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  • 1
    Keywords: river system ; reservoirs ; geological timescale ; fluvial system ; deposits
    Notes: This book presents a synthesis of research on the controls of dynamic changes to river systems, in particular under changing climatic conditions. The content covers both short engineering timescales and long geological timescales. The book will highlight the cross-disciplinary interest in rivers and their sediments and will interest geologists, geomorphologists, engineers and government agencies. | Contents: 4 January 2019 --- Accepted manuscript Describing Fluvial Systems: linking processes to deposits and stratigraphy / Jim Best and Christopher R. Fielding / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 488, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP488-2019-056 --- 20 December 2018 --- Accepted manuscript Eocene-Recent drainage evolution of the Colorado River and its precursor: an integrated provenance perspective from SW California / Uisdean Nicholson, Andrew Carter, Paula Robinson and David I.M. Macdonald / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 488, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP488-2019-272 --- 18 December 2018 --- Stochastic modelling of flow sequences for improved prediction of fluvial flood hazards / Sandhya Patidar, Deonie Allen, Rick Haynes and Heather Haynes / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 488, 18 December 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP488.4 --- 17 December 2018 --- Effect of dynamically varying zone-based hedging policies on the operational performance of surface water reservoirs during climate change / Adebayo J. Adeloye and Bankaru-Swamy Soundharajan / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 488, 17 December 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP488.1 --- 14 December 2018 --- Understanding subsurface fluvial architecture from a combination of geological well test models and well test data / Patrick William Michael Corbett and Gleyden Lucila Benítez Duarte / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 488, 14 December 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP488.7 --- 10 December 2018 --- Natural and anthropogenic influences on the Nhecolândia wetlands, SE Pantanal, Brazil / Emiliano Castro de Oliveira, Sila Pla-Pueyo and Christopher R. Hackney / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 488, 10 December 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP488.5 --- 29 November 2018 --- Spatial variations in distributive fluvial system architecture of the Upper Cretaceous Marília Formation, SE Brazil / Patrick Führ Dal’ Bó, Marcus Vinícius Theodoro Soares, Giorgio Basilici, Amanda Goulart Rodrigues and Mauricius Nascimento Menezes / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 488, 29 November 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP488.6 --- 28 November 2018 --- Towards the multi-scale characterization of braided fluvial geobodies from outcrop, core, ground-penetrating radar and well log data / Luis Miguel Yeste, Saturnina Henares, Neil McDougall, Fernando García-García and César Viseras / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 488, 28 November 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP488.3 --- 21 November 2018 --- Sedimentology, architecture and depositional setting of the fluvial Spireslack Sandstone of the Midland Valley, Scotland: insights from the Spireslack surface coal mine / R. Ellen, M. A. E. Browne, A. J. Mitten, S. M. Clarke, A. G. Leslie and E. Callaghan / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 488, 21 November 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP488.2
    Edition: online first
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  • 2
    Notes: Discovery of the Arbroath, Montrose and Forties fields initiated intensive exploration of the Tertiary deep-marine play in the North Sea region. Subsequent discoveries demonstrated the success of this play and the geological diversity of the depositional systems. The play is now mature and in many areas the remaining exploration potential is likely to be dominated by small, subtle traps with a major component of stratigraphic trapping. Economically marginal discoveries need an in-depth understanding of subsurface uncertainty to mitigate risk with limited appraisal wells. Mature fields require detailed geological understanding in the search for the remaining oil. This volume focuses on the regional depositional setting of these deep-marine systems, providing a stratigraphic and palaeogeographical context for exploration, and development case histories that outline the challenges of producing from these reservoirs. The fields are arranged around the production life cycle, describing the changing needs of geological models as the flow of static and dynamic data refines geological understanding and defines the nature of new opportunities as fields mature.
    Pages: VII, 407 Seiten
    ISBN: 978-1-86239-656-2
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Depolarization ratios ρ of the Raman bands due to CH3 stretching at 2907 cm-1 and the Si—O skeletal mode at 491 cm-1 have been measured in polydimethylsiloxane gum as a function of temperature from 100°C to -45°C. Below 0°C the changes in p have been interpreted in terms of the formation of helical regions in the gum. The enthalpy of helix formation ΔH has been determined as 3200 ± 600 cal/mole. An upper limit on the entropy change, ΔS, of 16 ± 3 e.u./mole and minimum values of helix content at different temperatures have been found. The Raman spectrum of crystalline polydimethylsiloxane is presented.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-11-22
    Description: A bstract :  Regression relationships are derived relating the areal extent of large distributive fluvial systems (DFSs) (〉 30 km in length) formed in endorheic basins to contributing drainage area. The resulting correlation coefficients vary between 79% and 98%. Derived correlation values are strikingly similar when stratified by climate, large-scale tectonic regime, and basin context. Regression-equation exponent values range from 0.41 to 0.75, indicating a strong positive relationship between drainage area and DFS area, while coefficients account for the influence of external parameters on the derived relationships. Analysis of the dataset using planform morphology and drainage-basin slope as additional variables reveals that regressions for braided bifurcating DFS produce a highly significant relationship. The relationship suggests that drainage-basin relief influences sediment supply to the sedimentary basin in terms of volume or caliber, which in turn affects the depositional gradient of the DFS surface and resultant channel planform. An evaluation of the predictive capability of the regression equations reveals that the relationships derived from braided bifurcating DFSs perform best, with 80% of the predicted values falling within ± 25% of the measured DFS area value, with a third of the predicted values within ± 10% of the measured DFS area value. Application of the regression relationships derived here to rock-record examples of fluvial deposits interpreted as large DFSs show that DFS area can be used as a proxy to predict the surface area of fluvially transported sediment deposited in a sedimentary basin from the contributing drainage-basin area. The regression relationships for modern drainage areas and corresponding DFS areas from a range of tectonic and climatic settings suggest a measurable link between source and sink in the sedimentary rock record. The results provide a potential tool for more accurate reconstruction and prediction of preserved fluvial deposits and basin-fill architecture within basin-scale climatic and tectonic contexts.
    Print ISSN: 1527-1404
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-11-22
    Description: A bstract :  Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) have been implicated in some of the largest environmental perturbations to have affected the Earth through geological time. Yet the impact of LIP development on drainage and ecosystem development in the immediate vicinity of these provinces are still poorly constrained to date. Based on a detailed, integrative facies scheme we characterize the interaction between volcanism and fluvial, lacustrine, and wetland environments in the Miocene Columbia River Flood Basalt Province (CRBP) LIP exposed in central Washington State, USA. The facies scheme proposed here comprises a detailed description and interpretation of siliciclastic, bioclastic (diatomite), volcaniclastic, and paleosol facies and subfacies intercalated with lavas of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). Facies and facies associations of individual interbeds are further correlated to reconstruct changes in sedimentary settings and topography of lava fields during deposition. Field observations and facies analysis help to explain the effects of flood-basalt volcanism on drainage-system development. We propose a generic model of lava–drainage interplay and distribution of sedimentary settings in flood-basalt provinces, which will contribute to our understanding of sedimentological, environmental, and volcanic processes in the CRBP. Hydrocarbon exploration in volcanic terrains requires detailed information on the distribution and development of sedimentary settings. This model will help to better predict the character and distribution of sedimentary bodies and potential hydrocarbon reservoirs in volcanic terrains.
    Print ISSN: 1527-1404
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-11-19
    Description: Volcanism associated with large igneous provinces (LIPs) has been implicated in both global climate and environmental change. To determine the impact of LIP volcanism on plant ecology we have examined plant community succession in sedimentary interbeds of the Columbia River flood basalt province (CRBP; northwest United States). Interbasaltic vegetation is characterized by primary succession communities that inhabit fresh lava surfaces until terminated by the next eruptive event, and it is assumed that longer volcanic hiatuses should lead to more mature plant communities. This expected succession trajectory is contradicted by palynological data that show that seral succession declines during the phase of waning CRPB volcanism and prolonged interbed intervals. Frequent volcanic activity and increased deposition of Snake River Plain hotspot ashes during this phase resulted in ecological disturbance of intralava field vegetation. Together with geochemical proxies from interbed sediments, this suggests that CRBP flora was largely driven by extrinsic forcing, and implies that LIP volcanism of similar scale and magnitude to that of the CRBP had a limited environmental impact. This study supports the theory that past biotic extinctions were triggered by numerous factors rather than a single geological event.
    Print ISSN: 0091-7613
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2682
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-06-02
    Description: :  Recent analysis of modern aggradational continental sedimentary basins reveals that sedimentation patterns are dominated by distributive fluvial systems (DFSs). The Salt Wash Member of the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation has previously been described as a fan-shaped fluvial system. This study characterizes facies variations across the Salt Wash DFS to quantitatively test predicted trends in conceptual DFS models. Notable proximal-to-distal trends include a change in total thickness of the fluvial succession from 174 m to 40 m, and an average grain size from coarse sand to silt, while the percentage of sand decreased from 70% in the proximal region to 8% in the distal region. The proportion of amalgamated channel-belt deposits decreased from 67% to 0%, while floodplain facies and lacustrine deposits increase (38% to 94% and 0.1% to 7% respectively). A downstream decrease in average channel-belt thickness (15 m to 3.8 m, from thickest to thinnest) and average story thickness (7.7 m to 2.3 m, from thickest to thinnest) is also recorded. Significant downstream changes in deposit architecture were also noted, with proximal regions dominated by stacked channel-belt deposits with a high degree of amalgamation. Distal deposits are dominated by floodplain muds and sheet sandstones and sparse ribbon channels, with little to no amalgamation of channel deposits. This study provides quantified information for an ancient DFSs with the aim of providing a dataset that can be used for objective comparison between different DFSs, as well as providing numerical data to aid resource exploration and modelling efforts.
    Print ISSN: 1527-1404
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-02-27
    Description: A bstract :  Knowing the position of an apex of a distributive depositional system can provide important spatial constraints on paleogeographic reconstructions, and thus can greatly help facies predictions, at both a system and a basin scale. To date, predicting the position of an apex of a sedimentary system is often limited to generalized statements based on facies mapping and qualitative analyses of paleocurrent readings. This paper presents a user-friendly quantitative methodology based on the von Mises distribution and uses the method of maximum likelihood to obtain an estimated apex and associated confidence regions for a dataset. The methodology presented has been applied to two modern distributive fluvial systems (DFSs), the Taquari DFS, situated in southwestern Brazil, and the Gilbert DFS, situated in northwestern Queensland, Australia. The position of each apex is known for the two systems, thus allowing the accuracy of the methodology to be tested. A range of datasets, within which the amount and spatial distribution of localities were selected independently, was analyzed. The predicted apices came within encouraging proximity of the true apices, ranging in distance from 2.7 km to 40.3 km (1.6 to 23.4% of the total DFS length) away, with accuracy generally increasing with increasing dataset size and proximity to the apex. Data collected from the Late Jurassic Salt Wash DFS were also analyzed using the code. Results have helped to give better geographical constraints on the system and apex location as well as on the southern margin of the Morrison depositional basin. Although tested on modern and outcrop-based datasets from DFS, the methodology can be applied to any dataset, subsurface or surface, in which dispersion occurs from a point source, thus unlocking the potential for better paleogeographic constraint on a broad range of sedimentary environments such as deltas and submarine fans.
    Print ISSN: 1527-1404
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-03-11
    Description: The relationship between movement on the Highland Boundary Fault and deposition of the Lower Old Red Sandstone in the Midland Valley Basin of Scotland is controversial. Most models favour mid-Silurian to early Devonian sinistral movement on the Highland Boundary Fault and development of a transtensional Midland Valley Basin. To constrain Highland Boundary Fault movement during the late Silurian, we examine the basal Lower Old Red Sandstone alluvial succession exposed adjacent to the Highland Boundary Fault. A lack of synsedimentary fault movement indicators, coupled with an increase in stratal thickness across the fault, indicates that the Highland Boundary Fault was not active during Lower Old Red Sandstone sedimentation. A transtensional basin model cannot be sustained.
    Print ISSN: 0016-7649
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-04-19
    Description: A seismic stratigraphic analysis constrained by well and wireline log data has been undertaken on the Paleocene and earliest Eocene succession of the South Buchan Graben (Quadrants 20 and 21), Outer Moray Firth Basin (OMFB). Two principal sequences have been described relating to two regressive/transgressive second-order cycles of relative sea-level change. The Maureen, Andrew, Glamis Tuff and Balmoral sandstone members are expressed as a stacked set of lowstand basin floor fans separated by mudstone intervals representing four cycles of third-order relative sea-level change. The Sele and Balder formations contain both basinal and shelfal packages as an expression of two cycles of third-order relative sea-level change. The Forties Sandstone Member is deposited within highly mounded, levee-confined channels downlapped by a prograding slope succession with well-defined clinoforms and deltaic topsets attributed to the Dornoch and Beauly formations. The individual parasequences of the prograding wedge are related to higher-order eustatic fluctuations with incision and slope fans, attributed to the Cromarty Sandstone Member, deposited during periods of relative sea-level lowstand. It is demonstrated that through the integration of lithostratigraphic, seismic geomorphological and sequence stratigraphic analyses an understanding of depositional environments and the distribution of facies within them can be obtained. The identification of basinal and slope features with reservoir potential, along with an understanding of their chronostratigraphic relationship to sealing facies, play an important role in regional play fairway mapping and risk analysis in this area and beyond. Future prospectivity within mature basins, such as the OMFB, relies on subtle stratigraphic traps typical of lowstand systems tracts, where the main risk is associated with reservoir quality and containment.
    Print ISSN: 0305-8719
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4927
    Topics: Geosciences
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