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  • 1
    Notes: This book, generated under the auspices of the Geological Society of London's History of Geology and Hydrogeological Groups, contains 20 papers from authors in the UK, USA, Germany and Austria. Historically, it gives examples of the influence of groundwater on battlefield tactics and fortress construction; describes how groundwater was developed for water supply and overcome as an obstacle to military engineering and cross-country vehicular movement by both sides in World Wars I and II; and culminates with examples of the application of hydrogeology to site boreholes in recent conflicts, notably in Afghanistan. Examples of current research described include hydrological model development; the impact of variations in soil moisture on explosive threat detection and cross-country vehicle mobility; contamination arising from defence sites and its remediation; privatization of water supplies; and the equitable allocation of resources derived from an international transboundary aquifer.
    Pages: VIII, 374 Seiten
    ISBN: 978-1-86239-340-0
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  • 2
    Keywords: geology ; engineering geology ; military use ; military mining
    Notes: This book complements the Geological Society's Special Publication 362: Military Aspects of Hydrogeology. Generated under the auspices of the Society's History of Geology and Engineering Groups, it contains papers from authors in the UK, USA, Germany and Austria. Substantial papers describe some innovative engineering activities, influenced by geology, undertaken by the armed forces of the opposing nations in World War I. These activities were reactivated and developed in World War II. Examples include trenching from World War I, tunnelling and quarrying from both wars, and the use of geologists to aid German coastal fortification and Allied aerial photographic interpretation in World War II. The extensive introduction and other chapters reveal that ‘military geology’ has a longer history. These chapters relate to pre-twentieth century coastal fortification in the UK and the USA; conflict in the American Civil War; long-term ‘going’ assessments for German forces; tunnel repair after wartime route denial in Hong Kong; and tunnel detection after recent insurgent improvisation in Iraq. | Contents: Military use of geologists and geology: a historical overview and introduction / Edward P. F. Rose, Judy Ehlen and Ursula L. Lawrence / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 473, 1-29, 8 November 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP473.15 --- Coastal fortification --- The landslip-damaged Roman fort at Lympne in SE England / Edward Nicholas Bromhead / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 473, 31-45, 6 March 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP473.9 --- Groundwater supplies to maritime and coastal defences in southern England: a story of risk and innovation / John D. Mather / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 473, 47-60, 6 March 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP473.8 --- American coastal defence Third System forts: how geomorphology and geology dictated placement and influenced history / Stephen W. Henderson / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 473, 61-82, 10 May 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP473.10 --- The northern Atlantic Wall: German engineering geology work in Norway during World War II / Hermann Häusler / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 473, 83-108, 6 March 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP473.4 --- Excavation --- Trench construction and engineering geology on the Western Front, 1914–18 / Peter Doyle / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 473, 109-130, 6 March 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP473.6 --- German military geology and military mining on the Eastern Front in World War I / Dierk Willig / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 473, 131-150, 1 November 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP473.14 --- Quarrying Companies Royal Engineers in World War I: a geologically constrained innovation to support British armies on the Western Front / Edward P. F. Rose / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 473, 151-171, 6 March 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP473.1 --- Quarrying Companies Royal Engineers in World War II: contributions to military infrastructure within the UK and to Allied forces during the North African, Italian and NW Europe campaigns / Edward P. F. Rose / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 473, 173-200, 6 March 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP473.2 --- Tunnelling Companies Royal Engineers in World War II: excavation of bomb-proof facilities in France, Gibraltar, Malta and the UK / Edward P. F. Rose / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 473, 201-232, 6 March 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP473.3 --- Engineering geological considerations for the ‘Old’ Beacon Hill Railway Tunnel, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region / Alexander D. Mackay / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 473, 233-239, 9 October 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP473.12 --- Geological considerations of contemporary military tunnelling near Mosul, northern Iraq / Mark H. Bulmer / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 473, 241-265, 22 June 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP473.11 --- Terrain evaluation --- Geological influence of the Great Red River Raft on the Red River Campaign of the American Civil War / Danny W. Harrelson, Nalini Torres, Amber Tillotson and Mansour Zakikhani / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 473, 267-273, 6 March 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP473.5 --- Aerial photographic intelligence during World War II: contributions by some distinguished British geologists / Edward P. F. Rose / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 473, 275-296, 10 July 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP473.13 --- One hundred years of cross-country mobility prediction in Germany / Florian Malm / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 473, 297-306, 6 March 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP473.7
    Pages: VI, 314 Seiten : Illustrationen, Diagramme, Karten
    ISBN: 978-1-78620-394-6
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  • 3
    Call number: 9/M 07.0421(362)
    In: Geological Society special publication
    Description / Table of Contents: This book, generated under the auspices of the Geological Society of London's History of Geology and Hydrogeological Groups, contains 20 papers from authors in the UK, USA, Germany and Austria. Historically, it gives examples of the influence of groundwater on battlefield tactics and fortress construction; describes how groundwater was developed for water supply and overcome as an obstacle to military engineering and cross-country vehicular movement by both sides in World Wars I and II; and culminates with examples of the application of hydrogeology to site boreholes in recent conflicts, notably in Afghanistan. Examples of current research described include hydrological model development; the impact of variations in soil moisture on explosive threat detection and cross-country vehicle mobility; contamination arising from defence sites and its remediation; privatization of water supplies; and the equitable allocation of resources derived from an international transboundary aquifer.
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: VIII, 374 S. : z.T. farb. Ill., graph. Darst.
    ISBN: 9781862393400
    Series Statement: Geological Society special publication 362
    Classification: D.7.
    Location: Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 4
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 225: 159-182.
    Publication Date: 2007-10-08
    Description: During the 19th Century, the British military pioneered geological mapping and teaching, and the operational use of Norton tube wells. In the First World War, the British army appointed its first military hydrogeologist to serve as such, to develop water-supply maps for Belgium and northern France and guide deployment of Royal Engineer units drilling boreholes into the Cretaceous Chalk of the Somme region and Tertiary sands beneath the Flanders plain. Similar well-boring units were also deployed with geological guidance in the northeastern Mediterranean region. All military geologists were demobilized after hostilities ceased, but wartime experience was quickly drawn together in the first Royal Engineer textbook on water supply. During the Second World War, several British military well-drilling units were raised and deployed, notably to East Africa and North Africa as well as northern France, normally with military geological and sometimes (in Africa) with military geophysical technical direction. A reduced well-drilling capability has since been retained by the British army, through the Cold War to the present day, supported by a small group of reserve army geologists to contribute basic hydrogeological expertise to the armed forces for peace-time projects and war-related operations.
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  • 5
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 362: 1-18.
    Publication Date: 2012-02-28
    Description: The military aspects of hydrogeology can be categorized into five main fields: the use of groundwater to provide a water supply for combatants and to sustain the infrastructure and defence establishments supporting them; the influence of near-surface water as a hazard affecting mobility, tunnelling and the placing and detection of mines; contamination arising from the testing, use and disposal of munitions and hazardous chemicals; training, research and technology transfer; and groundwater use as a potential source of conflict. In both World Wars, US and German forces were able to deploy trained hydrogeologists to address such problems, but the prevailing attitude to applied geology in Britain led to the use of only a few, talented individuals, who gained relevant experience as their military service progressed. Prior to World War II, existing techniques were generally adapted for military use. Significant advances were made in some fields, notably in the use of Norton tube wells (widely known as Abyssinian wells after their successful use in the Abyssinian War of 1867/1868) and in the development of groundwater prospect maps. Since 1945, the need for advice in specific military sectors, including vehicle mobility, explosive threat detection and hydrological forecasting, has resulted in the growth of a group of individuals who can rightly regard themselves as military hydrogeologists.
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  • 6
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 317: 219-241.
    Publication Date: 2009-08-24
    Description: At the time the Geological Society was founded in 1807, Europe had entered the latter half of some 23 years of near-continuous warfare, in which the overall scale and intensity were wholly new. Wars from 1792 to 1815 affected the careers of many well-known geologists in France, Germany and the United Kingdom. Influential early members of the Society included a significant number of men with periods of military service or education, or militarily-funded employment: four of its 11 primary founders, Jacques-Louis, Comte de Bournon, James Franck, George Bellas Greenough and Richard Phillips, as well as six of its first 23 Presidents - Greenough, Henry Grey Bennet, John MacCulloch, Roderick Impey Murchison, Henry Thomas De la Beche and Joseph Ellison Portlock. Several councillors, such as Thomas Frederick Colby and John William Pringle, and three of its first five executives - William Lonsdale, David Thomas Ansted and T. Rupert Jones - also had military affiliations. Largely as a consequence of Napoleonic warfare, from 1814 to 1845 national geological mapping in Britain was supported by military funding, and between 1819 and the end of the century geology was a subject taught at various times in all military training establishments within Britain.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-02-28
    Description: The first British Army hydrogeologist to be deployed as such on a battlefield was Lieutenant W.B.R. King, in June 1915 on the Western Front. There, the British Expeditionary Force, in Belgium and northern France, expanded at its peak to five armies: 1.5 million men and 0.5 million horses/mules, each man/animal requiring on average 10 gallons (45 l) per day of potable water. A ‘Water Boring Section Royal Engineers’ was eventually raised for each army, equipped with American-made ‘portable’ drilling rigs, and utilizing air-lift pumps. These innovations and King's pioneering ‘water supply’ maps facilitated the development of the British Army's first operational ability to exploit groundwater from deep aquifers, primarily those in Cretaceous Chalk, by drilling >470 boreholes. Additionally, in 1915, a report by three ‘British’ Geological Survey officers helped guide limited boring within Allied amphibious landing areas on the Gallipoli Peninsula, Turkey. A civilian water adviser, Arthur Beeby Thompson, transferred from Gallipoli to the Balkans in January 1916 and thereafter used geology to guide significant groundwater abstraction by siting 125 military boreholes and 211 Norton tube wells. From 1915, the Director of the Geological Survey of Egypt, W.F. Hume, provided similar guidance for campaigns from Egypt into Palestine.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-02-28
    Description: To drill boreholes for water supply, the Royal Engineers raised ten ‘Boring Sections’ between September 1939 and May 1943, eight in the UK, two in Egypt. While supporting campaigns in World War II, two deployed briefly to France, seven served widely within the Middle East (one of these in Iraq and Iran and later Malta, the others mostly operating from Egypt), one deployed to Algeria/Tunisia, four to Sicily and/or Italy (one of these onward to Greece), two deployed to support the D-Day Allied landings in Normandy and the subsequent advance via Belgium to Germany, and three served long-term in the UK. Greatest use was by Middle East Command, which at its peak had about 35 officers, 750 men and 40 drilling rigs assigned to water supply, and whose boreholes attained a cumulative length of some 40 km. The British Army used geology to help guide emplacement of boreholes in all these regions. Innovations included groundwater prospect maps at scales of 1:50 000 and 1:250 000, to help planning for the Allied invasion of Normandy and the subsequent campaign in NW Europe. Geology also helped guide groundwater abstraction by Indian Engineers in the Far East, and British/South African troops in East Africa.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-02-28
    Description: In 2003, three British reserve army geologists contributed hydrogeological advice to assist planning for the Coalition invasion of Iraq by predicting likely groundwater and drilling conditions. In consequence, 521 Specialist Team Royal Engineers (Water Development) was deployed in theatre soon after hostilities began, to provide a water supply infrastructure for British troops. However, a speedy end to combat, and concentration of British troops in southern Iraq where surface waters were the primary source of supply, necessitated only four new boreholes. Elements of 521 STRE deployed to Afghanistan in 2006, again with hydrogeological guidance, to enhance water supplies for a Provincial Reconstruction Team and Forward Operating Base (FOB), and to develop a water supply infrastructure for the main British operational base at Camp Bastion. Local contractors were used to drill 11 wells, each to over 100 m depth, in Quaternary alluvium. Subsequently, hydrogeology was used to guide successful groundwater development at four out of five FOBs, involving 28 new boreholes, minimizing risks associated with water supply by road or helicopter, and to facilitate expansion of Camp Bastion to accommodate a surge of Coalition troops. Tasks in Afghanistan have generated the most significant British military use of hydrogeology in recent years.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Peritidal carbonates of the Lower Jurassic (Liassic) Gibraltar Limestone Formation, which form the main mass of the Rock of Gibraltar, are replaced by fine and medium crystalline dolomites. Replacement occurs as massive bedded or laminated dolomites in the lower 100 m of an ≈460-m-thick platform succession. The fine crystalline dolomite has δ18Ο values either similar to, or slightly higher than, those expected from Early Jurassic marine dolomite, and δ13C values together with 87Sr/86Sr ratios that overlap with sea-water values for that time, indicating that the dolomitizing fluid was Early Jurassic sea water. Absence of massive evaporitic minerals and/or evaporite solution-collapse breccias in these carbonate rocks indicates that the salinity of sea water during dolomitization was below that of gypsum precipitation. The occurrence of peritidal facies, a restricted microbiota and rare gypsum pseudomorphs are also consistent with penesaline conditions (salinity 72–199‰). The medium crystalline dolomite has some δ18Ο and δ13C values and 87Sr/86Sr ratios similar to those of Early Jurassic marine dolomites, which indicates that ambient sea water was again a likely dolomitizing fluid. However, the spread of δ18Ο, δ13C and 87Sr/86Sr values indicates that dolomitization occurred at slightly increased temperatures as a result of shallow (≈500 m) burial or that dolomitization was multistage. These data support the hypothesis that penesaline sea water can produce massive dolomitization in thick peritidal carbonates in the absence of evaporite precipitation. Taking earlier models into consideration, it appears that replacement dolomites can be produced by sea water or modified sea water with a wide range of salinities (normal, penesaline to hypersaline), provided that there is a driving mechanism for fluid migration. The Gibraltar dolomites confirm other reports of significant Early Jurassic dolomitization in the western Tethys carbonate platforms.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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