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  • Notes: The overall aim of this book, an outcome of the European FP7 FET Open NESS project, is to contribute to the ongoing effort to put the quantitative social sciences on a proper footing for the 21st century. A key focus is economics, and its implications on policy making, where the still dominant traditional approach increasingly struggles to capture the economic realities we observe in the world today - with vested interests getting too often in the way of real advances. Insights into behavioral economics and modern computing techniques have made possible both the integration of larger information sets and the exploration of disequilibrium behavior. The domain-based chapters of this work illustrate how economic theory is the only branch of social sciences which still holds to its old paradigm of an equilibrium science - an assumption that has already been relaxed in all related fields of research in the light of recent advances in complex and dynamical systems theory and related data mining. The other chapters give various takes on policy and decision making in this context. Written in nontechnical style throughout, with a mix of tutorial and essay-like contributions, this book will benefit all researchers, scientists, professionals and practitioners interested in learning about the "thinking in complexity" to understand how socio-economic systems really work.
    Pages: VIII, 232 Seiten
    ISBN: 978-3-319-42422-4
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  • ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The toxicity to mosquito larvae of the parasporal body produced by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and the PG-14 isolate of B. thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni is at least 20-fold greater than any of the four mosquitocidal proteins of which It is composed (CytA, CrylVA, B, and D). This high toxicity is postulated to be due to synergistic interactions among parasporal proteins. However, this remains controversial because values reported for the specific toxicity of individual proteins, especially the CytA protein, vary widely owing to the methods used to purify and assay toxins against larvae. In an attempt to resolve questions of purity, specific toxicity, and synergism, individual genes encoding the CytA and CrylVD toxins were cloned and expressed in acrystalliferous B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis cells using the shuttle vector pHT3101. CytA and CryIVD inclusions were purified and their toxicity was determined alone and when combined at different ratios using bio-assays against first instars of Aedes aegypti. The LC50 for the CytA inclusion was 60 ng ml−1, whereas the LC50 for the CryIVD was 85ng ml−1 In comparison, the LC50s for different combinations of CytA and CrylVD inclusions ranged from 12–15 ng ml−1, 4–5 times higher than the toxicity of either protein alone, demonstrating marked synergism between these two proteins. These results suggest that the high toxicity of the wild-type parasporal bodies of B. thuringiensis subspp. israelensis and morrisoni Is due to synergism among three or four of their major proteins.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A new type of insecticidal parasporal body is reported from Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kenyae (H4a4c) isolated from maize dust in Mexico. This parasporal body is spherical to oblong and composed of three inclusions, one spherical, one cuboidal, and one bipyramidal. Together, these contain four major proteins, three in the Cryl size class (138, 133, and 131 kDa), and one in the CryII size class (65 kDa). Monoclonal antibodies that recognize CryIB reacted with the 138-kDa protein, but those that recognize CryIA(a) or CryIA(a) and CryIA(b) did not react with any of the proteins. This isolate was more toxic (LC50= 96 ng cm−2 diet) to first instars of the diamond back moth, Plutella xylostella, than the HD1 isolate of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (LC50= 182 ng cm−2 diet).
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  • ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Previously we demonstrated that the yield of Cry3A (70 kDa) can be increased as much as 10-fold when cry3A including its upstream STAB-SD mRNA stabilizing sequence is expressed in Bacillus thuringiensis under the control of cyt1A promoters. To determine whether the cyt1A promoters/STAB-SD combination (cyt1AP/STAB) has broader applicability, we used it to synthesize two other Cry endotoxins in the 70-kDa mass range, Cry2A and Cry11A. Combination of cyt1AP/STAB with orfs 2 and 3 of the cry2A operon yielded about 4.4-fold the amount of Cry2A obtained with the wild-type cry2A operon. The yield of Cry11A obtained with a construct that contained the cyt1AP/STAB, cry11A and the 20-kDa protein gene was 1.3-fold the amount obtained with a construct similar to the wild-type operon. These results demonstrate that the cyt1AP/STAB combination can enhance synthesis of different Cry proteins significantly, but that the level of enhancement varies with the specific protein synthesized.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • ISSN: 1745-6584
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geosciences
    Notes: The paper discusses the use of the “pathline counting” approach to estimate solute concentrations at an extraction well using particle-tracking flow models. The pathline counting approach is a unique method for predicting solute concentrations due to mixing. The pathline counting method using the semianalytical module RESSQC, contained within the WHPA model, was compared to MT3D, a numerical mass transport code, for a simple hypothetical problem. Results from the comparison indicate that results from the pathline counting approach were in reasonable agreement with the MT3D results. This approach was then applied to a field study, the Park City Bioremediation Project. The migration of a conservative tracer injected into three upgradient cells was simulated to estimate the concentration of solute at two pumping wells. The calculated concentrations compared favorably with measured field concentrations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • ISSN: 1467-8691
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Empowerment, creativity, and organizational memory are constructs that have been researched in MIS. While each construct has received individual attention, we have found relatively little research linking them. One of the major edicts of empowerment is delegation of decision making authority to lower-level employees. Increased authority allows employees more freedom to be creative. However, if creative thought is generated but not captured, innovative ideas may be lost. Organizational memory can capture creative ideas as they are generated so that empowered teams can draw upon positive creative experiences.We developed a theoretical model to illuminate the relationships between organizational memory, worker empowerment, and creativity. The model portrays the linkages between empowerment and creativity, creativity and organizational memory, and organizational memory and empowerment. The model was developed based on the literature in each respective area and an interview-based study concerning “empowered” systems development project teams and organizational memory. Analysis of the interview data revealed that empowered workers generate creative solutions to problems. However, creative solutions can only be used for future projects if they are somehow recorded into organizational memory. Organizations that empowered their workforce and embraced creativity reported increased customer satisfaction, waste reduction, and some quality gains. In contrast, those that did not empower reported little or no change. Organizations that recorded creative solutions to problems believe that retrieval of this information could be potentially useful for future projects. Potential challenges faced by organizations classified into each cell are also presented. This classification scheme should prove useful as a guide to organizations examining the potential benefits and pitfalls of worker empowerment and organizational memory.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The first gene characterizing the clag (cytoadherence linked asexual gene) family of Plasmodium falciparum was identified on chromosome 9. The protein product (Clag9) was implicated in cytoadhesion, the binding of infected erythrocytes to host endothelial cells, but little information on the biochemical characteristics of this protein is available. Other genes related to clag9 have been identified on different chromosomes. These genes encode similar amino acid sequences, but clag9 shows least conservation. Clag9 was detected in schizonts, merozoites and ring-stage parasites after protease digestion and peptide analysis by mass spectrometry. Using antisera raised against unique regions of Clag9 and against RhopH2, a component of the RhopH high-molecular-mass protein complex of merozoites, immunofluorescence co-localized the two proteins to the apical region of merozoites. Immunoelectron microscopy co-localized Clag9 and RhopH2 exclusively to the basal bulb region of rhoptries rather than to their apical ducts. The same Clag9-specific antibodies bound the RhopH complex, and the protein was detected in the complex purified by antibodies to RhopH2. Clag9 protein was also shown to be present in ring-stage parasites, carried through from the previous cycle with the RhopH complex, in a location identical to that of RhopH2. Transcription of the clag9 gene was shown to occur at the same time as the genes for other members of the RhopH complex, rhoph2 and 3. The results indicate that Clag9 is part of the RhopH complex and suggest that, within this complex, the protein previously designated RhopH1 is composed of more than one protein product of the clag gene family. The results cast doubt on a direct role for Clag9 in cytoadhesion; we suggest that the primary role of the RhopH complex is in remodelling the infected red blood cell after invasion by the merozoite. The complex may have multiple functions dependent on its exact composition, which may include, with respect to Clag9, a contribution to the mechanism of cytoadhesion.
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  • ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Fluorescence excitation spectra of the A 3Π(1)−X 1Σ+ electronic transition of I 35Cl were acquired using a single-frequency dye laser and a well collimated molecular beam. Data were collected for eleven vibrational levels in the range v'=11–34. Of these, ten were well enough resolved for the hyperfine structure of both nuclei to be observed. For the highest vibrational level studied, v'=34, only the splitting due to the iodine nucleus could be resolved. The measured hyperfine constants for the A state were found to vary significantly with vibrational energy, and were found to be inconsistent with an analysis based on a single electronic configuration [linear combination atomic orbital/molecular orbital (LCAO/MO)]. Instead, it is found that the unpaired electron on the iodine atom is primarily oriented perpendicular to the bond axis for large internuclear separations and only achieves the orientation predicted by the LCAO/MO description for r<3.0 A(ring). The chlorine orientation is roughly in accord with the LCAO/MO prediction. These conclusions were reached by analyzing the hyperfine constants in a separated atom basis set. Additionally, a perturbation was found in the spectra for the v'=27 level. Evidence is presented that the cause of this perturbation is an interaction with the weakly bound a 3Π1 electronic state of ICl.
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  • ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The mineralogical and elemental compositions of the martian soil are indicators of chemical and physical weathering processes. Using data from the Mars Exploration Rovers, we show that bright dust deposits on opposite sides of the planet are part of a global unit and not dominated by the ...
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