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  • Keywords: seismology ; reflection profiles ; seismic waves ; seismic tomography ; Australia
    Notes: Deep Crustal Seismic Reflection Profiling: Australia 1978–2015 presents the full suite of reflection profiles penetrating the whole crust carried in Australia by Geoscience Australia and various partners. The set of reflection data comprises over 16,000 km of coverage across the whole continent, and provides an insight into the variations in crustal architecture in the varied geological domains. Each reflection profile is presented at approximately true scale with up to 220 km of profile per page and overlap between pages. Each reflection section is accompanied by a geological strip map showing the configuration of the line superimposed on 1:1M geology. The compilation includes a suite of large-scale reflection transects groups of 1,000 km or more that link across major geological provinces, and an extensive bibliography of reports and relevant publications.
    Pages: V, 224 S.
    Edition: 2nd ed.
    ISBN: 9781760460846
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  • Publication Date: 2014-03-21
    Description: Delineating the crustal structure of central Java is crucial for understanding its complex tectonic setting. However, seismic imaging of the strong heterogeneity typical of such a tectonically active region can be challenging, particularly in the upper crust where velocity contrasts are strongest and steep body wave ray paths provide poor resolution. To overcome these difficulties, we apply the technique of ambient noise tomography (ANT) to data collected during the Merapi Amphibious Experiment (MERAMEX), which covered central Java with a temporary deployment of over 120 seismometers during 2004 May–October. More than 5000 Rayleigh wave Green's functions were extracted by cross-correlating the noise simultaneously recorded at available station pairs. We applied a fully non-linear 2-D Bayesian probabilistic inversion technique to the retrieved traveltimes. Features in the derived tomographic images correlate well with previous studies, and some shallow structures that were not evident in previous studies are clearly imaged with ANT. The Kendeng Basin and several active volcanoes appear with very low group velocities, and anomalies with relatively high velocities can be interpreted in terms of crustal sutures and/or surface geological features.
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • Publication Date: 2013-06-11
    Description: We develop and apply a full waveform inversion method that incorporates seismic data on a wide range of spatio-temporal scales, thereby constraining the details of both crustal and upper-mantle structure. This is intended to further our understanding of crust–mantle interactions that shape the nature of plate tectonics, and to be a step towards improved tomographic models of strongly scale-dependent earth properties, such as attenuation and anisotropy. The inversion for detailed regional earth structure consistently embedded within a large-scale model requires locally refined numerical meshes that allow us to (1) model regional wave propagation at high frequencies, and (2) capture the inferred fine-scale heterogeneities. The smallest local grid spacing sets the upper bound of the largest possible time step used to iteratively advance the seismic wave field. This limitation leads to extreme computational costs in the presence of fine-scale structure, and it inhibits the construction of full waveform tomographic models that describe earth structure on multiple scales. To reduce computational requirements to a feasible level, we design a multigrid approach based on the decomposition of a multiscale earth model with widely varying grid spacings into a family of single-scale models where the grid spacing is approximately uniform. Each of the single-scale models contains a tractable number of grid points, which ensures computational efficiency. The multi-to-single-scale decomposition is the foundation of iterative, gradient-based optimization schemes that simultaneously and consistently invert data on all scales for one multi-scale model. We demonstrate the applicability of our method in a full waveform inversion for Eurasia, with a special focus on Anatolia where coverage is particularly dense. Continental-scale structure is constrained by complete seismic waveforms in the 30–200 s period range. In addition to the well-known structural elements of the Eurasian mantle, our model reveals a variety of subtle features, such as the Armorican Massif, the Rhine Graben and the Massif Central. Anatolia is covered by waveforms with 8–200 s period, meaning that the details of both crustal and mantle structure are resolved consistently. The final model contains numerous previously undiscovered structures, including the extension-related updoming of lower-crustal material beneath the Menderes Massif in western Anatolia. Furthermore, the final model for the Anatolian region confirms estimates of crustal depth from receiver function analysis, and it accurately explains cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise at 10 s period that have not been used in the tomographic inversion. This provides strong independent evidence that detailed 3-D structure is well resolved.
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • Publication Date: 2012-12-19
    Description: Although Australia has been the subject of a wide range of seismological studies, these have concentrated on specific features of the continent at crustal scales and on the broad scale features in the mantle. The Australian Seismological Reference Model (AuSREM) is designed to bring together the existing information, and provide a synthesis in the form of a 3-D model that can provide the basis for future refinement from more detailed studies. Extensive studies in the last few decades provide good coverage for much of the continent, and the crustal model builds on the various data sources to produce a representative model that captures the major features of the continental structure and provides a basis for a broad range of further studies. The model is grid based with a 0.5° sampling in latitude and longitude, and is designed to be fully interpolable, so that properties can be extracted at any point. The crustal structure is built from five-layer representations of refraction and receiver function studies and tomographic information. The AuSREM crustal model is available at 1 km intervals. The crustal component makes use of prior compilations of sediment thicknesses, with cross checks against recent reflection profiling, and provides P and S wavespeed distributions through the crust. The primary information for P wavespeed comes from refraction profiles, for S wavespeed from receiver function studies. We are also able to use the results of ambient noise tomography to link the point observations into national coverage. Density values are derived using results from gravity interpretations with an empirical relation between P wavespeed and density. AuSREM is able to build on a new map of depth to Moho, which has been created using all available information including Moho picks from over 12 000 km of full crustal profiling across the continent. The crustal component of AuSREM provides a representative model that should be useful for modelling of seismic wave propagation and calculation of crustal corrections for tomography. Other applications include gravity studies and dynamic topography at the continental scale.
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • Publication Date: 2013-03-12
    Description: Here we present first-order results detailing the Anatolian crustal from receiver function analysis of data from approximately 300 stations within Turkey. Seismic data from the Kandilli Observatory array (KOERI; KO), the National Seismic Network of Turkey (AFAD-DAD; TU) and available IRIS data from the Northern Anatolian Fault experiment (YL) for the period between 2005 and 2010 is analysed. We calculate receiver functions in the frequency domain using water-level deconvolution. The results are analysed using a combination of H–K stacking and depth stacking to determine robust Moho conversion depths and V P / V s ratios across Anatolia. We detect a deep Moho in eastern Anatolia of up to ~55 km, a generally normal Moho in Central Anatolia of ~37–47 km and a thinned Moho in western Anatolia and Cyprus of ~30 km. The V P / V s ratio across the Anatolian Plate is generally slightly elevated; regions of extremely high V P / V s ratio (>1.85) can be associated with recent volcanism in eastern and central Anatolia. High V P / V s ratio measurements (>1.85) in western Anatolia may be indicative of partial melt in the lower crust associated with regional extension.
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • Publication Date: 2013-01-11
    Description: Stations on the Australian continent receive a rich mixture of continuous ground motion with ambient seismic noise from the surrounding oceans, and numerous small earthquakes in the earthquake belts to the north in Indonesia, and east in Tonga-Kermadec, as well as more distant source zones. The ground motion at a seismic station contains information about the structure in the vicinity of the site, and this can be exploited by applying an autocorrelation procedure to the continuous records. By creating stacked autocorrelograms of the ground motion at a single station, information on crust properties can be extracted in the form of a signal that includes the crustal reflection response convolved with the autocorrelation of the combined effect of source excitation and the instrument response. After applying suitable high-pass filtering, the reflection component can be extracted to reveal the most prominent reflectors in the lower crust, which often correspond to the reflection at the Moho. Because the reflection signal is stacked from arrivals from a wide range of slownesses, the reflection response is somewhat diffuse, but still sufficient to provide useful constraints on the local crust beneath a seismic station. Continuous vertical component records from 223 stations (permanent and temporary) across the continent have been processed using autocorrelograms of running windows 6 hr long with subsequent stacking. A distinctive pulse with a time offset between 8 and 30 s from zero is found in the autocorrelation results, with frequency content between 1.5 and 4 Hz, suggesting P -wave multiples trapped in the crust. Synthetic modelling, with control of multiple phases, shows that a local p m p phase can be recovered with the autocorrelation approach. This identification enables us to make out the depth to the most prominent crustal reflector across the continent. We obtain results that largely conform to those from previous studies using a combination of data from refraction, reflection profiles and receiver functions. This approach can be used for crustal property extraction using just vertical component records, and effective results can be obtained with temporary deployments of just a few months.
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • Publication Date: 2015-12-17
    Description: In order to characterize the subsurface structure of the Jakarta Basin, Indonesia, a dense portable seismic broad-band network was operated by The Australian National University (ANU) and the Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG) between October 2013 and February 2014. Overall 96 locations were sampled through successive deployments of 52 seismic broad-band sensors at different parts of the city. Oceanic and anthropogenic noises were recorded as well as regional and teleseismic earthquakes. We apply regularized deconvolution to the recorded ambient noise of the vertical components of available station pairs, and over 3000 Green's functions were retrieved in total. Waveforms from interstation deconvolutions show clear arrivals of Rayleigh fundamental and higher order modes. The traveltimes that were extracted from group velocity filtering of fundamental mode Rayleigh wave arrivals, are used in a 2-stage Transdimensional Bayesian method to map shear wave structure of subsurface. The images of S wave speed show very low velocities and a thick basin covering most of the city with depths up to 1.5 km. These low seismic velocities and the thick basin beneath the city potentially cause seismic amplification during a subduction megathrust or other large earthquake close to the city of Jakarta.
    Keywords: Seismology
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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