; 11 Senegal ; 12 Sierra Leone ; 13 Togo ; 14 Summary and Conclusions
Pages: XXXIII, 408 S. : graph. Darst., Kt.
ISBN: 978-0-89629-204-8
79.
BOOK
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Landwirtschaft im Klimawandel : Auswirkungen und Anpassungsstrategien für die Land- und Forstwirtschaft in Mitteleuropa (2009)
[Clenze] : Agrimedia
Call number: PIK W 030-14-0203
Location: PIK
Branch Library: PIK Library
Keywords: Mitteleuropa ; Landwirtschaft ; Anpassung ; Klimaänderung
Pages: 376 S. : Ill., graph. Darst., Kt.
Edition: 1. Aufl.
ISBN: 978-3-86037-378-1
80.
BOOK
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Visualize this : the FlowingData guide to design, visualization, and statistics (2011)
Indianapolis : Wiley
Call number: PIK M 023-14-0199
Location: PIK
Branch Library: PIK Library
Keywords: Informationsgrafik ; Information ; Graphische Darstellung ; FlowingData ; Graphic methods ; Computer programs ; Statistic ; Data processing
Notes: Contents: Introduction. ; 1 Telling Stories with Data. ; 2 Handling Data. ; 3 Choosing Tools to Visualize Data. ; 4 Visualizing Patterns over Time. ; 5 Visualizing Proportions. ; 6 Visualizing Relationships. ; 7 Spotting Differences. ; 8 Visualizing Spatial Relationships. ; 9 Designing with a Purpose.
Pages: XXVI, 358 S. : Ill., graph. Darst., Kt.
ISBN: 978-0-470-94488-2
81.
BOOK
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Introduction to the thermodynamically constrained averaging theory for porous medium systems (2014)
Cham : Springer International Publishing
Call number: M 14.0244
Location: Building A17, Reading Room, 5 / Geophysics
Branch Library: GFZ Library
Notes: This unitary resource sets out the derivation of conservation, thermodynamic, and evolution equations used in modeling multiphase porous media systems. It includes detailed, multiscale applications and a forward-looking discussion of open research issues. Thermodynamically constrained averaging theory provides a consistent method for upscaling conservation and thermodynamic equations for application in the study of porous medium systems. The method provides dynamic equations for phases, interfaces, and common curves that are closely based on insights from the entropy inequality. All larger scale variables in the equations are explicitly defined in terms of their microscale precursors, facilitating the determination of important parameters and macroscale state equations based on microscale experimental and computational analysis. The method requires that all assumptions that lead to a particular equation form be explicitly indicated, a restriction which is useful in ascertaining the range of applicability of a model as well as potential sources of error and opportunities to improve the analysis.
Pages: XXXIV, 582 S. : z.T. farb. Ill.
ISBN: 978-3-319-04009-7
Classification: Geophysics
DDC: 550
82.
BOOK
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Runoff prediction in ungauged basins : synthesis across processes, places and scales (2013)
Cambridge : Cambridge Univ. Press
Call number: M 14.0247
Location: Building A17, Reading Room, 20-1 / Hydrology
Branch Library: GFZ Library
Keywords: Einzugsgebiet ; Niederschlag ; Abfluss ; Prognose ; Hydrogeologie ; mathematisches Modell
Notes: "Predicting water runoff in ungauged water catchment areas is vital to practical applications such as the design of drainage infrastructure and flooding defences, runoff forecasting, and for catchment management tasks such as water allocation and climate impact analysis. This important new book synthesises decades of international research, forming a holistic approach to catchment hydrology and providing a one-stop resource for hydrologists in both developed and developing countries. Topics include data for runoff regionalisation, the prediction of runoff hydrographs, flow duration curves, flow paths and residence times, annual and seasonal runoff, and floods. Illustrated with many case studies and including a final chapter on recommendations for researchers and practitioners, this book is written by expert authors involved in the prestigious IAHS PUB initiative. It is a key resource for academic researchers and professionals in the fields of hydrology, hydrogeology, ecology, geography, soil science, and environmental and civil engineering"..
Additional Material: Ill., graph. Darst., Kt.
Pages: XXIII, 465 S.
ISBN: 978-1-107-02818-0
Classification: Hydrology
DDC: 551.48
83.
BOOK
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Call number: PIK B 160-14-0180
Location: PIK
Branch Library: PIK Library
Notes: Contents: 1. Introduction ; PART I: FUNDAMENTALS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ; 2. Comprehensive Wealth Accounting and Sustainable Development ; 3. Sustainable Development in Ecological Economics ; 4. Strong Sustainability and Critical Natural Capital ; 5. Ecosystems as Assets ; 6. Ecological and Social Resilience ; PART II EQUITY ACROSS GENERATIONS ; 7. Ethics and Sustainable Development: The Virtues of an Adaptive Approach to Environmental Choice ; 8. Equitable Intergenerational Preferences and Sustainability ; 9. Evaluating Impacts in the Distant Future: Cost-benefit Analyses, Discounting, and the Alternatives ; 10. Weak Sustainability, Conservation, and Precaution ; PART III EQUITY WITHIN GENERATIONS ; 11. Distribution, Sustainability and Environmental Policy ; 12. Environmental Justice and Sustainability ; 13. Vulnerability, Poverty and Sustaining Well-being ; 14. Human Wellbeing and Sustainability: Interdependent and Intertwined ; PART IV: GROWTH, CONSUMPTION AND NATURAL WEALTH ; 15. Green Growth ; 16. Economic Growth and the Environment ; 17. The Resource Curse and Sustainable Development ; 18. Sustainable Consumption ; 19. Population and Sustainability ; 20. Technological Lock-in and the Role of Innovation ; PART V: PROGRESS IN MEASURING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ; 21. Environmental Accounting ; 22. Genuine Saving as an Indicator of Sustainability ; 23. Measuring Sustainable Economic Welfare ; 24. Ecological Footprint Accounts ; PART VI: THE INTERNATIONAL SETTING ; 25. International Trade and Sustainable Development ; 26. International Environmental Cooperation ; 27. The International Politics of Sustainable Development ; 28. Financing for Sustainable Development ; PART VII: DIMENSIONS OF SUSTAINABILITY ; 29. Climate Change Adaptation: A Risk-management Approach ; 30. Linking Climate Change Mitigation Research to Sustainable Development ; 31. Sustainable Development of Water Resources ; 32. Sustainable Agriculture ; 33. Sustainable Energy Policy ; 34. Sustainable Cities and Local Sustainability ; 35. Corporate Social Responsibility, Sustainability, and the Governance of Business
Pages: XXIX, 590 S. : graph. Darst.
Edition: 2. ed.
ISBN: 978-1-78254-469-2
84.
BOOK
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Solute redistribution during freezing of sands saturated with saline solution (1991)
Fairbanks, Alaska : University of Fairbanks
Call number: AWI 14-0060
Location: AWI
Branch Library: AWI Library
Keywords: Soil physics
Notes: Contents: Acknowledgements. - 1 Introduction and Literature Review. - 1.1 Introduction. - 1.2 Literature Review. - 1.2.1 Solute Redistribution and Heat Flow During the Solidification of Metals. - 1.2.2 Brine Movement in Ice Grown from a Saline Solution. - 1.2.2.1 Summary of Solute Movement in Ice Grown from a Saline Solution. - 1.2.3 Solute Movement and Heat Flow in Freezing Coarse-Grained Saline Soils. - 1.2.3.1 Experimental Studies. - 1.2.3.2 Theoretical Studies. - 1.2.3.3 Summary of Solute Movement and Heat Flow During Freezing in Coarse-Grained Saline Soils. - 1.3 Summary of Solute Redistribution During a Change in Phase. - 1.4 Dissertation Objective. - 2 Experimental Methods. - 2.1 Introduction. - 2.2 Literature Review. - 2.3 Design and Construction of the Freezing Apparatus. - 2.3.1 Environmental Chamber. - 2.3.2 Sand Filled Box Construction. - 2.3.3 Measurement of Temperature Within the Freezing Apparatus. - 2.4 Preparation and Operation of the Freezing Apparatus. - 2.4.1 Preparation of the Freezing Apparatus. - 2.4.1.1 Preparation of the Sand Box. - 2.4.1.2 Preparation of the Sand Columns. - 2.4.2 Operation of the Freezing Apparatus. - 2.4.2.1 Equilibration of the Freezing apparatus. - 2.4.2.2 Start of a Freezing Experiment . - 2.4.2.3 Monitoring the Freezing Experiment. - 2.5 Salt Fingering Experiment. - 2.6 Summar. - 3 Analytical Methods. - 3.1 Introduction. - 3.2 Labaratory Analysis. - 3.3 Data Reduction. - 3.3.1 Bulk Salinity. - 3.3.2 Gravimetric Water Content. - 3.3.3 Physical Properties of the Unfrozen Solution. - 3.4 Summary. - 4 Results. - 4.1 Introduction. - 4.2 Soil Description and Freezing Test Summary. - 4.2.1 Soil Description. - 4.2.2 Freezing Test Summary. - 4.3 Experimental Results and Discussion. - 4.3.1 Measured Results. - 4.3.2 Calculated Results. - 4.3.3 Salt Fingering Experiment. - 4.4 Summary. - 5 Interpretation. - 5.1 Introduction. - 5.2 Interpretation of the Experimental Results. - 5.2.1 Conditions Prior to the Onset of Convection. - 5.2.2 Conditions After the Onset of Convection. - 5.3 Stability of a Freezing Viscous Fluid in a Vertical Tube. - 5.3.1 Effect of Throughfiow on the Fluid Stability. - 5.4 Solute Redistribution During Freezing. - 5.4.1 Development . - 5.4.2 Maximum Amount of Solute Redistribution During Freezing. - 5.5 Pore Fluid Velocity During Convection. - 5.5.1 Bounds on the Pore Fluid Velocities. - 5.5.2 Pore Fluid Velocity Based on Solute Movement. - 5.5.3 Interpretation of Pore Fluid Velocities. - 5.6 Summary. - 6 Conclusions, Potential Applications and Areas of Future Research Needs. - 6.1 Introduction. - 6.2 Interpretation Summary. - 6.2.1 Experimental Observations. - 6.2.2 Results. - 6.2.2.1 Results Prior to the Onset of Convection. - 6.2.2.2 Conditions After the Onset of Convection. - 6.2.2.3 Theoretical Results. - 6.2.3 Summary. - 6.3 Potential Applications to Natural Freezing. - 6.3.1 Limitations of the Experimental Apparatus. - 6.3.2 Application of the Experimental Results to Natural Freezing Situations. - 6.3.3 Summary. - 6.4 Recommendation for Areas of Additional Research. - 6.4.1 The lnfluence of the Thawed Region on the Stability of the Pore Fluid. - 6.4.2 Dynamics of Finger Growth in Freezing Sand. - 6.4.3 Permeability of Partially Frozen Sand. - 6.4.4 Summary. - Bibliography. - A Stability Theory. - A.1 Introduction. - A.2 Permeability of Partially Frozen Sand. - A.3 Base State Conditions. - A.4 Linear Stability Analysis. - B Estimation of Parameter Uncertainty. - B.1 Introduction. - B.2 Uncertainty of the Measured Parameters. - B.3 Uncertainty of the Calculated Parameters. - B.4 Summary. - C Measurement of Permeability. - D Sensor Spacing and Probe Spacing. - E Data Acquisition. - F Definition of Terms and List of Notation
Pages: xiii, 228 leaves : ill.
Dissertation note: Fairbanks, Univ., Diss. 1991
85.
BOOK
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World Energy Outlook 2014 (2014)
Paris : International Energy Agency
Call number: PIK P 100-14-0172
Location: PIK
Branch Library: PIK Library
Keywords: Energiewirtschaft
Notes: Contents: Part A: Global Energy Trends ; A framework for our energy future ; Global energy trends to 2040 ; Oil market outlook ; Natural gas market outlook ; Coal market outlook ; Power sector outlook ; Renewable energy outlook ; Energy Efficiency outlook ; Fossil-fuel subsidies ; Part B: Outlook for Nuclear Power ; Nuclear power today and decisions to come ; Prospects for nuclear power to 2040 ; The implications of nuclear power ; Part C: Africa Energy Outlook ; Energy in Africa today ; Outlook for African energy to 2040 ; African energy issues in focus ; Building a path to prosperity ; Annexes
Pages: 726 S. : zahlr. graph. Darst., Kt.
ISBN: 978-92-64-20804-9
86.
BOOK
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Abstracts CD : 6-9 April, Houston, TX, George R. Brown Convention Center (2014)
[Tulsa, Okla.]
Call number: NBM 14.0148
Pages: 1 CD-ROM
Classification: Petrophysics
87.
BOOK
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Meteorologische Arbeiten aus Leipzig/18.: Meteorologische Arbeiten ... und Jahresbericht 2012 des Instituts für Meteorologie der Universität Leipzig (2013)
Leipzig : Inst. für Meteorologie der Univ.
(...)  
Call number: ZS-265(51)
Location: PIK
Branch Library: PIK Library
Pages: 106 S. : graph. Darst.
ISBN: 978-3-9814401-1-9
Classification: Meteorology and Climatology
DDC: 551.5
88.
BOOK
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Call number: AWI G2-13-0057
Location: AWI
Branch Library: AWI Library
Keywords: Meeresgeologie ; Meeresboden ; Mittelozeanischer Rücken ; Submarin-hydrothermale Lagerstätte ; Metallogenese ; Erzlagerstätte ; Hydrothermalgebiet ; Riftsystem ; Subduktion ; Submariner Vulkanismus ; Lagerstättenbildung
Pages: 527 S. : zahlr. Ill., graph. Darst.
ISBN: 5-02-033746-3
89.
BOOK
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Arctic climate and water change : Information relevance for assessment and adaptation (2013)
Stockholm : Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University
Call number: AWI 13-0052
Location: AWI
Branch Library: AWI Library
Keywords: Hydrology ; Monitoring ; Climate Change ; Adaptatation ; Arctic ; Arktis
Notes: The Arctic is subject to growing economic and political interest. Meanwhile, its water and climate systems are in rapid transformation. Relevant and accessible information about water and climate is therefore vital to detect, understand and adapt to the changes. This thesis investigates hydrological monitoring systems, climate model data, and our understanding of hydro-climatic change, for adaptation to water system changes in the Arctic. Results indicate a lack of harmonized water chemistry data, which may impede efforts to understand transport and origin of key waterborne constituents. Further development of monitoring cannot rely only on a reconciliation of observations and projections on where climate change will be the most severe, as they diverge in this regard. Climate model simulations of drainage basin temperature and precipitation have improved between two recent model generations, but large inaccuracies remain for precipitation projections. Late 20th-century discharge changes in major Arctic rivers generally show excess of water relative to precipitation changes. This indicates a possible contribution of stored water from permafrost or groundwater to sea level rise. The river contribution to the increasing Arctic Ocean freshwater inflow matches that of glaciers, which underlines the importance of considering all sources when assessing change. To provide adequate information for research and policy, Arctic hydrological and hydrochemical monitoring needs to be extended, better integrated and made more accessible. This especially applies to hydrochemistry monitoring, where a more complete set of monitored basins is motivated, including a general extension for the large unmonitored areas close to the Arctic Ocean. Improvements in climate model parameterizations are needed, in particular for precipitation projections. Finally, further water-focused data and modeling efforts are required to resolve the source of excess discharge in Arctic rivers.
ISBN: 978-91-7447-638-5

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