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  • 1
    Keywords: river system ; reservoirs ; geological timescale ; fluvial system ; deposits
    Notes: This book presents a synthesis of research on the controls of dynamic changes to river systems, in particular under changing climatic conditions. The content covers both short engineering timescales and long geological timescales. The book will highlight the cross-disciplinary interest in rivers and their sediments and will interest geologists, geomorphologists, engineers and government agencies. | Contents: 4 January 2019 --- Accepted manuscript Describing Fluvial Systems: linking processes to deposits and stratigraphy / Jim Best and Christopher R. Fielding / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 488, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP488-2019-056 --- 20 December 2018 --- Accepted manuscript Eocene-Recent drainage evolution of the Colorado River and its precursor: an integrated provenance perspective from SW California / Uisdean Nicholson, Andrew Carter, Paula Robinson and David I.M. Macdonald / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 488, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP488-2019-272 --- 18 December 2018 --- Stochastic modelling of flow sequences for improved prediction of fluvial flood hazards / Sandhya Patidar, Deonie Allen, Rick Haynes and Heather Haynes / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 488, 18 December 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP488.4 --- 17 December 2018 --- Effect of dynamically varying zone-based hedging policies on the operational performance of surface water reservoirs during climate change / Adebayo J. Adeloye and Bankaru-Swamy Soundharajan / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 488, 17 December 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP488.1 --- 14 December 2018 --- Understanding subsurface fluvial architecture from a combination of geological well test models and well test data / Patrick William Michael Corbett and Gleyden Lucila Benítez Duarte / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 488, 14 December 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP488.7 --- 10 December 2018 --- Natural and anthropogenic influences on the Nhecolândia wetlands, SE Pantanal, Brazil / Emiliano Castro de Oliveira, Sila Pla-Pueyo and Christopher R. Hackney / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 488, 10 December 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP488.5 --- 29 November 2018 --- Spatial variations in distributive fluvial system architecture of the Upper Cretaceous Marília Formation, SE Brazil / Patrick Führ Dal’ Bó, Marcus Vinícius Theodoro Soares, Giorgio Basilici, Amanda Goulart Rodrigues and Mauricius Nascimento Menezes / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 488, 29 November 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP488.6 --- 28 November 2018 --- Towards the multi-scale characterization of braided fluvial geobodies from outcrop, core, ground-penetrating radar and well log data / Luis Miguel Yeste, Saturnina Henares, Neil McDougall, Fernando García-García and César Viseras / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 488, 28 November 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP488.3 --- 21 November 2018 --- Sedimentology, architecture and depositional setting of the fluvial Spireslack Sandstone of the Midland Valley, Scotland: insights from the Spireslack surface coal mine / R. Ellen, M. A. E. Browne, A. J. Mitten, S. M. Clarke, A. G. Leslie and E. Callaghan / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 488, 21 November 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP488.2
    Edition: online first
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  • 2
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Nucleic acids ; Plant breeding ; Biology ; Technique ; Life Sciences ; Plant Breeding/Biotechnology ; Biological Techniques ; Nucleic Acid Chemistry
    Notes: This book offers low-cost and rapid molecular assays for the characterization of mutant plant germplasm. Detailed protocols are provided for the desiccation of plant tissues; the extraction of high-quality DNA for downstream applications; the extraction of single-strand-specific nucleases for single nucleotide polymorphism; and small insertion/deletion discovery using standard agarose gel electrophoresis. The methods described can be applied in any laboratory equipped for basic molecular biology and do away with the need for expensive freezers and toxic organic compounds. With the appropriate validation of sample quality and longevity, they can provide sufficient DNA for a variety of molecular applications, such as marker studies and TILLING, at approximately one tenth of the cost per sample when compared to commercial kits | Contents: Introduction --- Health and Safety Considerations --- Sample Collection and Storage --- Low-Cost DNA Extraction --- PCR Amplification for Low-Cost Mutation Discovery --- Enzymatic Mismatch Cleavage and Agarose Gel Evaluation of Samples --- Alternative Enzymology for Mismatch Cleavage for TILLING and Ecotilling: Extraction of Enzymes form Common Weedy Plants --- Example Data --- Conclusions.  
    Pages: X, 35 pages : 9 illustrations, 3 illustrations in color
    ISBN: 978-3-319-16258-4
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  • 3
    Notes: The study of biodiversity through geological time provides important information for the understanding of diversity patterns at the present day. Hitherto, much effort has been paid to studying the mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic but the research emphasis has now changed to focus on what occurred between these spectacular catastrophic events. After the Cambrian ‘explosion’ of marine organisms with readily preservable skeletons, there have been two intervals when life radiated dramatically — the Ordovician Period, and the mid-Mesozoic-Cenozoic eras. These intervals saw a fundamental reorganization of biodiversity on a hierarchy of biogeographical scales. The size of these diversity increases and their probable causes are topics of intense debate, and there is an intriguing link between the dispersal of continents, changing climates and the proliferation of life. The papers in this volume are written by palaeontologists, biogeographers and geologists addressing the highly topical field of palaeobiodiversity in the context of the Earth’s changing geography. Palaeobiogeography and Biodiversity Change: the Ordovician and Mesozoic-Cenozoic Radiations illustrates many aspects of the two great episodes of biotic radiation and shows how long periods of time and plate tectonic movements have a fundamental influence on the generation and maintenance of major extant biodiversity patterns. The volume will be of interest to professional palaeontologists, biologists and geologists, as well as to students in earth and biological sciences.
    Pages: VI, 206 Seiten
    ISBN: 1-86239-106-8
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  • 4
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 194: 85-98.
    Publication Date: 2002-01-01
    Description: Constrained seriation of euconodont generic presence-absence matrices for four time slices between the late Llanvirn and late Llandovery provides a qualitative method for defining shelf and oceanic biofacies, recosntructing biofacies architecture and analysing biodiversity within a regional context. We propose many North Atlantic Province taxa had a pelagic mode of life and ranged widely across the Iapetus Ocean. Oceanic biofacies are considered to reflect water mass structure. Changes in vertical distribution of one such biofacies (including Amorphognathus and Spinodus) suggest adaptation to cold, nutrient-rich, oxygen-poor upwelling water. Biofacies distributions suggest that upwelling occurred along the Avalonian margin throughout the Ashgill, but was only initiated along the Laurentian margin immediately prior to the Hirnantian glacial maximum. Clade diversities and trajectories differ between biofacies and latitudes, reflecting different causal mechanisms. In Laurentia, diversity fell in the early Ashgill, coincident with the onset of ocean cooling. Diversity declined in Avalonia when the microcontinent drifted into tropical latitudes. The stability of euconodont biofacies architecture during the Late Ordovician indicates that global cooling and plate reorganization had a low palaeoecological impact despite decreases in alpha and beta diversity.
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  • 5
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 194: 1-11.
    Publication Date: 2002-01-01
    Description: Curves of taxonomic diversity through geological time consistently show major evolutionary radiations during the Ordovician Period and from the mid-Mesozoic to the present day. Both intervals were characterized by marked biotic provincialism, reflecting episodes of major continental break-up and global tectonism, and their later histories featured steep global climatic gradients. The Ordovician radiation can be recognized at a wide spectrum of taxonomic levels from species to class, and the biogeographical patterns associated with the radiation of individual clades reflect a complex combination of plate distribution, tectonic activity, sedimentary environment, sea-level rise and, ultimately, glaciation. The true scale of the mid-Mesozoic-Cenozoic biotic radiation is currently a topic of intense debate but there is no doubt that it affected plants and animals in both the marine and terrestrial realms. The role of land bridges and ocean gateways in controlling the formation of biodiversity patterns has been a persistent theme in Mesozoic-Cenozoic biogeography, and a complex set of Neogene tectonic events probably aided the development of both latitudinal and longitudinal provinces during the Cenozoic. The present volume highlights some of the successes across a spectrum of approaches to unravelling the Ordovician and Mesozoic-Cenozoic radiations within the context of palaeobiogeography.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Keywords: Biopolymers ; thermoplastics ; dynamic modulus ; X-ray scattering ; mechanical anisotropy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Dynamic tensile modulus and X-ray scattering measurements were made for a series of bacterially produced poly-Β-hydroxybutyrate/Β-hydroxyvalerate (PHB/HV) random copolymers. The position of the primary relaxation is shifted to lower temperatures by increasing HV content and the material becomes generally softer. Drawn PHB/ 17% HV copolymer shows conventional mechanical anisotropy. Results are presented comparing the dynamic mechanical behaviour of isotropic PHB/HV with that of conventional thermoplastics such as polyethylene terephthalate, isotactic polypropylene and polyethylene.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Keywords: Biopolymer ; PHB ; copolymersstructural properties ; mechanical properties
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Some structural and mechanical properties of PHB homopolymer and copolymers containing 17 and 25–30% PHV have been investigated. X-ray scattering, optical microscopy, density measurements and differential scanning calorimetry were used to interpret the results of load-elongation curves and thermomechanical softening measurements.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Keywords: Low-densitypolyethylene ; orientation ; slip process ; birefringence ; mechanicalanisotropy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract A simple, physical model has been developed to describe orientation in thermoplastic polymers, involving the boundary slip and rotation of rod-like structural elements. Orientation parameters have been calculated, and expressions for the birefringence and elastic mechanical anisotropy deduced. Results on cold-drawn, low-density polyethylene agree well with this model.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Leachate from municipal landfills represents a potential health risk to both surrounding ecosystems and human populations. Landfill leachate collected from a site in New Jersey was evaluated for its anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity to methanogenesis using two anaerobic bioassays. Chemical characterization of the leachate yielded the following results (mg/L): chemical oxygen demand (COD)=6478; dissolved oxygen (DO)=1.8–2.0; oil and grease=4.8; suspended solids=5.6; total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN)=215; total phosphorus=1.53; biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)=73 and pH=7.0–7.4. Anaerobic biodegradation of leachate as the sole source of carbon yielded methane production values greater than background over extended incubation periods with increasing concentration. However, increased concentrations of leachate produced a decrease in recovery of methane per kg COD amended. In a second assay, leachate toxicity was assessed by monitoring the suppression of methanogenesis in acetate and propionate amended cultures. Results of these assays indicate that concentrations of leachate greater than 10% produced a significant irreversible suppression of methanogenesis, while concentrations less than 10% showed enhanced methane production above background and active control. These results suggest that the leachate from this site contains a biodegradable fraction which can be partially mineralized under methanogenic conditions over extended periods of incubation. However, high concentrations in excess of 10% may be inhibitory to anaerobic methanogenic processes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Monosubstituted nitro- and aminophenol isomers exhibited limited biodegradability under methanogenic conditions when supplied as the sole source of carbon and energy. This was examined by supplying to the same sediment samples, each isomer of nitro- and aminophenol as a sole source of added carbon under either N-supplemented or N-deprived methanogenic conditions. The results demonstrated that under N-supplemented conditions, only 2-NP (NP=nitrophenol), 4-NP and 4-AP (AP=aminophenol) were stoichiometrically mineralized, 2-AP, 3-AP, and the 3-AP metabolite formed from 3-NP reduction were persistent over the 51-week incubation period. In addition, NP isomers inhibited initial rates of methanogenesis, while all AP amended cultures exhibited no significant inhibition in the rate of methanogenesis. Under N-deprived conditions, 2-NP, 2-AP and 4-AP were mineralized, while 3-NP, 4-NP and 3-AP were persistent over the 51-week incubation period. Although all NP isomers were still metabolized through the corresponding AP isomer, the deprivation of nitrogen significantly depressed both the rate and extent of methanogenesis. In general, nitrogen supplemented cultures produced 25% more methane than the nitrogen limited cultures, and the initial rates of methanogenesis were four times greater. While these data showed that under N-deprived conditions methanogenesis was inhibited to a greater extent by these compounds, it also suggests that N-deprived conditions may have facilitated the establishment of a 2-AP metabolizing consortium.
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